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Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 



Legislative Library 








Editorial Board 



Semi -Centennial Edition 

Volume Four 


The Publishing Society of Minnesota 


1870 - MINNESOTA AS A STATE. - 1908 

Printed at Mankato, Minnesota 

for the 
Publishing Society of Minnesota 

Copyright, 1908, by FRAVK S. HOLMM 

All Kirhts KMtrvMi 

NEW YORK, N. Y., U. S. A. 


Volume IV of Minnesota in Three Centuries covers the 
period of the State's history from 1869 to 1908. The compiler, 
Frank E. Holmes, has been greatly aided in his researches by 
David L. Kingsbury, Assistant Librarian,, and Miss Emma A. 
Hawley, of the Minnesota Historical Society. Acknowledgments 
are made for chapter on Mining and Quarrying by Professor N. 
H. Winehell, also for the chapters on Agriculture; Lumbering 
and the Milling Industries by Authors, whose requests that their 
articles remain unsigned, is respected. The compiler's manu- 
script has been carefully revised by Eeturn I. Holcombe; it has 
been submitted to General Lucius P. Hubbard and General 
James H. Baker in its entirety, and the material pertaining to 
the political history of the State to the Honorable William P. 
Murray, and has been corrected and revised by them; has also 
been approved by General James H. Baker, to whom this au- 
thority was delegated by his Associate Editors. 



Status of Minnesota in 1870 27 


Administration of Governor Austin 33 

State Election of 1869 33 

Twelfth State Legislature 34 

Congressional Election in 1870 41 

Thirteenth State Legislature 41 

State Election of 1871 46 


Administration of Governor Austin 47 

Fourteenth State Legislature 47 

Presidential Election of 1872 51 

Fifteenth State Legislature 52 

State Election of 1873 56 


Administration of Governor Davis 59 

Sixteenth State Legislature 60 

Congressional Election of 1874 64 

Seventeenth State Legislature 64 


Administration of Governor Pillsbury 73 

State Election of 1875 73 

Eighteenth State Legislature 75 

Presidential Election of 1876.... 79 

Nineteenth State Legislature 80 



Administration of Governor Pillsbury 85 

The Election of 1877 85 

Twentieth State Legislature 85 

Congressional Election of 1878 91 

Twenty-first State Legislature 91 


Administration of Governor Pillsbury 95 

State Election of 1879 95 

Presidential Campaign of 1880 96 

Twenty-second State Legislature 97 

Political Campaign of 1881 101 

Extra Session of the Legislature 103 

State Election of 1881 105 


Grasshopper Raids 107 


Northfield Bank Robbery. . : 117 


Administration of Governor Hubbard 131 

Twenty-Third State Legislature 134 

State Election in 1883 139 

Presidential Election in 1884 140 

Twenty-Fourth Legislature 141 

State Election in 1886 143 


Administration of Governor McGill 149 

Twenty-Fifth State Legislature 149 

Presidential Election in 1888 155 



Administration of Governor Merriam 161 

Twenty-Sixth State Legislature 162 

State Politics in 1890 169 


Administration of Governor Merriam 177 

Twenty-seventh , State Legislature 177 

Presidential Campaign of 1892 182 


Administration of Governor Nelson 189 

Twenty-eighth State Legislature 189 

State Politics in 1894 194 

The Twenty-ninth Legislature 197 

Presidential Election of 1896 204 


Cyclones 211 

The Fatal Storms of July 13, 1890 218 


Forest Fires of 1894 223 


Administration of Governor Clough 231 

Thirtieth State Legislature 232 

State Election in 1898 235 


Minnesota's Regiments in the Spanish- American War 239 


Battle of Sugar Point 245 



Administration of Governor Lind 255 

Thirty-first State Legislature 256 

Presidential Election of 1900. . 263 


Administration of Governor Van Sant 269 

Thirty-second State Legislature 269 

Extra Session of the Legislature 274 

State Election of 1902 275 

Thirty-third State Legislature 278 

Presidential Election of 1904 283 


Administration of Governor Johnson 289 

Thirty-fourth State Legislature 290 

State Election of 1906 293 

Thirty-fifth State Legislature 296 


Transportation 307 

Early Roads and Mail Routes 307 

Stage Routes 310 


River Navigation 317 

Navigation on Lake Superior 334 


The Railroad Era 337 


Development of the Railroad System 349 

St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba Railway Company. 349 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Railway 

Company 353 


St. Paul and Duluth Railroad Company 355 

Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railway Company . . 357 

Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company 358 

Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway Company 359 

Northern Pacific Railway Company 360 

Later Developments of the Railway System 363 

Great Northern Railway Company 365 

Other Railroad Corporations 367 


Mining and Quarrying 375 

Vermilion Range 376 

Cuyuna Range 380 

Mesabi Range 381 

Materials for Construction 385 


Agriculture 389 


Lumber Industry 401 

Lumbering in the St. Croix Valley 401 

Lumbering of the Mississippi River and its Branches. . 409 


Milling Industry 419 

INDEX . 431 



William E. Marshall Frontispiece 

Horace Austin Facing p. 38 

John S. Pillsbury Facing p. 74 

Daniel Buck Facing p. 92 

William Windom Facing p. 96 

Edmund Bice Facing p. 146 

Andrew E. McGill Facing p. 150 

Ignatius Donnelly * Facing, p. 170 

John C. Wise Facing p. 262 

Cushman K. Davis Facing p. 266 

Edwin H. Atwood Facing p. 302 

William Nettleton Facing p. 312 

Norman W. Kittson Facing p. 314 

Eussell Blakeley Facing p. 320 

St. Paul in 1861 from Dayton's Bluff Facing p. 350 

First Locomotive Eun in Minnesota Facing p. 350 

Charles Betcher Facing p. 406 

Minneapolis Mills Before the Explosion Facing p. 426 

The Explosion Facing p. 426 

* >,,. 




Chapter I. 

THE . rise and progress of a State at certain epochs of its 
history are of material interest. Minnesota in 1870, 
was removed only a quarter of a century from the 
time when her pioneers were laying the foundation, upon which 
was to be raised the structure of a State of the American Union. 
There are still living among her citizens those far-sighted pio- 
neers, who with intrepid courage and acumen of business fore- 
sight, with a gift of a seer, or, as might be said, with a magi- 
cian's wand, had by their indefatigable energy taken her primitive 
virginity and made her forests and prairies blossom with seeds 
of progress and civilization. 

At this era in her history, Minnesota was at the threshold of 
her commercial progress; her sons who had nobly contributed 
their part to sustain the Union, had returned to their peaceful 
pursuits, the lawyer to his clients, the doctor to his patients, the 
farmer to his agricultural labors, the merchant, mechanic and 
manufacturer, to their various avocations; all firmly imbued 
with love of country and with a unity to advance the weal and 
wealth of their adopted commonwealth. 

The days of infancy and childhood had been passed; the 
age of activity was to commence that was to populate her area, 
not with thousands, but millions, of busy souls, all intent on 
earning an independent competency; but all in concord for the 
future aggrandizement and progressional furtherance of Min- 
nesota's position amongst her sister States. 

iv.-i 27 


Her population in 1870 was 439,706 which showed an in- 
crease of 155.8 per cent in the previous ten years. This was dis- 
tributed in seventy-one of her counties, though in eight of these 
the population was less than one hundred, and in fifteen of the 
balance less than one thousand. In the territory on the banks 
of the Mississippi River and extending west to the center of the 
State, then north as far as St. Paul and Minneapolis, there 
were congregated over 350,000 of the total number. This phe- 
nominal growth in Minnesota's population, and the advancement 
of her commercial progress, were occasioned by three distinct 
agencies, which taken collectively contributed to her develop- 

A heavy flood of immigration was constantly pouring into 
the State, and as one of the leading journals of the day expressed 
it: "Minnesota has fairly gobbled the brains, muscle and capi- 
tal of the world." Not only from adjoining States, but even 
from the far distant European countries; the alluring descrip- 
tion of her productive soil, were enticing emigrants, who leaving 
behind kin, and country shaped their course westward; their 
ultimate destination being "The North Star State." The morn- 
ing sun witnessed the prairie schooners patiently moving west- 
ward; and at nightfall the commons of the villages became their 
camp ground. It is stated, that the stage on its trip between 
St. Paul and Faribault, often passed two hundred "movers" 

There was at this time, still unclaimed 30,000,000 acres of 
Government lands. The land offices at Alexandria, Greenleaf, 
St. Paul, Jackson, St. Cloud, Taylor's Falls and Duluth were 
daily besieged by hundreds of applicants seeking their rights, un- 
der the Homestead Law and Pre-emption Claims. 

This impetus to immigration was due to several causes; it 
had been heralded to the world that Minnesota was essentially a 
farming country, this in the previous decade had been forcibly 
illustrated. Her soil had established, beyond a doubt, its capacity 
to raise wheat; and compared with other wheat growing States, 
her yearly production, taking into consideration the acreage 
planted, challenged all competition. She was in 1867 the sixth 


State in the production of wheat, while her average bushels per 
acre was exceeded by no other State; her wheat crop that year 
was 16,128,875 bushels, while in 1860 it had been only 2,186,- 
993 bushels. In 1868 but two States, Illinois and Indiana, ex- 
ceeded Minnesota's crop of wheat; thus we see she was, with 
rapid strides, pushing her way forward to become the "Banner 
Wheat State." The productive quality of her lands was farther 
demonstrated by the average yield of other cereals, potatoes, and 
other agricultural products. 

Minnesota presented to the eyes of the emigrant not only a 
deep and fertile soil, free from obstructions which was easily 
prepared for grain and root crops, but also immense forests, 
which were available for lumber for houses, farm buildings and 
fences; besides an inexhaustible extent of pasturage. The East- 
ern fallacies, that the so-called Arctic winters were detrimental to 
health, and injurious to the producing powers of her soil had 
been met and disproved, and no longer were the stories of her 
ice-bound shores, and the fur habiliments of her citizens, to 
terrorize and dissuade emigration. 

The increase of population in the year 1869, was nearly 
100,000; from Wisconsin, Michigan, Northern Illinois and 
Northern Iowa, long trains of wagons filled with emigrants were 
traversing the prairies of Minnesota, seeking homes in her fer- 
tile regions. Through the efforts of Colonel Hans Mattson, a 
native of Sweden, who visited Europe as land and emigrant 
agent for several railroad companies, and who was supplied by 
the Legislature with documents extolling the fertility of the 
soil, and the advantages to be secured by emigrants; the Scan- 
dinavian swarms of the North, the hardy Germans of Central 
Europe, and sons of the Green Isle, left their mother countries, 
to seek free homesteads in the healthy climate of Minnesota. 

Secondary to the influx of emigration into Minnesota was 
the water power furnished by the rivers, and their tributaries, 
within her boundaries. In 1870 the products of her grain fields 
and forests furnished an inexhaustible raw material for manu- 
facturing purposes. There was, in 1870, in almost every county 
one or more flour mills. At Minneapolis, Stillwater, Anoka 


and many other points, lumber was largely manufactured and 
the immense increase of the output of pine lumber cannot be bet- 
ter illustrated than by the following statements: According to 
the Commissioner of Statistics, in 1861 the amount of pine 
lumber produced was 69,850,000 feet; while in 1868 there was 
manufactured 249,267,918 feet, having a market value of $3,- 
750,000. The manufacturing industries at this period were of 
diversified nature, and were mainly of the character which de- 
pended for their raw material on the products of the State. 

The third important feature, to contribute to the promo- 
tion of Minnesota's commercial progress, was the encouragement 
given to common carriers to promote interstate communication. 
The State possessed water routes that placed the markets of the 
world at her farmers' and manufacturers' doors ; but, owing to her 
climatic changes, these highways of commerce at certain seasons 
of the year, had to suspend operations. Minnesota was peculiarly 
situated in reference to the future commerce of the world; with 
the great lakes giving her a connection with St. Lawrence River, 
the Mississippi with Gulf of Mexico; and the completion of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad (in 1870 in progress of construction) 
establishing the shortest thoroughfare between Europe and Asia, 
it was requisite that railroads be developed so that every point in 
the interior of the State, should be benefited by these main 
arteries of international and interstate commerce. 

Railroad projectors were encouraged by the liberal support 
of National and State Governments, by financial aid, supple- 
mented by land grants, and such an impetus was given to rail- 
road building, that lines were projected throughout the State 
radiating in every direction. Road beds were graded, the forests 
supplied the ties, the spikes were driven, and a long line of rails 
began to mark the trail across the prairies; the advent of the 
iron horse was to increase the population, and transport the 
products of the land to the markets of the world. We find at 
the close of 1862, there were only ten miles of railroad withirt 
the State boundaries; at the close of 1869 this had been in- 
creased to 766 miles, and several hundreds of men were then at 
work on projected lines, that eventually would bring the re- 


motest part of the State in touch with a common center. Thus 
briefly we have sketched the status of the commercial import- 
ance of Minnesota at the commencement of the year 1870. She 
was only at the alpha of her wonderful growth and development, 
but as years rolled on wealth and prosperity were to come to 
her and to advance her position amongst her sister States. 

Chapter II. 


AT the State election of 1869, the Republicans presented 
as their Gubernatorial standard bearer, Horace Austin, 
of St. Peter. The new candidate was a native of 
Canterbury, Connecticut. Before he was twenty-three years of 
age he came to Minnesota, taught school and engaged in the 
practice of law. He combined with his inherited Yankee saga- 
city a business acumen which materially advanced his prospects. 
When mentioned for Governor, he was Judge of the Sixth 
District, which position he had held since 1865. His Democratic 
opponent was George L. Otis, of St. Paul, a native of New York 
State; who in 1855 came to Minnesota to practice law, having 
been admitted to the bar in Michigan. He had been a member 
of the First State Legislature, of the Senate in 1866 and mayor 
of St. Paul in 1867. 

The election resulted' in the success of the Republicans, 
Austin receiving 27,348 votes to 25,401 for ex-Mayor Otis. Of 
the fifty-three counties thirty-nine were carried by the Republi- 
cans. An analysis of the votes for Governor shows that Ram- 
sey, (owing in a large measure to Otis's personal popularity in 
his home county), was the banner Democratic county, the plur- 
ality being 2,077; Otter Tail cast its entire vote of thirty-five 
for Otis, while Grant went solid for Austin; Brown, Carver, 
Dakota, Le Sueur, Morrison, Nicollet, Scott, Sherburne, Sibley, 
Stearns, Washington and Winona gave Democratic majorities. 



Daniel Cobb, the first Prohibition candidate for Governor, 
received in the State, 1,764 votes. There were also 12 scatter- 
ing votes; Governor Austin's majority was only 183. 

The Lieutenant Governor elected was William H. Yale, also 
a native of the "Nutmeg State/' who had located at Winona in 
1857 and was also a member of the legal fraternity. He had 
been a Senator in the Legislature of 1867. The following other 
State officials were reelected; Emil Munch, Treasurer; Charles 
Mcllrath, Auditor; F. R. E, Cornell, Attorney General. 

The Secretary of State, Hans Mattson, was the first Scandi- 
navian elected to a State office in Minnesota. He was born in 
the Parish of Onnestad, near the city of Kristianstad, Sweden, 
December 23, 1832. Before he was nineteen years of age, he 
emigrated to America, landing at Boston, and came to Min- 
nesota in 1853, locating at the present town of Vasa. He be- 
came a bankrupt in the panic of 1857, studied law and was 
elected county auditor of Goodhue County. In the first year 
of the Civil War he raised a company of Swedes and Norwegians, 
and became its Captain. This company was assigned to the 
Third Minnesota Infantry. Captain Mattson was mustered out 
of the United States service as Colonel of the regiment. Re- 
turning to Minnesota he opened a law office at Red Wing, be- 
came Secretary of the State Board of Emigration, also engaged 
in journalistic work and President Garfield appointed him Con- 
sul General to India, where he remained residing in Calcutta for 
two years. He was reelected Secretary of State in 1886 and 
1888, afterwards engaged in banking. He died at Minneapolis, 
March 5, 1893. 


The Twelfth Legislature assembled January 4, 1870. In 
the Senate, were a number of new members, R. J. Chewning, of 
Dakota County, and Luther L. Baxter, of Carver County, had 
represented their districts in the Lower House in the preceding 
Legislature. Mr. Baxter, a Democrat, was a native of Vermont, 
He studied law in that State, in the office of Horatio Seymour, 


an uncle of the Democratic Presidential nominee of that name in 
1868. He came to Minnesota in 1857, served in the Civil War 
over two years, being Major in the Fourth Minnesota Volunteers 
and subsequently Major and Lieutenant Colonel of the First 
Minnesota Heavy Artillery. He was a member of the Senate 
from 1865 to 1868, inclusive, and in the latter year was elected 
to the House of Kepresentatives. He served several terms in the 
Legislature and became in 1885, District Judge, a position he 
now (1908) holds. Other Democratic members were: George 
L. Becker, of St. Paul, James N. Castle, of Stillwater, and D. 
L. Buell, of Houston County. 

Mr. Becker was a native of Central New York, of Dutch ex- 
traction, a lawyer by profession. He came to St. Paul in 1849, 
had been mayor of that city in 1856, a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, and unsuccessful Democratic candidate for 
Governor in the second State election. He became largely inter- 
ested in railroad affairs, was a public-spirited citizen, a recog- 
nized political leader, had served in the two preceding Legisla- 
tures, and was a citizen of prominence and distinction. The 
county of Becker was named in his honor. 

The Hennepin County members were: Curtis H. Pettit, 
afterwards identified with the State Eeform School, and William 
Lochren, a Democrat, born in Tyrone County, Ireland, whose 
parents came to Franklin County, Vermont, when he was two 
years of age. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in his 
adopted county in 1856, came to St. Anthony Falls the same 
year. He enlisted as a private in the First Minnesota Volun- 
teers and during his three years service he reached the grade of 
First Lieutenant. He had been a member of the preceding Senate 
He afterwards became Judge of the Fourth Judicial District, 
United States Commissioner of Pensions in President Cleveland's 
second administration and is now (1908) one of the United 
States District Judges for Minnesota. 

Eice County was represented by George W. Batchelder, 
serving a third time. Dana E. King, from the Sixth District, 
had served in both houses of the Legislature. The following 
were other members of the Senate: Colonel William Pfaender, 


of Brown County afterwards State Treasurer for four years; 
D. B. Sprague, of Fillmore County, who had served in the Sixth 
Legislature; Charles Hill, of Goodhue County; C. F. Buck, of 
Winona, where he had settled in 1852, a lawyer and a native of 
Erie County, New York, and Samuel Lord, born in Meadville, 
Pennsylvania, and who came to Minnesota in 1856, practiced law 
in Marion and Mantorville, was a member of the First State 
Legislature, served in the Senate in 1866 and 1867 and at the 
end of his legislative term became Judge of the Fifth Judicial 

The House of Representatives organized with, fifty-seven 
members and elected John L. Merriam, of St. Paul, Speaker. Mr. 
Merriam had been elected in a district politically against him, 
but had exhibited in the conduct of his personal business such 
sagacity and good management as to make him highly successful. 
He was born in Essex, New York, removed to Minnesota in 1861 
to become a partner in a stage and express company, but after- 
wards engaged in railroading, banking, manufacturing, transpor- 
tation and other enterprises. He was reelected to the succeeding 
Legislature, of which body he was again chosen Speaker. 

Among the characteristic personalities of the House was 
Abraham McCormack Fridley, a native of Corning, New York, 
of German descent. Formerly a Whig, he afterwards became a 
Democrat, and he was appointed in 1851 by President Fillmore, 
agent for the Winnebago Indians and stationed at Long Prairie. 
He studied law and was admitted to practice. In 1853, he re- 
moved to St. Paul and became sheriff of Ramsey County. The 
next year he changed his residence to St. Anthony Falls, and 
became a member of the Territorial Legislature. Subsequently 
he removed to Manomin, [now Fridley] and represented his dis- 
trict in the Eleventh, Twelfth and Thirteenth Legislatures. While 
a United States official he became financially involved with the 
Government. He was a delegate to the Democratic Conventions 
of 1860 at Charleston and Baltimore, and during his visit in the 
East there was found to be a balance of $20,000 due him from 
the Government, Fridley had employed William Hollinshead, a 
noted attorney of St. Paul, to prosecute his Government claim, 


the attorney to receive a contingent fee of half the amount re- 
covered. On his way to his Manomin home Fridley with his 
$20,000 forgot to stop at St. Paul and settle with Hollinshead. 
The interested attorney, hearing of the arrival of his client in 
Minnesota proceeded to equip himself with a revolver and visit 
the delinquent. On his arrival at Manomin the lawyer presented 
his case, and to enforce his claim produced the aforesaid pistol, 
declaring that the verdict was either $10,000 in cash or the de- 
linquent's life. It is perhaps needless to say that life won. 
Fridley graciously capitulated. 

Another prominent Democrat was John Louis Macdonald, a 
Scotch Highlander by birth, of the clan of "Macdonald of the 
Isles." He came to Belle Plaine in 1855 and in 1861 removed 
to Shakopee, where he edited the Shakopee Argus. He served 
seven years as District Judge and was a member of the Fiftieth 

In the Minneapolis delegation was A. R. Hall, afterward" 
Speaker of the House; A. E. Rice, who became Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. The St. Paul Representatives, besides the Speaker, were 
John M. Oilman, a member of the Seventh Legislature and Paul 
Faber, a member of the Democratic wing of the Constitutional 
Convention. The Second District sent as Representatives, Will- 
iam Lowell and James S. Norris. Mr. Lowell was a native of 
Maine, who came to Taylor's Falls in 1852 and the next year 
settled at Stillwater. He was engaged in lumbering, and at the 
time of becoming a member of the Legislature was well advanced 
in years. James S. Norris was a native of Monmouth, Maine. 
He came to St. Croix Falls in 1839, and three years afterwards 
he removed to what is now Cottage Grove, Washington County. 
He was a farmer and with his brother-in-law, Joseph Haskell, was 
the first to demonstrate that wheat could be successfully raised 
in Minnesota. He was a member of the Sixth and Seventh Ter- 
ritorial House of Representatives, Speaker of the Sixth, and a 
member of the Democratic wing of the Constitutional Conven- 

The Legislature being duly organized Governor Marshall's 
farewell address was read. In closing his four years' service as 


Governor, he congratulated the Assembly on the satisfactory 
condition of the finances of the State, there being the largest 
cash balance on hand for many years, though the loaning ca- 
pacity of the State had been carried to the constitutional limit. 
He recommended that the liquidation of the Minnesota State 
Railroad Bonds should receive thoughtful consideration, and sug- 
gested that means of adjusting this indebtedness could be ac- 
complished by the disposal of the State lands. He further sug- 
gested that Minnesota should follow the example of Illinois, 
which State after repudiating the interest on her bonds, had 
made a final settlement with her creditors. He gave statistics 
of the school fund and advised the organization of teachers' in- 
stitutes. He also considered it his duty to call the attention of 
the Legislature to the inadequate salaries of the State officials. 

Governor Austin, in his inaugural address, which was largely 
devoted to railroad affairs, proposed that the question of the dis- 
position of 500,000 acres of State lands should be left to the 
decision of the people, who should determine whether it should be 
distributed among the several counties for internal improvements, 
to aid in the construction of railroads, or be used in liquidation 
of the Minnesota State Railroad Bonds. He advocated the re- 
vision of the criminal code, stated that there was something 
wrong with the divorce laws of the State, and suggested their 
amendment so that after a decree was granted, it should not take 
effect for a year. He recommended the ratification of the Fif- 
teenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, stating 
that only the affirmative votes of seven more States were neces- 
sary for its ratification, and he hoped that Minnesota would not 
be last on the roll of honor. He made also the following sug- 
gestions: (1) The residue of swamp lands should be expended 
in founding public school libraries. (2) The abolishing of the 
passage of special laws by the Legislature, as the practice pro- 
moted individual schemes. (3) Suitable legislation to prevent 
railroads from extorting unjust tariffs. (4) The granting to 
corporations, associations, or persons, special or exclusive privi- 
lege, immunity, or franchise. (5) To limit local taxation, to 
restrict municipal indebtedness. (6) To prevent municipal in- 


P7 , - ~ W 

-. ^23 


debtedness in aid of any railroad or private corporations. (7) 
To regulate and restrict railways. (8) To abolish the grand 
j ury system. 

The Twelfth Legislature adjourned March 4, 1870. Dur- 
ing the session a large number of general and special laws were 
amended. The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States 
Constitution was ratified in the Senate January 12 by a vote of 
thirteen yeas to six -nays. Baxter, Becker, Buck, Buell, Castle, 
Chewning voted in the negative. The next day Senators Lochren 
and Henry, who had been absent when the vote was taken, de- 
sired to have their votes recorded in the negative, and it was so 
ordered. January 13 the House passed the ratification by a 
vote of twenty-eight yeas to fifteen nays. Bullen, Cameron, 
Canfield, Cool, Cullen, Flannegan, Fowler, Fridley, Gilman, 
Jones, Macdonald, Meagher, Morris, Pfaar, Pound, Seanlan and 
Wilson voted in the negative. 

Representative J. S. Norris offered a resolution, to appro- 
priate the moneys received from the sale of 500,000 acres of 
State land for the redemption of the "Minnesota State Railroad 
Bond;" but the resolution was rejected, by a vote of seventeen 
yeas to twenty-one nays. The sum of $10,000 was appropriated 
tc further immigration into the State. Counties, cities, and 
towns, making petitions were authorized to bond themselves for 
construction of railroads. The cities of Duluth, Shakopee, and 
St. Charles were incorporated. The counties of Monongalia and 
Kandiyohi were consolidated, the latter giving its name to the 
new county. Memorials were addressed to the President and to 
Congress for the preservation of St. Anthony Falls; asking for 
the reduction of postal rates between United States and Norway, 
Sweden, and Denmark; to protect the frontiers, and for a modi- 
fication of the Homestead Law. 

A general act for the incorporation of cities having between 
2.000 and 15,000 inhabitants, at the wish of two-thirds of the 
legal voters thereof was passed. The recognition by Congress of 
the independence of Cuba was recommended by a vote of thirty- 
nine yeas to seven nays. 


An appropriation of $1,000 was granted to commemorate 
the part taken by the First Minnesota Infantry at the Battle of 
Gettysburg. The law prescribing bounties for slaying wolves 
was repealed. Carlton, Cottonwood, Rock and Swift Counties 
were organized. The Belle Plaine Salt Company was encouraged 
in its undertaking to manufacture salt at Belle Plaine by the 
donation of twelve sections of land. An act was passed com- 
pelling railroads operating over or near public highways to fen- 
their right of way. By another act the legal voters of any 
town could regulate the giving of licenses for the sale of intoxi- 
cating beverages. 

The Legislature also passed an act setting apart ostensibly 
the proceeds of the 500,000 acres of State lands, but really the 
lands themselves, for the payment of the "Minnesota State Rail- 
road Bonds." The act required that of the 2,475' bonds 2,000 of 
them 'with all unpaid coupons attached be deposited with the 
State Auditor, on or before the first Wednesday in September, 
and each bondholder was required to agree, by written contract, 
to purchase land at $8.75 an acre equal to the amount of the 
obligation held by him; also to be present in person to make the 
selection of his land or authorize the State Auditor to do it for 
him. This proposition was ratified by the people by a vote of 
18,157 to 12,489. 

The death of United States Senator Daniel S. Nor- 
ton, occurred in 1870, and his law partner, William Windom, 
was appointed by Governor Austin to fill the vacancy until the con- 
vening of the next Legislature. Mr. Windom was born in 
Waterford, Ohio, May 10, 1827. He was admitted to the prac- 
tice of law in that State in 1850 and formed afterwards a part- 
nership with his senatorial predecessor, and in 1855 they came 
to Winona. These two young men soon became prominently 
identified with the political affairs in Minnesota. Mr. Norton, 
before his election to the United States Senate, was a member of the 
Senate of his adopted State for several terms. Mr. Windom, 
was elected in the fall of 1858 to Congress, and was reelected 
for four subsequent terms. He afterwards became one of the 
most prominent political personages in the Northwest. Besides 


serving in the United States Senate for nearly twelve years he 
was Secretary of the Treasury in two presidential cabinets. His 
sudden death, in New York City, January 29, 1891, was a Na- 
tional bereavement. 


At the election of members for the Forty-first Congress, held 
in the fall of 1870, Mark H. Dunnell, the Republican candidate 
in the First District received 19,606 votes; his Democratic op- 
ponent, C. F. Buck, had 14,904 votes. 

In the Second District, John T. Averill, the Republican 
nominee received 17,133 votes, while 14,491. were cast for Igna- 
tius Donnelly. 

Mark H. Dunnell, of Owatonna, was born in Buxton, Maine, 
he had served in both houses of the Legislature of that State, 
had been State Superintendent of Common Schools, a delegate 
to the First National Republican Convention, Colonel of the 
Fifth Maine Infantry in the Civil War, and United States Con- 
sul at Vera Cruz, Mexico. He commenced the practice of law in 
1860 at Portland, Maine, became a citizen of Minnesota in 1865, 
had been a member of the Legislature and State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. He represented his district in Congress 
for six consecutive terms. 

General Averill was also a son of Maine. He had been a 
member of the Minnesota Senate and during the Civil War was 
Colonel of the Sixth Minnesota Infantry, and a Brevet Brigadier 
General. He was engaged in paper manufacture and was re- 
elected to the Forty-second Congress. 


The Thirteenth Legislature assembled January 8, 1871. 
There were some changes in the personality of the Senate. In 
the Second District, Dwight M. Sabin, a successful lumberman 
and manufacturer of Stillwater, a Republican in politics, after- 
wards United States Senator, succeeded James N. Castle. A 


future Governor, John S. Pillsbury, of Minneapolis, was elected 
from the Fourth District. He, however, was not a novice in 
legislative routine for he had been a member of the Senate for 
five preceding Legislatures. In the Sixth District W. T. Bon- 
niwell succeeded Dana E. King, in the eighth, John. H. Case 
was elected in place of George W. Batchelder. 

The successful candidate in the Tenth District was Na- 
thaniel S. Tefft, a native of Hamilton, New York. He studied 
medicine, received his diploma in 1848 and located in Min- 
neiska eight years later. He represented that district in the 
First and Third State Legislatures. In 1861 he removed to 
Plainview and took rank as the leading physician and surgeon 
in Southeastern Minnesota. 

From Fillmore County came John Q. Farmer, of Spring 
Valley, a lawyer by profession. He came to Minnesota in 1864, 
and had served in previous Legislatures, having been Speaker of 
the House. He was made Chairman of the Judiciary committee, 
and in 1879 became a District Judge. 

Two members of the preceding House of Representatives 
were elected to the Senate W. C. Young in the sixteenth and 
John L. Macdonald in the Eighteenth District. 

In the Le Sueur District E. R. Smith was succeeded by 
Michael Doran, a native of County Meath, Ireland, who emi- 
grated to America in 1850, coming to Minnesota six years later. 
He had served eight years as county treasurer of Le Sueur 
County, had engaged in farming, banking, milling and real estate 
enterprises. His Senatorial terms were from 1872 to 1875, 1877 
and 1879. Mr. Doran afterwards removed to St. Paul, where 
(1908) he still resides. 

In the Lower House, St. Paul, had elected her veteran 

Democratic citizen, General Henry H. Sibley. Among the other 

aew members, with legislative experience, were Lucas K. Stan- 

nard, of Taylor's Falls, a native of Vermont. He was the first 

lawyer admitted to practice in the courts of Chisago County 

He had been a member of the Territorial Legislature and also 

Republican wing of the Constitutional Convention and of 

the Second State Legislature. From the same district came 


Joseph Haskell, one of the earliest farmers of Minnesota, a 
native of the State of Maine, of sturdy New England stock. 
Arriving at the age of manhood he came West, stopping for two 
years in Indiana. In the summer of 1839 he landed at Fort 
Snelling. He experimented with J. S. Norris, his brother-in-law, 
on the adaptability of the soil of Minnesota to raise wheat, and 
they became the first successful demonstrators of the value of 
the land for the production of this cereal. Mr. Haskell, J. Q. A. 
Vale, from the eleventh and Tosten Johnson from the Thir- 
teenth District were members of the Eleventh Legislature. 

Among those that became prominently identified with the 
political history of the State were William D. Washburn, of 
Minneapolis, afterwards United States Senator; Ara Barton, 
of Northfield, a native of New Hampshire, who came to Min- 
nesota in 1857, and was in 1873 Democratic candidate for 
Governor; James B. Hubbell, of Mankato, born at Winsted, 
Connecticut, and who came to Minnesota in 1857 and engaged in 
mercantile pursuits. He afterwards became a resident of St. 
Paul, where he died. 

The Third District was represented by William S. Moore, 
of St. Cloud, and Luke Marvin, of Portland (Duluth). Mr. 
Moore was a graduate of Yale University. He settled in Min- 
nesota in 1858, was a prominent attorney, and in his later life 
moved to St. Paul, where he died. Mr. Marvin was an English- 
man by birth. He came from Cincinnati, Ohio, to St. Paul in 
1850, and for the next decade was engaged in the wholesale 
boot and shoe business. President Lincoln in 1861, appointed 
him land agent at Portland (now Duluth), to which place he 
removed and became actively engaged in establishing railroad 
communication between that point and St. Paul. 

Richard A. Jones, the member from Olmsted County, was 
born near Lafayette, Indiana, and came to Chatfield in 1859, 
removing to Rochester in 1864. He was well versed in legal 
lore and became in 1887 Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 
of Dakota. He died at Seattle, Washington Territory, August 
19, 1888. 



The House organized by the reelection of John L. Merriam 
as Speaker. In a joint convention the Governor's annual mes- 
sage was received. After dealing with the financial standing of 
the State he quoted from the report of the Commissioner of 
Statistics, showing estimates of its agricultural condition. The 
growth and prosperity of educational and State institutions was 
shown. He recommended the changing of the general State 
election day to that of the National, and he expressed the opin- 
ion that State elections were too freqquent. He regretted the 
failure of the holders of the "Minnesota State Eailroad Bonds'* 
to avail themselves of the promise of liquidation proposed by 
the last Legislature. The larger portion of his message was 
devoted to railroads, advocating indulgences to the corpora- 
tions, which, if not granted, might retard the construction of 
railroad lines which would be detrimental to the State. He 
also compared their charges with those of English roads. 

The Legislature adjourned March 3, 1871, and in a brief 
summary of its work, attention is called to the laws passed gov- 
erning school districts and the duties of county superintendents 
of education. The sum of $1,000 was appropriated to correct 
and revise the war records of the State. The office of Railroad 
Commissioner was created at a salary of $3^000 and necessary 
expenses. Laws regulating the disposition of unclaimed bag- 
gage of railroads, and to prevent fraud in the sale of patent 
rights were also enacted. The planting and growing of timber 
and shade trees was encouraged by a bounty. Cruelty to ani- 
mals was made a misdemeanor, as was also the adulteration of 
cheese and milk. The picking of cranberries was forbidden pre- 
vious to September 10. Laws were passed for the preservation 
of game. The sale of spirituous or malted liquors was pro- 
hibited within five miles of the located line of the Northern 
Pacific Eailroad. The counties of Aitken and Big Stone were 
organized and Yellow Medicine and Lac qui Parle were estab- 
lished. The villages of Chatfield, Waseca, Preston, Northfield, 
Chaska, Hokah and Wells were incorporated and the borough 
charter granted New TJlm by a previous Legislature was repealed 
and a new one passed. The sum of $6,500 was appropriated 


to heat the capitol by steam, and $450 to provide it with city 
water. A memorial to Congress asked that the jurisdiction of 
the light-house board be extended over the Mississippi, Missouri 
and Ohio Rivers; also asking for improvement of the harbor of 
Duluth. The sum of $10,000 was appropriated for the expenses 
of a new Board of Emigration. 

The bill to dispose of the 500,000 acres of State lands to 
form a State Internal Improvement Fund was vetoed by Gov- 
ernor Austin who, on returning the bill, alleged that its pas- 
sage was the result of a combination among the members of the 
Legislature. He believed it was jeopardizing the State's credit, 
and expressed the opinion that, while he did not believe in pay- 
ing the "Minnesota State Railroad Bonds" in full, there should 
be an attempt to compromise the matter; but in disposing of the 
State's lands the only available asset to accomplish this end was 
removed. The bill failed to pass over the governor's veto by 
a non-partisan vote of twelve ayes to ten nays. A commission 
was proposed to determine whether the $2,227,500 of "Minne- 
sota State Railroad Bonds" were a legal liability against the 
State, and if they were, another commission was authorized to 
make a new issue of thirty years' bonds to take their place. 
This proposition was submitted to the people in May, 1871, when 
21,499 votes were cast against and 9,293 in favor of the proposi- 

At a joint convention Ozra Pierson Stearns was elected to 
fill the unexpired term of United States Senator ending March 
3, 1871, made vacant by the death of Senator Daniel S. Norton. 
At the same time William Windom was chosen United States 
Senator for the term commencing March 4, 1871. Mr. Stearns, 
the newly elected Senator, was born January 15, 1831, in St. 
Lawrence County, New York, and, after receiving a university 
education, came, in 1860, to Rochester, Minnesota. The follow- 
ing year he was elected county auditor. During the Civil War 
he raised a company for the Ninth Minnesota Volunteers, Be- 
ing commissioned First Lieutenant. He finally became Colonel 
of the Thirty-ninth United States colored troops, and was mus- 
tered out of service in the winter of 1865. Colonel Stearns Ilien 


returned to his legal duties at Rochester but in 1872 removed to 
Duluth. In 1874 he was appointed Judge of the Eleventh Dis- 
trict which position he held until 1894. He died at San Diego, 
California, June 3, 1896. 


By the apportionment of 1871 the State was divided into 
forty-one Senatorial and Legislative Districts; the Senate was 
to consist of forty-one and the House of Representatives one 
hundred and six members. 

At the following State election the Democrats presented as 
their candidate for Governor, Winthrop Young; the Republican 
Convention nominated Governor Austin. The latter was re- 
elected, receiving 46,950 votes to his opponent's 30,376. The 
Prohibition candidate, Samuel Mayall, received 846 votes. The 
counties of Blue Earth, Brown, Nicollet, Wabasha, Washington 
and Winona, which were Democratic in 1869 went Republican by 
small majorities. In Carver, Dakota and Le Sueur Counties 
the former Democratic majorities were greatly reduced. Ramsey 
County, the stronghold of Democracy in the last election, was 
carried by only fifty-one votes, and Otter Tail County, that had 
been unanimously Democratic in 1869, cast 1,097 votes for 
Austin to 244 for Young. Lake County, that had been unani- 
mously Republican in the same year, went Democratic by two 
in a total of vote of twenty-six. The counties of Becker, Carl- 
ton, Clay, Cottonwood, Kanabec, Lyon, Nobles, Rock, Stevens 
and Swift, which had been organized since the election of 1869, 
were carried by Governor Austin by large majorities; the vote 
being unanimous in Rock and Stevens, while in Clay there were 
only two Democrat votes and in Nobles but one. The State offi- 
cials were re-elected, except that S. P. Jennison succeeded Hans 
Matteon as Secretary of State and William Seeger was elected 
State Treasurer. 

Chapter III. 


THE Fourteenth Legislature assembled January 2, 1872. 
An entire new election also the increase in the number 
of Senators and Representatives, on account of the 
new apportionment, was the occasion of the appearance of a 
large number of novices in legislative duties. Among the mem- 
bers of the Senate that had served in preceding Legislatures 
were D. L. Buell, Dwight M. Sabin, John Q. Farmer, L. L. 
Baxter and William Pfaender. G. W. Batchelder had been a 
member of the Senate of 1869 and 1870, while Andrew Railson 
and John F. Meagher, were members of the House of Represen- 
tatives of 1871. Mr. Meagher, a native of County Kerry, Ire- 
land, came in his boyhood to America. Arriving at the age of 
maturity he located at Mankato, where he afterwards resided and 
became interested in mercantile and banking pursuits. 

In the Senate among the new aspirants for legislative honors 
who afterwards became prominently identified with the political 
history of the State were Lucius F. Hubbard, of Red Wing, after- 
wards Governor of the State, and Milo White, of Chatfield, who 
became a member of the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Con- 
gresses. One of the St. Paul Senators was Isaac V. D. Heard, 
a native of Goshen, New York. He came to his adopted city in 
1852, when only eighteen years of age, studied law and was 
elected city attorney in 1856; the following year he was ap- 
pointed county attorney, and was re-elected to these offices sev- 



eral terms. Mr. Heard took an active part in the Sioux Out- 
break of 1862; he was Judge Advocate during the trial of the 
Indian murderers. Henry Poehler, a Democrat of pronounced 
opinions, was Senator from the Thirty-sirth District; he be- 
came a member of the Forty-sixth Congress. From Mower 
County came Sherman Page, a Republican, whose impeachment 
trial, a few years later, was a sensational incident of the political" 
history of the State. Winona sent Samuel S. Beman, a native 
of the sunny South. A member of the legal fraternity who 
though diminutive in stature was endowed with elocutionary 
powers that gained for him the sobriquet of "the silvered tongued 
orator." From Waseca County came James E. Child, a journalist 
and lawyer, a native of Jefferson County, New York and the 
Prohibition candidate for Governor in 1886. Two of the Senators 
from the Hennepin District were Levi Butler and William P. 
Aukeny. The former was a physician, though he was also en- 
gaged in lumbering. A native of Indiana he came to Minnesota 
in an early day, and during the Civil War was surgeon in the 
Third Minnesota Infantry. Senator Ankeny was engaged in 
lumbering. He came from Pennsylvania to Minnesota in 1857. 

From the Twenty-eighth District came Jonas Lindall, of 
Franconia, an enterprising and prosperous Business man who 
was accidentally drowned in the Mississippi River, near Hastings, 
two months after the adjournment of the Legislature. 

The House of Representatives organized and chose Albert 
R. Hall, of Dayton, Speaker. The presiding officer of the house 
was a native of Vermont and came to Minnesota in 1856. 

In the House the Speaker, Richard A. Jones, Ara 
Barton, Dan E. Eyre, Henry Platt and William H. Greenleaf 
had been members of the preceding Legislature. Among those 
who had served in earlier legislatures were John B. Sanborn, 
Edmund Rice and J. R. M. Gaskill, of Stillwater. The last 
named was a member of the First State Legislature, a native of 
Illinois, who had come to Minnesota in 1855, practiced medi- 
cine and engaged in milling, lumbering and merchandise. He 
was, during the Civil War, surgeon of the Forty-fifth Illinois 


Charles H. Lienau was a native of Germany, who emigrated 
to America in 1854, coming to St. Paul three years later. He 
was engaged in newspaper work in St. Paul and elsewhere in 
Minnesota and died in 1906 at San Francisco, California. 

Nathan Richardson represented the Thirtieth District. He 
was a native of Wayne County, New York, had been a member 
of the House of the Legislature of 1867, when he represented 
nineteen counties, nearly one-half of the area of the State at 
that time. 

Among the new aspirants, for political honor were Loren 
Fletcher, of Minneapolis, who became Speaker of a subsequent 
House and a Member of Congress for several terms. Alphonso 
Barto became Lieutenant Governor for two years. James C. 
Burbank, of St. Paul, a native of Vermont, came to St. Paul in 
1850. Peter Berkey, a Pennsylvanian, came to Minnesota in 
1855 and became interested in various enterprises. He is still 
a resident of St. Paul (1908) being in his eighty-fifth year. 

Faribault County sent Simeon P. Child, a manufacturer. 
He was born in Ohio and came to Waseca County in 1855. He 
served in an Indiana regiment during the Civil War; settled 
in Blue Earth City in 1866; resided in St. Paul in 1892, and is 
now (1908) engaged in agricultural pursuits near Shakopee. 

In the Carver County delegation was Frederick E. Du Toit, 
of Chaska, a native of New York who settled in Minnesota in 
1856. This was his first election to the Legislature. He was re- 
elected and was sheriff of Carver County for twenty-one suc- 
cessive years. He is a Democrat, and in 1898 was elected State 
Senator to the Thirty-first Legislature and has ever since repre- 
sented that district. 

The Forty-first District sent as one of its representatives E. 
E. Corliss, of Fergus Falls, afterwards a member of the Capitol 

Governor Austin, in his message to the Legislature, stated 
that the balance in the Stafe treasury, on November 1, 1871, 
was $196,180.37. He referred to the State's internal improve- 
ments, stating that on January 1, 1872, there were 1,550 miles of 
railroad in operation, which showed a yearly average of 190 


miles built and equipped since the first rail was laid in Sep- 
tember, 1862. He stated that all the railroad corporations, 
whether local or non-resident, had set at defiance the Legislature 
of the last two sessions, and suits had been commenced against 
the Winona and St. Peter Railroad Company for violation of 
the laws. He reported that scientific experiments had resulted 
in establishing the fact that Minnesota peat could be utilized for 
fuel, which would be a practical solution of that question. Men- 
tion was made of the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, and 
the International Exhibition at Vienna. The expenditure of 
$345 of the $1,000 appropriated for the Gettysburg battlefield 
was reported. 

In a compendium of the laws passed by the Legislature the 
following are worthy of mention: A revision and codification 
of laws relating to common and normal schools, a reciprocal Gen- 
eral Insurance Law; the-' establishment of a State Board of 
Health; a division of the State into three Congressional Dis- 
tricts; laws relating to railroads carrying freight and passengers; 
transfer of passengers' baggage at railroad junctions; providing 
for railroad cattle guards and fences; a Geological and Natural 
History survey under the supervision of the University of Min- 
nesota; Canada thistles pronounced a common nuisance and 
fines imposed for not preventing their growth; Cass, Murray 
and Wilkin Counties were organized; Dodge Center, Fergus 
Falls, Litchfield, Spring Valley, Fannington and Blue Earth in- 
corporated as villages; Lake City and Faribault as cities. 

Joint resolutions were passed asking Congress to construct a 
ship canal around Niagara Falls on the American side, for the 
completion of water routes for the Mississippi Valley, by way of 
the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers to Lake Michigan; also for an- 
other route by way of Lake Superior; and for the cession of the 
Chippewa reservation for occupancy and settlement. Additional 
appropriation was made for the correction and revision of the 
Civil War Records of the Minnesota soldiers. Constitutional 
amendments were proposed and were adopted by the people at 
the next general election, providing that each stockholder in any 
corporation, except those organized for the purpose of carrying 


on manufacturing or mechanical business should be liable for 
the amount of stock held or owned by him; also that railroad 
companies, in lieu of taxes and assessments upon real estate, 
roads, rolling stock and other property, should pay into the State 
Treasury a certain percentage of their gross earnings. 


The National campaign and election in 1872 in Minnesota 
was devoid of any exciting incidents. The members of the para- 
mount parties were not all faithful in their fealty to their party 
nomination. There was a slight defection from both parties. 
Many Democrats who were dissatisfied with the candidacy of 
Horace Greeley for President voted for Charles O'Conor or did 
not vote at all. Also the Liberal or Independent Eepublican 
movement which had neither National or State organizations and 
consisting of a number of dissatisfied Republicans who were op- 
posed for certain reasons to President Grant and his policies. 
There was no convention held in Minnesota to elect delegates to 
a National Convention to be held at Cincinnati, Ohio, but a vol- 
untary delegation, composed of M. L. Wilkinson and J. B. Hub- 
bell, of Mankato; Aaron Goodrich, Samuel Mayall, John X. 
Davidson, and Theodore Heilscher, of St. Paul; W. W. Mayo, 
of Rochester; Thomas Wilson, of Winona; C. D. Sherwood, of 
Fillmore County; and H. Williams, proceeded to Cincinnati. 

The Minnesota delegates, favorites for Presidential candi- 
dates were Charles Francis Adams, Lyman Trumbull, and David 
Davis; Horace Greeley the successful nominee did not have a 
single supporter. The Presidential vote in 1872 was for Ulysses 
S. Grant, 90,919. Horace Grteley 35,211, Charles O'Conor 

The Congressmen elected in 1872 were Mark H. Dunnell 
in the First District, who received 20,807 votes; Morton S. Wil- 
kinson, the Independent or Liberal Republican candidate re- 
ceived 10,881 votes. In -the Second District Horace B. Strait, 
Republican, defeated C. C. Graham, the nominee of the Demo- 
cratic party by a vote of 15,712 to 11,688. The Third District 


re-elected John T. Averill by a vote of 19,663 to 12,713 for 
George L. Becker, his Democratic opponent. The new member 
of Congress from the Second District, Horace B. Strait, was of 
Virginia Revolutionary stock. He was born in Potter County, 
Pennsylvania; his educational advantages were limited to the 
common schools. He came to Minnesota in 1855 and engaged 
in farming, but five years later removed to Shakopee and became 
a merchant. In 1862 he enlisted in the Ninth Minnesota Vol- 
unteers, and at the close of the war was mustered out of the 
United States service as a Major. He then engaged in milling, 
banking, and farming and was mayor of Shakopee at the time 
of his election to Congress. He served by continuous re-election 
until his defeat in 1879 by Henry Poehler, but was again sent 
to Congress in 1881 and served until 1888, when John L. 
Macdonald became his successor. 


The Fifteenth Legislature convened January 7, 1873. In 
the election of 1872, in the odd numbered Senatorial Districts, 
Samuel S. Beman, Milo White, John L. Macdonald and Luther 
L. Baxter had been re-elected. Edmund Rice " succeeded Isaac 
V. D. Heard in the Twenty-third District, and John S. Pills- 
bury represented the Twenty-fifth District. Among the new 
members of the Senate were R. B. Langdon, a Vermonter by 
birth, who, at the age of twenty-two, commenced railroading in 
his native State. He had been continuously engaged in superin- 
tending the construction of railroads operating in ten Sltates 
of the Union, and in 1858 supervised the grading of the St. Paul 
and Pacific, the first railroad enterprise in Minnesota. H. H. 
Atherton was also a native of Vermont. He came to Elgin, Wa- 
basha County, in 1854, later removing to Kasson. Charles H. 
Graves came from Duluth. William Meighen, a Pennsylvanian 
by birth, though of Irish extraction, was another Senator. He 
came to Minnesota in 1858, settled in Fillmore County and was 
engaged in surveying and dealing in real estate. He was a 
member of the House of Representatives for 1859, 1868, 1869 
and Senate of 1873 and 1874. 


In the House there were twenty-four members re-elected, 
Albert K. Hall was chosen Speaker. The membership of the 
House was of a diversified nativity, those of Scandinavian origin 
predominating. The Sixteenth District sent as one of its Rep- 
resentatives William C. Williston of Eed Wing, a native of South 
Carolina, who settled in Minnesota in 1857. He served in the 
Civil War as Captain of Company G Seventh Minnesota In- 
fantry. He was afterwards a member of the House of 1874 and 
a Senator during the session of 1876 and 1877. He was ap- 
pointed District Judge for the First District in 1891, a position 
he now (1907) fills. One of the Representatives from the 
Twenty-second District was Edward W. Durant of Stillwater. 
He was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts, came in his boyhood to 
Cincinnati, Ohio, afterwards to Albany, Illinois. Arriving at 
the age of manhood he came to Stillwater and was first engaged 
in logging, then as a steamboat pilot on the St. Croix and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers, and subsequently became interested in lumbering. 
Mr. Durant, in 1873, was the Democratic nominee for Lieutenant 
Governor; represented his district in the Fifteenth, Seventeenth 
and Twenty-first Legislatures. Another member of the House 
was E, St. Julien Cox, of St. Peter. A native of Germantown, 
Pennsylvania, he came to Minnesota in 1857, and during the In- 
dian troubles served as Captain in the First Minnesota Rangers. 
From the town of Marshall came its founder, John W. Blake, 
a native of Maine. His parents in his infancy, removed to Wis- 
consin, where he was educated and became a civil engineer. He 
served as a Captain in a Wisconsin regiment during the Civil 
War, and in 1872 came to Minnesota. He was a member of the 
Senate during the years 1875, 1876, 1882 and 1884. The Thirty- 
eighth District sent as one of its Representatives ex-Governor 
Stephen Miller of Windom. 

The Legislature organized Grant and established Lincoln 
and Wadena Counties. The city of St. Peter, also the villages 
of Madelia, Worthington, Glencoe, Rush City, Winnebago and 
Byron were incorporated. A constitutional amendment increas- 
ing the pay of Senators and Representatives to five dollars a day 
received the sanction of the people at the next general election. 


Governor Austin, in his annual message to the Legislature 
stated that there were rumors of a mismanagement of the funds 
of the State treasury, and advised that the financial affairs of 
that department of the State should be thoroughly investigated. 

The House of Representatives promptly asked for the resig- 
nation of the accused State Treasurer, William Seeger, but he 
paid no attention to the request and February 26, 1873, Repre- 
sentative Child offered a resolution for the impeachment of Mr. 
Seeger, Treasurer of the State of Minnesota, for corrupt con- 
duct im office and for crimes and misdemeanors. On the follow- 
ing day Representative Clarke offered a substitute, commencing 
with a lengthy preamble which stated, that when the present 
State Treasurer came into office, in January, 1872, there was a 
deficiency of $112,000, which later had been partly secured by a 
mortgage of $75,000; that the present State Treasurer had been 
a party to the concealment of this deficit, and had, during bis 
occupancy of the office, illegally loaned the public moneys to 
business firms of St. Paul. The preamble further stated that 
the Treasurer had been in the practice of loaning money and re- 
taining the interest, and had even engaged in private speculation 
with the public funds. This preamble was objected to, and 
upon its rejection by the house a substitute was' offered. "That 
William Seeger be impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors 
in public office." The substitute was adopted by seventy-five 
yeas to twenty-six nays. 

A committee was appointed March 5, to prepare articles 
of impeachment against the Treasurer, which were presented to 
the House the following day. They consisted of various charges 
and specifications, among which were fifty-eight items of felon- 
iously loaning moneys to the First National Bank of St. PauL 
Three items to the Second National Bank of St. Paul; sixteen 
items to Willius Bros., and Dunbar of St. Paul; three items to- 
the First National Bank of Stillwater, and seven items to Auer- 
bach, Finch & Scheffer, of St. Paul, for the same offense. The 
articles further charged that the preceding State Treasurer, Ernil 
Munch, had been short in his accounts $112,000, and that the 
present State Treasurer after making demands for the return 


of the shortage, which demands had not been complied with, had 
failed to make complaint. The State Treasurer was further 
charged with conspiracy with Munch in withholding the state- 
ment of shortage, and also of having received rewards in the 
shape of interest on the loan of the State's moneys. 

The report of the committee was adopted by sixty-one yeas 
to thirty-five nays, and G. P. Wilson, 'W. C. Williston, Alphonso 
Barto, H. S. Howe, H. A. Child, M. A. Hawkes and T. S. Van 
Dyke were appointed a committee to conduct the impeachment 
trial on the part of the House, and the Senate was notified to 
summons the accused to appear before the bar of the Senate for 

The State Treasurer was notified to appear before the Sen- 
ate on March 7, and a communication was received from him 
that John M. Gilman, Greenleaf Clark, Gordon E. Cole, and 
Cushman K. Davis represented him as counsel. An adjourn- 
ment was taken to May 20, to allow counsel for the accused to 
prepare their defense. The bondsmen of the State Treasurer 
were Horace Thompson and Maurice Auerbach, of St. Paul, 
Charles Scheffer, of Stillwater, Emil Munch, who was a son- 
in-law of Seeger, and Adolph Munch, brother of the former 
State Treasurer. The Munch brothers, to liquidate their obliga- 
tion, turned over to the other bondsmen real estate, which was, 
however, so heavily encumbered that there was little realized 
from it, after paying legal expenses. 

On the re-assembling of the Court of Impeachment, it was 
informed that Mr. Seeger had resigned his office and the resig- 
nation was accepted by Governor Austin, for which he was se- 
verely criticised. It was, however, resolved to receive no evidence 
on that point. On May 22, the ex-Treasurer appeared and 
pleaded guilty, but denied that he had acted with corrupt or will- 
ful intent. The court found him guilty of all charges specified 
and the following order was unanimously adopted: "Ordered, 
as the judgment of this court, that William Seeger be and he is 
hereby disqualified to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit 
in this State." 


Thus closed the first impeachment trial in the State. The 
bondsmen of toe State Treasurer paid the deficit; there was no 
attempt to criminally prosecute any one. The salary of the 
office was increased to $3,500. The Democrats made but little 
fuss over the matter, but many Republicans felt that a stain had 

been put upon the record of their party. 


In the early part of 1873 a campaign was inaugurated by 
the Republican leaders for the State offices, and, incidentally, 
for the election of a United States Senator. Governor Austin 
wished to succeed himself as Governor and ex-Senator Ramsey 
was desirous of again becoming Senator. The Austin wing of 
the Republican party had never affilliated with the Ramsey wing, 
and the latter presented as their candidate William D. Washburn. 
Thomas H. Armstrong, of Albert Lea, was also an aspirant for 
the position. 

The St. Paul Dispatch whose editor Harlan P. Hall, had 
not been confirmed by the United States Senate for a public 
office, commenced the publication of editorials advocating a re- 
volt from the "old fogies" that were managing the Republican 
party in the State, and suggested the overthrowing of what was 
termed their "thralldom" by the younger members of the party. 
The Dispatch presented the name of Cushman K. Davis as a 
worthy recipient for the Gubernatorial or Senatorial honors. The 
proposed candidate for political preferment at first was tempted 
to deny any ambitious aspirations, fearing that his acceptance 
of the nomination might interfere with his future holding of the 
office of United States Attorney, for which appointment he was 
under obligations to the leaders of the Ramsey wing of the party. 
He was finally prevailed upon to keep quiet, with the sophistical 
reason that he was not accountable for utterance of any news- 

The editorials of the St. Paul Dispatch stimulated other 
Republican newspapers of the State to favor a revolt against the 
old regime and support the new candidate for Governor. The 


State Convention was held at St. Paul, July 16. William H. 
Yale, representing the Washburn element, was chosen chairman. 
General L. F. Hubbard presented a letter from Governor Austin 
declining to be a candidate for re-election, but notwithstanding 
his name was announced as a candidate for the nomination. 
The first formal ballot stood: Washburn, 128; Davis 17; Austin 
68; Armstrong, 30. On the fourth and final ballot there were 
307 votes cast, making 154 necessary for a choice. Davis re- 
ceived 155 and Washburn 152. The old regime was thus de- 
feated and the young Eepublicans had won a victory. 

At the State election in 1873 the Democratic candidate for 
Governor was Ara Barton. The election returns gave Davis 
40,741; Barton, 35,245; Samuel Mayall prohibition candidate, 
1,036; scattering 35. Davis's majority, 4,425. 

In an analysis of the vote the counties with the exception 
of Eamsey that gave Democratic majorities in 1871 were carried 
by that party with increased gains. The counties of Blue Earth, 
Hennepin, Martin, Mille Lacs, Mower, Eice, Wabasha and Wi- 
nona were carried for Barton, while Eamsey the home county 
of the Eepublican candidate demonstrated his popularity by 
turning a Democratic victory of fifty-one to a Eepublican land- 
slide of 963. 

The main defection from the Eepublican ranks was, however, 
caused by the "Granger Movement/' which had for its sup- 
porters the farmers, many of whom, because the Democratic 
party had put into its platform a plank against railroad extor- 
tions, affiliated with that party. The supporters of the "Granger 
Movement" had for a long time complained bitterly of the ex- 
cessive tariffs and discriminations of railroad companies in trans- 
porting grain and other products, and also against grain buyers 
because of presumed unjust methods in grading wheat. There 
was a general cry raised against corporations. Clubs or "granges" 
were organized for mutual protection. Their declared object 
was to do away with the "middle-men," and to purchase their 
supplies of and sell their product directly to manufacturers and 
wholesale merchants. About this period the movement reached 
its height but gradually subsided on account of internal dissen- 
sions, impracticable methods, and the intriguing of politicians. 


On September 19, 1873, the news was circulated of the 
failure of Jay Cooke & Company, the fiscal agents of the 
Northern Pacific Eailroad Company. There were fears that this 
disastrous failure would cause another financial convulsion in 
Minnesota similar to that of 1857. While to some extent it did 
occur in the manufacturing districts and money centers of the 
East, it was scarcely felt in the State outside of a slight string- 
ency of the money market, and a dullness in real estate. Not a 
failure of any mercantile or banking house occurred as a 
consequence, nor did any manufacturing establishment close its 

Governor Austin, after his retirement from the Guberna- 
torial chair, was prominently identified with political affairs. He 
became Auditor of the United States Treasury at Washington, 
was chairman of the Railroad Commission of Minnesota, be- 
came interested in mining developments in California, and died 
in Minneapolis November 7, 1905. 

Chapter IV. 

CUSHMAN Kellogg Davis, who by a majority of votes 
of his fellow citizens had been elected to the highest 
State office in their gift, was younger than any of his 
predecessors, being only in his thirty-sixth year. He was born at 
Henderson, Jefferson County, New York, June 16, 1838. In the 
year of his birth his parents moved to the Territory of Wiscon- 
sin, locating on a farm near Waukesha. Here his boyhood days 
were spent. After attending the common school he entered Car- 
roll College, at Waukesha, finally graduating in 1857 from the 
University of Michigan. 

Eeturning to Wisconsin he studied law in the office of Alex- 
ander W. Randall, afterwards War Governor of Wisconsin and 
Postmaster General in the cabinet of President Johnson. 
Young Davis commenced the practice of his profession in 1860, 
at Waukesha and in the Republican campaign of that year made 
political speeches. In 1862, he enlisted and became First Lieu- 
tenant in the Twenty-Eighth Wisconsin Volunteers, and was 
with the Western Army two years, a part of this time he was 
on the staff of General Willis A. Gorman, becoming incapacitated 
for military duty he resigned, and removed to Minnesota. He 
formed a law partnership with his late commanding General ; 
this association with his natural ability gave him a prominent 
position in the Ramsey County bar. In 1866, he was elected to 
the House of Representatives from that county; two years later 
he became United States District Attorney, which position he re- 
signed on becoming Governor. From the time of his entrance 

iv.-3 59 


into political life as a legislator Davis became champion of the 
people against the alleged dominance and aggressions of the rail- 
road companies. He was a devoted student of general litera- 
ture; he had prepared a lecture entitled "Modern Feudalism," 
in which he delineated how the "Mighty Octopus" of railroad 
corporations was trampling underfoot the rights and prerogatives 
of the citizens of the State. 

The other State officials chosen on the ticket with Governor 
Davis were Alphonso Barto, Lieutenant Governor, a native of 
Vermont and a lawyer at Sauk Rapids. Governor Austin's ap- 
pointees to fill vacancies Edwin W. Dyke as State Treasurer, 
and 0. P. Whitcomb as Auditor were elected, also S. P. 
Jennison was re-elected as Secretary of State. George P. Wil- 
son was the new Attorney General. 


The Sixteenth Legislature assembled January 6, 1874. At 
the State election Senators in the twenty even numbered dis- 
tricts had been elected. Senators Amos Coggswell, Lucius F. 
Hubbard, and Levi Butler were re-elected. Simeon P. Child 
and E. St. Julien Cox, members of the preceding House of Rep- 
resentatives, were chosen Senators. 

From the Eighth District came Charles H. Berry, the first 
Attorney General of the State, a native of Rhode Island, he re- 
ceived an academic education in New York; he was admitted to 
the practice of law in the city of Rochester in that State. In 
1855, he came to Winona and opened a law office in that city. 
He was a Democrat in politics and was prominent in Masonic 

The Fourteenth District sent ex-United States Senator Mor- 
ton S. Wilkinson; the Twentieth District the erratic Ignatius 

Thomas S. Buckman of Faribault, the Senator from the 
Eighteenth District, was born in Vermont and graduated from 
the University of Vermont. He is the present (1908) District 
Judge of the Fifth District, a position he has held since 1880. 


The Senator from the Twenty-second District, William Mc- 
Kusick, had been a resident of Stillwater since 1847. He was 
engaged in lumbering, and was a member of the Fifth Terri- 
torial House also a Senator in the Second State Legislature. 
The newly elected Senator from the even numbered St. Paul 
District was Elias F. Drake, President of the St. Paul and 
Sioux City Kailroad Company, a native of Ohio and a resident 
of his adopted city since 1861. He was prominently identified 
with railroad and banking industries, having contracted and 
built the first ten miles of railroad in the State. The Senator 
from the Fortieth District, Albert E. Rice, a Norwegian, was 
to serve in the Senate with exception of two Legislatures till 
1886, when he was elected Lieutenant Governor. 

The House of Representatives re-elected Speaker Albert R. 
Hall; there were but fourteen who were members of the pre- 
ceding Legislature, James E. Child, and Curtis H. Pettit had 
represented their districts in previous Legislatures. Among the 
new members were J. P. West, of Wells, a lawyer, native of 
Vermont, a resident of the State since 1871; Collins Rice, a pio- 
neer farmer, a native of New Hampshire, who settled at Lewis- 
ton, Winona County in 1854; John Hanson, a Norwegian, who 
settled on a farm in Vernon; E. G. Swanstrom of Swedish na- 
tivity, came to Minnesota in 1854, a resident of Oneota, now a 
part of Duluth; David Benson, a Norwegian, a farmer who set- 
tled in 1867 at Rochester, afterwards removed to Renville 

Washington County sent as one of its Representatives, David 
B. Loomis, from Stillwater, born in Willington, Connecticut; 
he came when thirteen years of age with his parents to Alton, 
Illinois. In 1843, he migrated to the St. Croix Valley and en- 
gaged in lumbering; he was one of the original owners of the 
Arcola mill, for several years was in charge of the St. Croix 
boom. In 1847 he became surveyor general of logs and lumber; 
he was for four years member of the Territorial Council, of 
which body he was President one year. During the Civil War 
he was Captain in the Second Minnesota Infantry. 


Frank H. Pratt, of Rush City, the Representative from the 
Twenty-eighth District, was a native of Skowhegan, Maine, who 
came in 1854 with his father to St. Paul. He was engaged as 
a printer and editor on various newspapers. In 1860 he estab- 
Inshed the Taylor's Falls Reporter, the first newspaper published 
in Chisago County. In 1862 he enlisted in the Second Minne- 
sota Infantry, resigning in 1864, having been promoted to a 
captaincy. After the war he located at Sunrise, engaged in 
mercantile pursuits, in 1872 he removed to Rush City. 

In the delegation from the Thirty-third District was Wil- 
liam R. Denny, of Carver, born at Keene, New Hampshire, re- 
ceiving an academic education; at the age of twenty he came 
Wi-st, located for eight years in Wisconsin, coming to Minnesota 
in 1867. He afterwards became a member of the Legislatures of 
1876, 1879 and 1881. Charles S. Crandall of Owatonna, the 
Representative from Steele County, was from the "Buckeye 
State." He came to Minnesota when seventeen years of age. 
He was afterwards a member of the Senate from 1887 to 1893, 

Governor Austin, in his farewell message, assured the peo- 
ple that the year just ended, had been a period of general health- 
fulness, fire and flood had not devastated cities, or laid waste the 
plains. The horn of plenty had filled the lap of the husband- 
man. The progress of public education had not been interrupted. 
The criminal calendar was never lighter. The finances of the 
State showed an encouraging balance. He advocated the taxa- 
tion of railroad lands, also called attention to railroad legisla- 
tion, recognizing them but great highways and arteries of com- 
merce; that the world would never consent to arbitrary pas- 
senger and freight rates, whatever binding concessions had been 
made in the past. He advocated the appointment of a constitu- 
tional commission to revise the constitution. By the new 
methods adopted, in the office of the treasurer, interest to the 
amount of $7,024.39 had found its way into the State treasury. 
The frontier destitution was alluded to, also the relief furnished 
by the fund of 1873. 


In his inaugural address Governor Davis recommended that 
financial relief should be extended to grasshopper sufferers. 
The larger portion of his message was taken up with a discussion 
of railroad abuses, their discriminations in freight and passenger 
charges; also for their non-payment of taxes, and recommends 
that the Legislature should pass remedial measures. 

His language upon the need of reducing excessive freight 
rates was emphatic: "The expense of moving products has be- 
come the great expense of life; and it is the only disbursement 
over which he who pays can exercise no control whatever. He 
has a voice in determining how much his taxes shall be. In the 
ordinary transactions of life, he can buy and sell where he 
chooses and competition makes the bargain a just one; but in 
regard to his crops, he is under duress as to their carriage, 
and under dictation as to their price. In the very nature of 
things, the occasion must be rare which will justify any advance 
in the rates for moving grain from Minnesota. In September, 
1873, however, when a wheat crop of unexampled abundance was 
overcrowding the means of transportation, and when there was 
every reason why there should be a reduction instead of an ad- 
vance of rates, the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Company, 
and the Chicago and Northwestern Eailway Company, simul- 
taneously imposed upon our wheat crop a tax of three cents 
per bushel, by an advance of that amount in charges. If any 
administration should commit such an act as this in performing 
the functions of taxation, it would be deposed by an indignant 
constituency. No less deserving of condemnation is the policy of 
the companies in regard to freight which are moved wholly 
within the State." 

In reviewing the labors of the Legislature of 1874, the fol- 
lowing are mentioned as being of importance: A Board of Rail- 
road Commissioners consisting of three persons to be appointed by 
the Governor was created having ample powers over the rail- 
road system of the State; to protect citizens against discrimina- 
tions in freight and passenger charges; also to see that suitable 
cars were provided for transportation; that carloads should not 
be less than 20,000 pounds. Corporations violating any part of 


the act were liable to a fine of $1,000 for the first offense; for 
second and subsequent offenses not less than $2,500 or more 
than $5,000. Gamblers prosecuting their trade in cars and 
steamboats were to be fined and imprisoned. 

The use of ball and chain for criminals, and their punish- 
ment in public were prohibited. By another act married women 
were allowed to act as administrators and executors. Cook 
County was organized. 

By a joint resolution, Congress was requested to cause a 
survey of water routes, between the Minnesota and the Red 
River of the North, to see if it was feasible to construct a canal; 
also that improvements be made in the Minnesota and Missis- 
sippi Rivers. Out of deference for her Scandinavian population 
Congress was requested to raise the rank of the mission to 
Sweden and Norway, to a full second class mission being the 
same rank as those countries supported at Washington. General 
Christopher C. Andrews of St. Paul, was at this time United 
States Representative at the Scandinavian Court. 


In the Congressional election in 1874, Mark H. Dunnell 
was re-elected in the First District receiving 16,716 votes, to 
his Democratic opponent, F. H. Waite 13,721. In the Second 
District Horace B. Strait was re-elected by 13,742 votes to 13,521 
cast for E. St. Julien Cox nominee, of the Democratic party. 
In the Third District William S. King, Republican defeated E. 
M. Wilson, Democrat, by a vote of 18,179 to 15,860. 

William S. King, of Minneapolis, the newly elected Con- 
gressman, was born at Malone, New York, December 16, 1828. 
He was one of the most active citizens of Minnesota in develop- 
ing its commercial and agricultural interests. For several years 
he was postmaster of the United States House of Representatives. 


The Seventeenth Legislature assembled January 5, 1875. 
In the odd numbered Senatorial District elections had been held 


the previous fall; William Meighen, Milo White, J. L. Macdon- 
ald, J. S. Pillsbury, R. B. Langdon, C. H. Graves had been re- 
elceted. In the Third District C. H. Lienau succeeded Luther 
L. Baxter, who was elected to the House of Representatives. 
Among the newly elected members of the Senate with legislative 
experience were Thomas H. Armstrong, Michael Doran, William 
P. Murray, W. H. C. Folsom, John W. Blake and Andrew 
Nelson . 

The Thirty-ninth District sent Knute Nelson. This was 
his first appearance in Minnesota legislative halls, as a member 
of a constitutional body. In the Thirteenth District Peter 
McGovern of Waseca a Democrat, a member of the legal fra- 
ternity, succeeded William G. Ward, who represented that dis- 
trict in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Legislatures. Senator 
McGovern was a native of Oneida County, New York, after 
being admitted to the bar he engaged in civil engineering and 
farming, he was afterwards, in 1886, elected to the Senate. 

From the Seventeenth District came A. K. Finseth, a native 
of Norway, who emigrated to America in 1853, two years later 
settled in Minnesota. He was a member of the Senate from 1875 
to 1878, and from 1887 to 1889, inclusive. 

Steele County since 1872 had been represented in the Sen- 
ate by Amos Coggswell; he had been a member of the Republi- 
can wing of the Constitutional Convention, also of the House 
in the Second State Legislature of which he was Speaker. He 
was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire, studied law in the office 
of President Franklin Pierce. On his admission to the bar 
he came to Illinois and located in Steele County in 1856. He 
was an easy and effective speaker, an able lawyer. 

In the House of Representatives there were twenty-one mem- 
bers of the preceding Legislature. Among the new members 
who had had previous legislative experience were W. R. Kin- 
yon, Joseph W. Furber, J. E. Mower, J. W. Sencerbox, J. C. 
Chadderdon, Charles A. Gilman, afterwards Speaker of the 
House, and Lars J. Stark, E. W. Durant and C. H. Clark. 

The House after the oath of office, had been administered 
to its members proceeded to elect William R. Kinyon of 


Owatonna, Speaker. Speaker Kinyon was born at Mannville, 
New York in 1833 and located at his resident city in 1858 
where he became engaged in banking. He had been a member 
of the House of the Tenth Legislature. 

Among the members who represented the pioneer element 
of Minnesota, was Joseph W. Furber, born in New Hampshire, 
in 1813; he emigrated to the Mississippi Valley in 1838; after 
remaining two years in Illinois, he came to St. Croix Falls, en- 
gaged in lumbering four years, later located at Cottage Grove. 
In 1846 he was Representative in the Wisconsin Legislature, 
was a member of the First Minnesota Territorial Legislature, 
of which body he was elected presiding officer. He was Repre- 
sentative in the Eight Territorial, also Tenth State Legislature 
In 1867 he was commissioned Major in the Minnesota Militia. 
President Fillmore made him United States Marshal. He died 
at Cottage Grove, July 10, 1884. 

Another member of the Washington County delegation was 
John E. Mower, born in Bangor, Maine, in 1815. He came to 
St. Croix Falls in 1842 locating two years later at Stillwater. 
Mr. Mower was a millwright and carpenter, but was also en- 
gaged in lumbering. He was elected to the -Fifth and Sixth 
Territorial Councils. The Territorial Legislature affixed his 
name to a county. 

One of the Representatives from St. Paul was Francis R. 
Delano, the first Warden of the Territorial Prison. He was 
born in Worcester Massachusetts. He received a common 
school and academic education, became an engineer and in 
1848 removed to St. Anthony (now Minneapolis), where he ran 
the Government mill. He afterwards removed to Stillwater, 
engaged in building and lumbering, but in 1862 removed to St. 
Paul. He was commander of five companies during the Indian 
outbreak. He afterwards became connected with the Great 
Northern Railway Company and the village of Delano was named 
in his honor. 

From the Twenty-eighth District came Lars J. Stark a 
native of Sweden, he emigrated to America in 1850, two years 


later settled at Chisago Lake. He was a member of the House 
of Kepresentatives in the session of 1865. 

Among the new members for legislative honors were John 
S. Irgens afterwards Secretary of State. J. M. Wheat of Lenora 
born in New York in 1825. He graduated from Albany Medi- 
cal College, came to Minnesota in 1856 to practice medicine. 
Burr Deuel, also a native of New York State, settled at Quincy 
in 1855 and was a miller by trade. 

Governor Davis in his message to the Legislature stated 
that the financial embarrassment which had effected industries 
in other States had hurt Minnesota but little. The laborers had 
been employed, failures had been infrequent, merchants were 
in excellent condition, the farmers had secured an excellent 
crop, were out of debt with a large surplus unsold, and confidence 
had been restored in the State treasury, owing to the administra- 
tion of the office by the present incumbent. 

The bonded indebtedness was $480,000. He called' the 
attention of the Legislature to the fact that Charles Mcllrath, 
late State Auditor had received $77,041.13 which with interest 
amounted to $94,641.69 for the sale of timber from the public 
lands. This amount he had failed to return to the treasury. 
The Governor notified the Legislature that he had caused the 
Attorney General to employ counsel to help prosecute the ac- 
cused party. 

He condemned dilatory legislation; advised the restoration 
of capital punishment, as homicidal crimes were increasing un- 
der the present law. Indian affairs and conditions of the fron- 
tier were particularly dwelt upon. The question of cheap trans- 
portation received attention, he advised water communications 
in a country offering so many natural advantages. The harbor 
of Duluth was made a subject of his address, he stated that 
the trouble with the general government in regard to the build- 
ing of a ship canal had been amicably settled, and Duluth 
made a port of entry. He detailed the opposition taken by the 
State of Wisconsin regarding the building of the ship canal. 
Keform in railroad legislation was a prominent part of his 
message, the law of 1871 regulating the carrying of freight and 


aggers was declared by him to be crude and imperfect; 
STSK speedy action be taken in the special recommendations 
presented "by the newly appointed railroad commission 

An investigation of the business of the Legislature shows 
the important enactments to be a law for the formation of town 
insurance companies; A uniform guage of three feet was estab- 
lished for railroads; Another act provided for the election of 
Railroad Commissioner, at the fall election of 1875, and for the 
prevention of extortion or unjust discrimination by railroad com- 
panies. A general law was passed for the organization of 
villages. Pennock Pusey, Phillip A. Harris and Pans ( 
were appointed a commission to secure for the State a proper 
representation of its resources at the Centennial Exhibition to 
be held at Philadelphia. Northfield was incorporated as a city. 
The balloting for United States Senator to fill the seat 
which became vacant March 4, 1876, was the exciting event of 
this session of the Legislature. There were eighty-three Repub- 
licans in both houses. The acrimony which made its appearance 
in that party two years before had been stimulated during 
Governor Davis's administration, and his act in boldly throwing 
his lance into the political arena as a candidate for senatorial 
honors only added fuel to the flame. It was stated, that Alex- 
ander Ramsey on his second election as United States Senator 
had said he would not be a candidate for re-election, but the old 
war horse that had seen the State growing from an infant to a 
place of importance amongst its sister States, was loth to return 
to private seclusion, and transmit to others the political power 
he had so long wielded. Therefore urged by strong public 
sentiment became an active candidate to succeed himself. 

The Legislature had been in session a little over a week, 
when the Republicans on the evening of January 14, assembled 
in caucus, for the purpose of nominating a candidate for United 
States Senator. The candidates presented for consideration were 
Alexander Ramsey, Cushman K. Davis, Horace Austin and Wil- 
liam D. Washburn. It was agreed that there should be five 
secret ballots taken. In spite of the efforts of the anti-Ramsey 
element, the Senator gained strength on every ballot; on the 


fourth he required only two votes to make him the Republican 
caucus candidate. This alarmed his opponents who insisted on 
an open ballot or an adjournment the latter was finally con- 
ceded by the Ramsey followers. On the re-assembling of the 
caucus, the following evening, it was found that fifteen of 
the Davis followers were absent; when the time came to take 
a ballot, fourteen to seventeen present refused to vote. This 
made it practically a rump caucus, though on the second formal 
ballot, Eamsey received the requisite forty-two votes, his fol- 
lowers, owing to the ill feeling engendered, were not enthusiastic 
or confident of his final triumph. 

There were sixty-four members of the Legislature that did 
not affiliate with the Republicans neither were they all adher- 
ents of the Democratic party, but followers of grangism; inde- 
pendent Democrats and Greenbackers. They had been watching 
the Republican division though Minnesota was conceded a Repub- 
lican State, 1875 was an independent year, in electing United 
States Senators in other States, therefore the minority was 

On January 18 a caucus was held in which fifty-one mem- 
bers of the Legislature opposed to Republican rule were pres- 
ent. A motion made by Senator William P. Murray was car- 
ried, that the successful candidate should be required to re- 
ceive at least thirty votes. Ignatius Donnelly received the 
required number. This nomination proved very distasteful to 
the old line Democrats, and they did not heartily support the 
nominee. The nineteenth of January was the date for the vote 
to be taken for the election of a United States Senator. On 
the first ballot the three leading candidates were Ramsey 42, 
Donnelly 41, Davis 16; balloting continued from day to day 
with varying changes, the highest number of votes received by 
Ramsey was 58, Donnelly 52, and Davis 33. It became evident 
that Donnelly could not poll the entire vote of the anti-Re- 
publican element at a caucus held, he was requested to resign 
as a candidate, and William Lochren was substituted. While the 
latter polled the full strength of the Democratic members for a 
number of ballots, none of the majority could be persuaded to 


forego their Republican allegiance. The supporters of Ramsey, 
and Davis finally agreed to withdraw their candidates, but there 
was no caucus nomination made. The balloting continued from 
day to day, with slight change, the Republican vote being 
divided between Gordon E. Cole, William D. Washbura (who 
showed the most strength), John S. Pillsbury, and S. J. R. 
McMillan. There were rumors of bribery in the air, but no 
evidence was ever produced to substantiate the fact. 
anti-Republican members finally being convinced that they 
could not elect their caucus nominee, overtures were made to 
them through Morton S. Wilkinson, stating that he could ^in- 
fluence Republican votes, for his election to the position. 
The rumors of this deal reached the Republicans on February 
18 and Colonel Graves of Duluth, withdrew Washburn's name in 
favor of McMillan and in the four ballots taken that day 
McMillan's vote increased from 30 to 57; on the following day 
on the first ballot he received 82 votes, which lacked only one 
of the full Republican strength of the Legislature. This closed 
the most memorable election for United States Senator in Min- 
nesota. The setting aside of Ramsey was not considered 
advantageous to the State. 

Alexander Ramsey was to return to private life; but 
after a seclusion of four years he was again called to a public 
duty as Secretary of War in President Hayes's Cabinet, and dur- 
ing the years 1882 to 1886 he was chairman of the Utah 
Commission. But what of the young Governor whose Senatorial 
ambition was thus disappointed? Deciding he was too poor to 
accept a re-nomination for Governor, he returned to his law 
practice, from whence he was twelve years later summoned to 
serve his State and the country as one of the most distinguished 
members of the United States Senate. 

Samuel James Renwick McMillan, was born at Brownsville 
Pennsylvania February 22, 1826. He completed his education 
at the Duquesne College, Pittsburg, and studied law in the office 
of Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War in President Lincoln's 
Cabinet. In 1849 he was admitted to the bar, three years later 
settled at Stillwater, came, however, to St. Paul in 1856. In 


1857 lie was elected Judge for the First Judicial District; from 
1864 to 1874 was Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, and 
at the time of his election as Senator was Chief Justice. He 
was reelected United States Senator in 1887. He died in St. 
Paul, October 3, 1897. His career in the Senate was uneventful 
to the State. 

The Seventeenth Legislature adjourned March 5, 1875. 
Amendments to the constitution had been passed relating to the 
judicial districts; and terms of office, the investment of funds 
from the sale of school lands; and permission of women to vote 
for school officers, and were sanctioned by the people at the elec- 
tion in November of that year. The last amendment is in this 
language: "The Legislature may, notwithstanding anything 
in this article (Article 7, Section 8) provide by law, that any 
woman at the age of twenty-one years and upward, may vote 
at any election held for the purpose of choosing any officers 
of schools, or upon any measure relating to schools, and may also 
provide that any such woman shall be eligible to hold office 
solely pertaining to the management of schools." 

Chapter V. 


AT the Kepublican Convention held in 1875, John S. 
Pillsbury was the most prominent candidate for Gov- 
ernor, though there were followers of Dr. J. H. Stewart 
of St. Paid and ex-Governor Austin. Ex-Senator Eamsey, also 
Senators Windom and McMillan were strong supporters of Pills- 
bury who was nominated on the first formal ballot. Alphonso 
Barto, who declined a re-nomination for Lieutenant Governor, 
made way for James B. Wakefield, the Scandinavian succession 
in the office of Secretary of State was continued by the nomina- 
tion of John S. Irgens, while Edwin W. Dyke, who had served 
only one term and a fraction, as Treasurer, gave place to a 
German, William Pfaender, George P. Wilson, Attorney General 
and 0. P. Whitcomb, Auditor were renominated, the above were 
all elected. 

At the State election there were 84,017 votes polled. J. S. 
PiUsbury received 47,073. D. L. Buell, the Democratic can- 
didate, 35,275 and R. F. Humiston, the Prohibition candidate, 
1,699. The counties of Blue Earth, Hennepin, Martin, Mille 
Lacs, Mower and Rice that were carried in 1873 by the Demo- 
crats were regained by the Republicans by substantial majorities. 
Hennepin gave its favorite son a majority of over 2,000, while 
Houston, the home county of the Democratic candidate, demon- 
strated his popularity by going Democratic, the first time for 
over ten years. Ramsey gave Buell nearty 1,000 plurality. In 



Waseca County, Pillsbury's plurality was only one, while Wright 
was fast becoming a Republican county as the Democrats car- 
ried it by only ten votes. 

The election of John S. Pillsbury as Governor placed at the 
head of the State Government a man of executive ability, versed 
in legislative duties which in connection with his business ex- 
perience thoroughly equipped him to cope with the questions of 
the day, and were of essential value in directing the fortunes and 
affaire of the commonwealth. That his administration of govern- 
mental affairs on a strictly business basis was satisfactory to his 
constituents, is evidenced by his three elections as Governor, 
being the only incumbent of that office to receive that honor. 

Governor Pillsbury was a native of New Hampshire and first 
saw the light of day in the town of Sutton, on July 29, 1827. 
His educational advantages were limited to the common schools, 
at the age of sixteen he became a clerk at Warner in the general 
country store of his brother. After five years experience in the 
mercantile business, he formed a partnership which lasted two 
years, with Walter Harriman, 'afterwards Governor of New 
Hampshire. After the dissolution of this partnership young 
Pillsbury removed to the capital city of his native State, where 
for two years he carried on a merchant tailor 'and clothing busi- 

In 1853 he began a tour of observation throughout the west- 
ern country locating finally at St. Anthony (now Minneapolis) 
two years later. Here he engaged in the hardware business, but 
a fire and the financial panic of 1857 caused him to suffer great 
losses, he, however, reorganized the business which eventually be- 
came the leading house in that line in the Northwest. His 
trade consisted largely of supplies for lumbermen and mill- 
wrights, which led to his becoming interested in these two branches 
of industry. Relinquishing his hardware business in 1875 he 
became actively engaged in logging and the manufacturing of 
lumber. Previous to this with his nephew, Charles A. Pillsbury, 
he established a flour milling firm, afterwards other members of 
his family became partners. This firm became one of the larg- 
est producers of flour in the United States. Their interests in 
1890 were disposed of to an English syndicate. 


Governor Pillsbury not only possessed natural ability but 
inherited thrift and sagacity from his New England forefathers. 
His memory is endeared to the citizens of his adopted State by 
his noble private benefactions, given generously but unostenta- 
tiously. He was one of the few rich men who recognized the 
fact that the growth and prosperity of the country were the 
main factors in augmenting their accumulations, and therefore 
they should return benefactions for the encouragement of edu- 
cation and the physical comforts of those less fortunate in life's 
race for existence. His death in his adopted residential city, 
October 18, 1901, was mourned not only by his family and per- 
sonal friends but by the citizens of the State. 


The Eighteenth Legislature assembled January 4, 1876. In 
the Senate from the twenty even numbered districts, but four 
Senators had been re-elected C. A. Conkey in the second, Mor- 
ton S. Wilkinson in the fourteenth, Ignatius Donnelly in the 
twentieth and Levi Butler in the twenty-sixth. J. P. West 
Senator from the Sixth District and J. V. Daniels from the 
tenth, were members of the preceding House of Representatives. 
The Eighth District sent William H. Yale, the sixteenth W. C. 
Williston, the twenty-eighth W. H. C. Folsom and the thirty- 
sixth Henry Poehler, who had been members of the Senate or 
House of Representatives. In the Twenty-fifth District a va- 
canc}* occurred owing to John S. Pillsbury's nomination for Gov- 
ernor, and John B. Gilfillan was elected to the seat. The Wash- 
ington County Senator was Edward S. Brown of Stillwater. A 
native of Maine, he learned the trade of millwright, arriving at 
his majority he went to the Pacific slope and engaged in build- 
ing mills. He came to St. Anthony in 1855 became interested 
in manufacturing and millwright business. He became a resi- 
dent of Stillwater in 1873. The even numbered Ramsey County 
District elected James Smith, Jr., a native of Ohio, a resident 
of St. Paul since 1856. He was an able lawyer, interested in 
railroad enterprises being general manager and president of the 



St Paul and Duluth Railroad Company. He had been a mem- 

her of the Senate of 1861, 1862, 1863. 

The House of Representatives organized and re-elected Wil 
liam R, Kinyon, Speaker. Of the members fifteen had been re- 
elected Among the members were John L. Gibbs, of Freeborn 
and Charles A. Oilman, of Stearns County who were to become 
Speakers of the House and Lieutenant Governors. Darwin S. 
Hall of Renville County and Solomon G. Comstock of Moorhead, 
became members of the Fifty-fifth Congress. C. B. Tirrell had 
been a member of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Legislatures, and 
C. E. Cutts a member of the Senate. From Wabasha County 
came Samuel L. Campbell, a lawyer, born in Chenango County, 
New York, he came to Minnesota in 1855. In the Ramsey 
County delegation was Charles D. Gilfillan, a native of New 
Hartford, New York. He attended Hamilton College and in 
1850 located in Missouri, the following year he came to Still- 
water, read law and was admitted to the bar. He removed to 
St. Paul in 1854 where he engaged for some years in the prac- 
tice of his profession. He became interested in furthering pub- 
lic enterprises and was the founder and owner of the St. Paul 
Water Works. He was a member of the House in the Legisla- 
ture of 1865 and afterwards a member of the House for 1877 
and of the Senate from 1878 to 1885, inclusive. 

Governor Davis in his farewell message reviewed the reports 
of the State officials, and called attention to the increase in the 
gross earnings of railroads. He regretted that an amendment to 
the constitution empowering women to have the benefits of the 
elective franchise simply authorized the Legislature to grant it, 
and that he was prevented by law from appointing women as 
teachers in State institutions where their need was self evident. He 
reported that the Board of Centennial Commission had been busy 
collecting a cabinet of the ores, minerals, fossils and building 
stones with specimens of forest trees and plants for exhibition 
and recommended an appropriation for the erection of a State 
building at the Centennial Exposition, to be held at Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. In a long argument at the conclusion of his 
message setting forth the history of the Minnesota State Rail- 


road Bonds, he laments the State's inaction in not making some 
provisions for their redemption, claiming that the matter had 
been disregarded too long and that while some duties were alike 
onerous to States as well as men, that a higher rule of action 
should require that justice should be done. 

Governor Pillsbury in his inaugural address spoke with pride 
of the vigorous commonwealth of 600,000 people equipped with 
all the appliances and comforts of civilized life; of solitary 
wastes that had been supplanted by illimitable grain fields ; of the 
idle rivers that had been bound to myriad uses of productive in- 
dustry; of the young State that upon her admission to the Union 
imported breadstuff and in the eighteenth year of her life was 
the first wheat State of the sisterhood; of the 2,000 miles of rail- 
road now taxed to their utmost to carry off the surplus pro- 

He pointed to the danger there was in the increase of the 
debts of cities and towns and advised a retrenchment in public 
expenses. Though the legislative sessions were restricted to sixty 
days for the sake of economy he was in favor of having them con- 
tracted to forty days, even recommending the substitution of 
biennial for annual sessions. The discontinuence of the office 
of Railroad Commissioner was suggested or if continued, an en- 
largement of his duties. He advised that Minnesota should have 
as good an exhibit of her products and resources at the Centen- 
nial Exposition as her sister States, as an encouragement to im- 
migration. He strongly advocated that capital crimes should be 
punished by death. 

The Minnesota State Railroad Bonds received particular at- 
tention, he stated that they should be as speedily retired as pos- 
sible by use of funds accumulating from the sale of the 500,000 
acres of State lands. He made the statement that a State pro- 
ducing agricultural products of $50,000,000 yearly with taxable 
property of $220,000,000, demanded a prompt liquidation of 
just obligations as evidence of a due appreciation of the prosper- 
ity enjoyed. 

In respect to railroad corporations, he considered them as 
purely creatures of the law and being recipients of the public 


bounty their claim that they held title and control of the fran- 
chises and property in their charge under precisely the same 
tenure as that upon which private property is held, involves not 
merely an absurdity but a menace to the public weal. 
State was a trustee between the grantors and the grantees of the 
munificient endowments which were the basis of State railroad 
construction and she could not, without being false to her trust, 
avoid exacting full compliance with the conditions both expressed 
and implied in grants to railroads. 

The Legislature adjourned March 3, 1876. Of the 404 acts 
passed a large portion related to the powers and privileges of 
counties, towns and cities, or were amendments of existing stat- 
utes. Very few acts were of much general interest and impor- 
tance. A general .act was passed regulating organization of min- 
ing and manufacturing companies. Another provided for lim- 
ited divorce; safety funds were authorized though not required 
to be created by fire insurance companies. Solitary imprison- 
ment, except for prison discipline, was abolished. Two consti- 
tutional amendments were adopted and sanctioned by the peo- 
ple at the next general election, one giving the Governor the 
right to veto any item or items of appropriation of money, while 
he could approve of the other portions of the bill; the other 
gave the Governor the assigning of a Judge of the District Court 
to take the place of Judges of the Supreme Court if the latter 
were disqualified from serving. The bounty for the slaying of 
wolves was restored. Congress was memorialized for additional 
mail routes, for improvements for the Minnesota River and Red 
River of the North, for extending the time for the completion of 
the Northern Pacific Railroad, for cheaper transportation to the 
seaboard. The cities of Austin and New Ulm were incorporated. 
Under the general laws of 1875 a number of villages were in- 
corporated, and by special laws Brownsdale and Grand Meadow. 

The mooted question of the adjustment of the Minnesota 
State Railroad Bonds by a resolution in the Senate was referred 
to a special committee consisting of William Meighen, Levi 
Butler, W. H. C. Folsom, M. S. Wilkinson and J. E. Doughty. 
After holding several meetings they reported they were opposed 


to taking any action in the matter, it will be thus seen that 
even the business suggestions of Governors Davis and Pillsbury 
that this vexed question involving the honor of the State should 
receive prompt attention, received but little consideration from 
the members of the Upper House of the Legislature. 

The payment of the bonds was also made the subject of a 
special report by the State Baptist Convention. This body in 
a set of resolutions by a unanimous vote declared that the 
bonds were a legal and moral obligation against the State, that 
the charge of practical repudiation was sustained and that it 
was the religious duty of every Christian to do all in Ms 
power by his voice, vote and pen for the honorable settlement 
of the suspended State indebtedness. 


The election in 1876 was the first appearance of the fol- 
lowers of the greenback craze as a National party. These wild 
enthusiasts of finance were opposed to the General Govern- 
ment's return to a specie basis, which in their opinion would 
result in a contraction of the currency that would cause dis- 
ordered markets and fall in prices. This new political organi- 
zation never gained many adherents in Minnesota. In the 
three Presidential elections in which its theories were an issue 
the support extended was meagre and in the State Congressional 
and Legislative elections their candidates received but a small 
percentage of the total vote cast. The party survived its or- 
ganization ten years and while it upset in other States many 
political calculations it never wielded collectively any influence 
and strength in the history of Minnesota, it, however, advanced 
the aspirations of several members of the Republican party that 
catered to its doctrines. 

In the National election of 1876 there was a feeling of 
dissatisfaction in some sections of the country towards the 
Republican party owing to the financial depression. There was 
a lack of confidence in business circles which resulted in a 
monetary stringency and the curtailing of credits; this condi- 


tion, together with the development of certain irregular methods 
of administration in National affairs inspired a hope in Demo- 
cratic circles of electing their Presidential candidate. In Min- 
nesota, however, while the aggregate vote of the Democrats was 
larger, the percentage of the total was seven per cent less than it 
was in 1872. This was due to several causes, the constant 
increase of Scandinavian immigration, who as they became 
naturalized citizens, added to the strength of the Republican 
party, also, as above stated, the appearance of the Greenback 
party with a National ticket in the Presidential race. Ruther- 
ford B. Hayes received 72,955, Samuel J. Tilden 48,787 and 
Peter Cooper 2,319 votes. In the First Congressional District 
Mark H. Dunnell was reelected, receiving 26,010 votes to his 
Democratic opponent E. C. Stacy 16,065. In the Second 
District Horace B. Strait received 19,730 votes, there were 
cast for E. T. Wilder, the Democratic nominee, 14,990. In 
the Third District Dr. Jacob H. Stewart, Republican candi- 
date, received 22,823 votes to 20,727 cast for William W. 
McNair. The newly elected member in the Third District 
to the Forty-fifth Congress, was born in Columbia County, New 
York, in 1829. He graduated from the University of New 
York in 1851, and commenced the practice of medicine at 
Peekskill, New York. In 1855 he removed to St. Paul and 
was elected a member of the State Senate in 1859. At the 
opening of the War of the Rebellion he was appointed sur- 
geon of the First Minnesota Infantry and was taken prisoner at 
the First Battle of Bull Run. Dr. Stewart was mayor of St. 
Paul in 1864 and 1868, 1872, 1873 and 1874. 


The Nineteenth Legislature convened January 2, 1877. 
There were twenty-six Republicans and fifteen Democrats in the 
Senate and seventy-seven Republicans and twenty-nine Demo- 
crats in the House. At the election the previous fall Thomas 

Armstrong, A. K. Finseth, Michael Doran, John B. Gil- 
fillan, R. B. Langdon, C. H. Lienau, Knute Nelson and H. G. 


Page had been reelected Senators. In the First District John 
McNelly succeeded J. H. Smith. The new Senator was a 
native of Ireland, emigrated to America in 1848 and settled in 
Minnesota in 1855. He was engaged in agricultural pursuits 
and had been a member of the House of Representatives 
in 1875 and 1876. Charles G. Edwards of Spring Valley, 
the member from the Third District, was a native of New 
York. He was connected with an Ohio regiment during the 
Civil War and was mustered out of service with the rank of 
Lieutenant Colonel. He was extensively engaged in farming 
and the development of creamery interests. Burr Deuel, from 
the Ninth District, was a former member of the Legislature. 
The Eleventh District was represented by Alonzo J. Edgerton, 
afterwards United States Senator; and the fifteenth by James 
McHench, a native of New York, who settled in Minnesota in 
1856 and was afterwards a member of the Capitol Commission. 
The senator from the Twenty-first District was William Henry, 
born in Ireland in 1826, he came to the United States on be- 
coming of age, and in 1854 settled at Belle Plaine. He was a 
member of the House of 1868, also of the Senate of 1869-1870. 
The Twenty-ninth District sent E. G. Swanstrom, a member of 
the House of 1873. From Stearns County came Colin Francis 
Macdonald of St. Cloud. He was born in St. Andrews, Nova 
Scotia in 1843, and came to Minnesota in 1850, engaging in 
newspaper work at Shakopee and St. Paul. In 1875 he pur- 
chased the St. Cloud Times which he now (1908) publishes as a 
daily and weekly. 

The House of Representatives organized and elected John 
L. Gibbs of Geneva, Speaker. The presiding officer was a na- 
tive of Bradford County, Pennsylvania. After graduating from 
Ann Arbor law school he settled in Minnesota in 1861 and the 
following year he was elected county attorney of Freeborn 
County; he also engaged in farming. He was a member of the 
House of 1864, 1865, 1876 and 1895. 

Of the members of the House twenty-three had been re- 
elected, but a number of those that were entitled to seats had 
represented their districts, in previous Legislatures. Among these 


were Dr. J. M. Wheat of Lenora, Simeon P. Childs of Faribault 
County, C. P. Buck of Winona, John M. Gilman and Edmund 
Rice of St. Paul, Loren Fletcher and Albert R. Hall of Min- 
neapolis, David Benson of Renville County and William T. Bon- 
niwell of Hutchinson. 

Governor Pillsbury in his annual message, after a retrospec- 
tive review of the affairs of the State for the past year, dealt 
with the subjects of education, State finances, immigration, dis- 
honored bonds, biennial sessions and other matters pertaining 
to the State government. In a joint convention William Win- 
dom by a vote of ninety-eight to thirty-six cast for Morton S. 
Wilkinson, was elected to succeed himself as United States Sen- 
ator for the term ending March 4, 1883. 

The Legislature adjourned March 2, 1877. In a cursory 
review of the laws enacted the following are worthy of mention. 
Appropriations were made to pay the expenses of the capture of 
the Northfield Bank robbers. The Protestant Episcopal Church 
was authorized to incorporate parishes. Several villages were 
incorporated under the general laws of 1875, and by special law 
the borough of Le Sueur and the village of Morristown were 
created. The following constitutional amendments which were 
approved by the people at the next election were passed. A 
Board of Canvassers was created consisting of the Secretary of 
State, two or more Judges of the Supreme Court and two dis- 
interested Judges of the District Courts who were to open elec- 
tion returns and declare the results. Another provided for bi- 
ennial sessions of the Legislature, no session to exceed the term 
of sixty days. There was to be an entire new election of all Sena- 
tors and Representatives in 1878; the Representatives to be 
chosen for two years except to fill a vacancy; the Senators of 
the odd numbered districts to go out of office at the expiration 
cf the second year, and the Senators in districts designated by 
even numbers to be elected for four years; thereafter Senators 
were to be chosen for four years, except there was to be an en- 
tire new election succeeding each new apportionment. 

Numerous petitions having been received from holders of 
the Minnesota State Railroad Bonds asking adjustment of their 


claims, the Legislature, by a resolution subject to vote of the peo- 
ple, empowered the Governor, Attorney General and Auditor, as 
a commission to prepare bonds of $1,000 denomination dated 
July 1, 1877, payable in 30 years and redeemable in 20 years, 
with six per cent interest, payable semi-annually, and when 
the bonds are surrendered for exchange, the commission shall 
cause to be executed for issue equal to $1,750 of new six per cent 
bonds for each Minnesota State Kailroad Bond so surrendered, 
and for each bond having attached thirty-five or more half 
yearly due coupons, and all others coupons pertaining to such 
bond not due on July 1, 1877, the commissioners were to de- 
liver to the party so surrendering a coupon bond of $1,500, 
but for less than thirty-five past due coupons with any bond the 
exchange was to be reduced ratable for missing coupons. This 
proposition however was not sanctioned by the people by a vote 
of 17,324 yeas to 59,176 nays. 

A report of a referee was received stating tha^ there was 
no cause of action in the State case against the late Auditor 
Charles Mcllrath for misappropriation of funds received from 
the sale of timber from the State lands and a request of .the de- 
fendant asking for relief for expenses incurred on account of 
such action was indefinitely postponed. On February 27 dvo- 
tional services were conducted by Rev. Henry Ward Beecher 
at the morning session of the House of Representatives. 

Chapter VI. 


THERE was no opposition to the renomination of Governor 
Pillsbury in the Republican Convention of 1877. The 
Democrats nominated William L. Banning, a banker of 
St. Paul, the Prohibitionists nominated Rev. A. Willey for Gov- 
ernor, at the head of the Greenback ticket was William Meighen. 
The result of the State election was for Pillsbury 57,071, Banning 
39,147 Meighen 2,396, and Willey 1,431. The Republican State 
officials were reelected. The counties of Carver, Houston and 
Wright that were carried by the Democrats at the last State elec- 
tion were again placed in the Republican column. Mille Lacs 
became Democratic and in Waseca a majority of one was in-" 
creased to 222, but in all the Democratic counties, except Scott, 
the pluralities were greatly reduced, Ramsey's being only 172, 
Morrison nine and Wabasha ten. 


The Twentieth Legislature assembled January 8, 1878. In 
the Senate Ignatius Donnelly had been reelected while J. M. 
Wheat of the Second District, William T. Bonniwell of the 
thirty-sixth and Christopher H. Smith of the Thirty-eighth 
District were members of the preceding House of Representatives. 
Mr. Bonniwell was a native of New York City, who settled in 
Minnesota in 1866. Mr. Smith was born in Weston, Vermont. 



After receiving an academic education he removed to Ohio, where 
he remained three years, when he came to Wisconsin, spending 
his time in farming and teaching school, he was also county clerk 
and treasurer of Richland County. He came to Windom in 1872 
and became treasurer of Cottonwood County. He was afterwards 
receiver of the land office at Worthington and State Insurance 
Commissioner. T. B. Clement, Senator from the Eighteenth 
District and T. G. Mealy from the thirty-second, and Charles 
D. Gilfillan from the Twenty-fourth District, had been members 
of the House. The Twenty-sixth District sent Charles A. Pills- 
bury, born in Warner, New Hampshire, he graduated from Dart- 
mouth College and came to Minneapolis in 1869, where he 
founded, in connection with his uncle, John S. Pillsbury, the 
Inrgest flouring mills in the world. The Forty-fourth District 
had been represented since 1875 by Henry G. Page, a native of 
New Hampshire, who located at Fergus Falls in 1870 and was 
engaged in banking and the manufacture of flour. 

The House of Representatives organized by the choice of 
Charles A. Oilman, as Speaker. Mr. Gilman was born at Gil- 
roanton, New Hampshire, January 9, 1833. He was raised on a 
farm, and educated at Gilmanton Academy. He located at Sauk 
Rapids in 1855 and was register of deeds and auditor of Benton 
County. He became a resident of St. Cloud in 1861, where he 
now resides (1908), and was appointed to a Government position 
in the land office. He was State Senator and Representative 
from 1875 to 1879, when he was elected Lieutenant Governor, 
serving until 1887, making in all nine years he was either pre- 
siding officer of the Senate or the House of Representatives. 
Governor Gilman was admitted to the bar and practiced law for 
a few years. He was appointed State Librarian in 1894, which 
position he' held until 1899. 

There were sixteen members of the House that had been re- 
elected. J. P. West represented his district in the Senate in the 
preceding session. Dwight M. Sabin, Nathan Richardson and 
Nathan Warner had represented their district in former Legis- 
latures. Two members of the House afterwards became Judges 
cf the District Courts. Henry G. Hicks and James C. Edson. 


The former was a native of Wyoming County, New York, and 
while attending Oberlin College enlisted in an Illinois regiment, 
after the war he settled at Minneapolis, was admitted to the bar 
in 1875, being elected to the House two years later and served 
for four consecutive terms. He was appointed one of the Judges 
of the Fourth District in 1887 and elected for a full term at the 
following State election. Judge Edson was born at Edson's 
Corner, Otsego County, New York, studied law in Wisconsin and 
admitted in 1855 to the bar in that State. He came to Glencoe 
in 1860, enlisted in the Fourth Minnesota Infantry, and was 
mustered out of service as Lieutenant Colonel of that regiment. 
He was appointed Judge of the Eighth District in 1886 and 
elected to the office in 1888, but died before the completion of 
his term. 

From the strongest Republican county in the State came 
an old time Democrat, William Colvill, of Red Wing. Of Scotch 
descent on his father's side and Irish on his mother's, his an- 
cestors had participated in the American Revolution. He was 
born in Chautauqua County, New York, read law in the offices of 
Millard Fillmore and Solomon L. Haven of Buffalo, and waa 
admitted to the bar in 1851. He became a resident of Red Win 
in 1854 and the following year established the Red Wing 
Sentinel, a Democratic paper, which he conducted until the 
breaking out of the Civil War. He enlisted as Captain in the 
First Minnesota Infantry and was promoted for gallantry to the 
Colonelcy of the regiment and finally mustered out of the service 
by reason of wounds, with the brevet rank of Brigadier General. 
General Colvill was elected Attorney General of the State in 
1865, and was appointed register of the land office at Duluth by 
President Cleveland. 

In his third annual communication Governor Pillsbury reit- 
erated his old alarm of debt and extravagances to be remedied 
by retrenchment. He urged reform to do away with all false at- 
tractions and appearances; cautioned poor counties and townships 
not to burden themselves with debt for the sake of visionary 
railroad schemes, also recommended a cash system of doing busi- 
ness and prompt payment of just debt. He advocated the ap- 


pointment of a public examiner as a check against malfeasance 
in office and a prevention of embezzlements. Though inquiries 
and safeguards were suggested of State banks that were made 
custodians of county and town funds and a revision of the laws 
relating to financial corporations. 

He regretted that the people had by their vote rejected meas- 
ures proposed by the last Legislature for the retirement of the 
dishonored bonds of the State. He called attention to the Paris 
Exposition and advised that a proper representation of the pro- 
ducts of the State should be exhibited. He desired that a Board 
of Pardons be created to act on prisoners' applications Grass- 
hopper bounty, locust raids, diversified farming, navigation and 
manufacturing were also subjects of his message. 

The Legislature adjourned March 8, 1878. The most im- 
portant proceeding of the session was the unsuccessful attempt 
to impeach Sherman Page, the first judge elected in the Tenth 
District. Judge Page was a Vermonter by birth, and had prev- 
iously lived in Lancaster, Wisconsin and came from Decorah, 
Iowa, to Mower County in 1867. He had been elected to the 
Senate of 1872 and 1873, but resigned to accept the position of 
District Judge in the latter year. In his personal appearance 
he was a well built, strong man, of dignified appearance, a for- 
cible and pleasant speaker, a sarcastic and vigorous writer. 

The complaint for impeachment which consisted of twenty 
charges was made by a number of citizens of Mower County, who 
were represented by W. P. Clough as counsel. The proceedings 
were devoid of all partisanship, as the accused, and a majority of 
the complainants as well as the Senate and the House were mem- 
bers of the Republican party, it had for its foundation, however, 
the personal unpopularity of Judge Page, which had existed for 
several years. The articles of impeachment passed the House by 
a vote of seventy-one ayes to thirty nays, and S. L. Campbell, 
W. H. Mead, Charles A. Oilman, J. P. West, F. C. Morse, Henry 
Hinds and W. H. Feller were appointed to conduct the trial before 
the Senate. The defendant was represented by Cushman K. Davis, of 
St Paul, J. W. Losey, of La Crosse, Wisconsin, and J. A. Lovely, 
of Albert Lea. On the sixth of March the Senate organized as a 


court of impeachment, adjourning two days later to re-assemble 
May 22. In a majority of the twenty charges for misconduct 
and arrogance in performing the duties of a judge, there was no 
sufficient evidence, produced and therefore they were not proven. 
The Senate on June 28 failed to convict on the main charges by 
a vote of twenty-three guilty to eighteen not guilty, which lacked 
five votes of the two-thirds required for conviction. Judge Page 
was defeated at the next general election for the judgeship, and 
after practicing law at Austin for a short time removed to Cali- 

Of the 420 acts passed at the session, less than one hundred 
were general laws, among the latter was an act providing that 
stockholders of manufacturing and mechanical corporations 
should be personally liable for debts to the amount of their 
stock. By another act habitual drunkenness was made a cause 
for the removal of any occupant from a public office. The office 
of Public Examiner, at a salary of $3,500, was created, the ap- 
pointment to be made by the Governor. The State statutes were 
to be compiled and revised and a codification of the tax law 
made. The cities of Albert Lea, Hastings, and Anoka were in- 
corporated. By general law of 1875 a number of villages became 
incorporated. By special law Claremont, Dundas, Lakeville^ 
Montgomery, Eush City and Waterville were organized as vil- 
lages. The consolidation of Minneapolis and St. Anthony was 
perfected, an important epoch in the history of the former city. 
Special amendments to the charters of Lanesboro and Dodge 
Center were passed. 

On January 9, 1878, Ignatius Donnelly introduced into the 
Senate a resolution providing that Senators and Representatives 
in Congress from Minnesota, be instructed to support by their 
votes and influence, the bill then pending in the United States 
Senate known as the <r Bland Silver Bill/' 'They were also re- 
quested to oppose all amendments to that bill, which would pre- 
vent silver coin of the standard use in 1870, from becoming full 
legal tender for all debts public and private in the United States. 

Senator Doran on the same day presented a resolution, that 
"Senators and Representatives, representing Minnesota in Con- 


gress, are hereby instructed and requested to favor the passage of 
a law, repealing the Act of Congress to resume specie payment on 
or before January 1, 1879." 

These resolutions were made a special order and were taken 
up January 16. Amendments were offered by Senators Edwards 
and Gilfillan limiting the amount to be coined to $10,000,000 a 
year, and to be legal tender only to the extent of $100, and that 
the Federal Government should agree to make silver coined into 
money exchangeable for gold at the pleasure of the holder. 

The original resolutions with amendments were referred to 
the Committee of Finance, to report the following day, this they 
did without submitting any recommendations. A vote was taken 
on Mr. Gilfillan's amendment, for the interchange of silver for 
gold at the pleasure of the holder, and was lost. Mr. Edwards 
thereupon withdrew his amendment to limit the coinage, and the 
following substitute was offered by Mr. Edgerton, for Mr. Don- 
nelly's original resolution. "That our Senators and Representa- 
tives in Congress be requested to vote for a bill repealing the Act 
of February 12, 1873, demonetizing silver." This was carried 
by a vote of thirty-four years to three nays. Senators C. D. Gil- 
fillan, Morton and Remore voting in the negative. Senators 
McClure, John B. Gilfillan, Bonniwell and Smith either absent 
or not voting. 

Mr. Doran's resolution was referred to the Committee on 
Federal Relations, from whence it was not reported. The sub- 
stitute of Senator Edgerton was passed by the House by a vote 
of fifty-five yeas to forty-one nays. 

The mooted question of the redemption of the Minnesota 
State Railroad Bonds was again before the Legislature ; an act was 
passed for the exchange of the bonds for the 500,000 acres of 
State lands by dividing the latter proportionately among the 
holders of the dishonored bonds, precedence being given . in the 
choice of lands in the order in which the bonds were filed for re- 
demption. The people, however, by a vote of Yes 26,311 to No 
45,669, failed to sanction this act. 



In the Congressional election held in 1878 Mark H. Dunnell 
in the First District defeated his Democratic opponent, William 
Meighen by a vote of 18,613 to 12,845. In the Second Dis- 
trict Henry Poehler, the Democratic candidate, defeated Horace 
B. Strait by a vote of 14,467 to 13,743. In the Third District 
William D. Washburn, the Eepublican nominee, received 20,942 
votes while there were polled for the Democratic candidate, Igna- 
tius Donnelly 17,929. Henry Poehler the first Democratic 
Congressman to be elected in Minnesota since 1869, was born at 
Detmold, Germany, and at the age of fifteen he came to America. 
After living some time in Iowa he removed to Minnesota set- 
tling at Henderson. 


The twenty-first, the last annual session of the Legislature 
assembled January 7, 1879. Its political classification was as 
follows: Senate, twenty-one Republicans, seventeen Democrats, 
two Greenbackers, and one Prohibitionist. House, sixty-seven 
Republicans, thirty-three Democrats, four Greenbackers, and one 
Independent. In the Senate in the odd numbered districts 
Michael Doran, J. B. Gilfillan, E. G. Swanstrom, Colin F. Mac- 
donald had been re-elected. Former Senators D. L. Buell, H. W. 
Hill, C. E. Cutts, again represented their districts. While the 
following former members of the House of Representatives; 
were elected; P. H. Rahilly, Henry Hinds, A. C. Wedge, J. 
H. Reaney, W. H. Mills, K. H. Helling and Andrew McCrea. 
new Senators from the even numbered districts: W. H. Officer 
succeeded G. W. Clough in the Fourth District; R. B. John- 
son was elected in the sixth, C. F. Buck, of Winona, a former 
Senator, represented the eighth; and W. W. Wilkins the Twelfth 
District; Daniel Buck, a Democrat, also member of the House 
of Representatives of 1866, represented the Fourteenth District. 
From the Sixteenth District came Horace B. Wilson, a native of 



Maine, a graduate of Maine Wesleyan Seminary. After a resi- 
dence in Ohio and Indiana he removed to Red Wing and for 
four years was professor of mathematics, natural science and 
civil engineering at Hamline University. He was a Captain in 
the Sixth Minnesota Infantry during the Civil War. He held 
the office of State Superintendent of Schools five years, was also 
a member of the House of Representatives of 1877 and served 
from 1879 to 1881, inclusive, in the Senate. 

The Senator from the Twentieth District, Charles Powell 
Adams, succeeded Ignatius Donnelly. Senator Adams was a 
member of the medical fraternity, a native of Pennsylvania and 
came to Minnesota in 1854. He was a member of the Territorial 
Legislature in 1857. During the Civil War he served as Cap- 
tain, Major and Lieutenant Colonel of the First Minnesota In- 
fantry and was brevetted Brigadier General. In the expedition 
against the Sioux he commanded the Independent Battalion of 
Minnesota Cavalry. Later, he practiced medicine at Hastings, 
of which city he was mayor, where he died November 2, 1893. 

From the Twenty-second District came J. N. Castle, of 
Stillwater, afterwards a Member of Congress. J. Simmons repre- 
sented the thirtieth and H. C. Miller the Thirty-fourth District. 
From the Thirty-eighth District came Alfred 'D. Perkins, born 
in Erie County, New York, reaching the age of maturity he came 
to Windom. He was Senator from 1879 to 1882, was appointed 
Judge of the Thirteenth Judical District in 1885 and elected the 
following year. The Thirteenth District was represented by S. 
B. Williams, a Prohibitionist. The twenty-seventh by Eugene 
M. Wilson, of Minneapolis, a member of the Forty-first Congress. 
The member from the forty-first was Andrew McCrea, a native 
of New Brunswick, who came to Minnesota in 1854, removed to 
Stearns County in 1858 and to Otter Tail County in 1872, re- 
siding in the town of Perham. He was a member of the Legis- 
lature of 1877 and 1878, and of the Senate from 1879 to 1882, 

The House of Representatives organized and unanimously 
reelected Charles A. Oilman, .Speaker. There were nineteen 
members who had been reelected and twenty-five who had repre- 


eented their districts in forme* Legislatures, prominent among the 
latter were James Smith, Jr., of St., Paul ; Jared Benson, of Anoka ; 
A. M. Fridley, from the Thirteenth District; Luthur L. Bax- 
ter, from the thirty-third; and Solomon G. Comstock, of Moore- 
head. One of the Representatives from the Thirty-seventh Dis- 
trict was Gorharn Powers, a native of Maine; he settled in Min- 
nesota in 1866; after practicing law at Minneapolis two years 
he located at Granite Falls. He was appointed Judge of the 
Twelfth District in 1890, elected the same year and has held 
the position (1908) ever since. 

Governor Pillsbury, in his message, congratulated the people 
at the commencement of its twenty-one years of existence as a 
State that its career has been marked by constant and unsur- 
passed growth. He called attention to the practical changes that 
will be necessary in the several branches of government owing to 
the adoption of the constitutional amendment by the people call- 
ing for biennial sessions of the Legislature. The non-adjustment 
of the Minnesota State Railroad Bonds was regretted and attention 
is called to the improvement of lake harbors. The failure of the 
Legislature to make a new apportionment of the State after the 
census of 1875 had been taken, was deemed by him an act of 
injustice to the frontier counties and he suggested a prompt ap- 
portionment should follow the Federal census of 1880. 

The Legislature adjourned March 7, 1879, and though nearly 
600 bills had been presented to the Governor for his approval, a very 
few important general laws were passed. Beltrami, Norman, 
Kittson, Marshall and Pipestone Counties were organized. The 
Farmers' Board of Trade was established, the membership to 
consist of one farmer for each Judicial District, appointed by the 
Judge of that District Court, the person selected could not be an 
incumbent of any State office, or connected in any way with 
banking, moneyed, or saving situation, nor a corporation created 
by law, nor with any association which had for its object the -buy- 
ing and selling of produce. The name and title of the board 
thus created was to be The Farmers' Board of Trade of the State 
of Minnesota. It was to have supervision over the agricultural 
interests of the State and to make statistical reports and sugges- 


tions to the Legislature for the protection of the entire agricul- 
tural products. The sum of $1,500 was appropriated for the ex- 
penses of the board. 

The city of Crookston, the villages of Blue Earth, and Dun- 
das were incorporated by special laws. Morristown's act of in- 
corporation was repealed and a new one granted by special legis- 
lation. A constitutional amendment, which was subsequently 
adopted by the people, was passed that all counties, cities and 
towns were prohibited from issuing bonds in aid of railroad con- 
struction in excess of five per cent (it was formerly ten per cent) 
of the valuation of the taxable property. 

Chapter VII. 


THE State election of 1879 presented to the citizens of the 
State no new features and was devoid of any exciting 
events. While there was some opposition among Repub- 
licans to the nomination of Governor Pillsbury for a third term, 
the consensus of opinion was in his favor. The Democrats 
presented as their candidate Edmund Rice, a representative of 
the pioneer element and one who had been among the foremost 
in promoting the advancement of the State. The vote cast was 
for John S. Pillsbury, 57,524; Edmund Rice, 41,844; William 
Meighen, the Greenback candidate, 4,264; W. W. Satterlee, Pro- 
hibitionist candidate, 2,868. Pillsbury's majority, 8,548. 

The following Republican officials were elected. Fred Von 
Baumbach, Secretary of State; Charles Kittleson, Treasurer; 0. 
Whitcomb, Auditor; and Charles M. Start, Attorney General, the 
latter resigned in 1881 to become Judge of the Third Judicial 
District and W. J. Hahn was appointed his successor. 

In a brief analysis of the vote nineteen of the counties went 
Democratic, the twelve counties carried by that party in 1877 
gave increased majorities while Brown, Carlton, Carver, Pine, 
Stevens, and Washington, that were Republican in 1877 were 
placed in the Democratic column. The newly organized county 
of Marshall went twenty-two for Rice, nine for Pillsbury, the 
Ramsey County vote was, Rice, 3,318; Pillsbury, 1,098. 




In the Presidential campaign of 1880 the prominent ques- 
tion was tariff reform ; the Democratic party inserted in their plat- 
form their old war cry "Tariff for revenue only/' the Republican 
declaration was "Duties levied for the purpose of revenue should 
discriminate so as to favor American labor." The Republicans 
attacked the Democratic phrase "Tariff for revenue only/' claim- 
ing it meant the destruction of the "home market," the shutting 
down of American manufactories, the idleness of American labor- 
ing men, the reign of pauper labor, the end of prosperity. The 
Democrats had selected for their candidate a splendid soldier 
but somewhat inexperienced in civil matters. The glamor of his 
splendid military career doubtless strengthened their ticket, but 
his unfortunate remark in the early part of the campaign that 
"tariff was a local issue" did not advance his cause as a Presi- 
dential candidate. 

A majority of delegates in the State Convention held for 
choosing delegates to the National Republican Presidential Con- 
vention were opposed to a third term for General Grant; they 
favored William Windom for President with James G. Elaine for 
second choice. Though the delegation loyally supported Senator 
Windom for twenty-eight ballots, he, however, never received but 
ten votes in the convention. 

There was apathy in relation to National affairs in Minne- 
sota. Her manufactures, with the exception of lumber, were not 
effected by the -tariff nor was her production of wool of enough 
value to interest her agriculturists, as to whether that article was 
taxed or free. Therefore the Presidential candidates received the 
full vote of their respective parties, there being cast for James A. 
Garfield, 93,903; Winfield S. Hancock, 53,315; James B. Weaver, 
the Greenback candidate, 3,367; and for Neal Dow, the Prohibi- 
tion candidate, 286 votes. 

In the First District Mark H. Dunnell was elected to Con- 
gress receiving 22,392 votes to 13,768 given Henry R. Wells, his 
Democratic opponent; W. G. Ward, an independent Republican 


received 7,656 votes. In the Second District the Republicans 
were successful in electing Horace B. Strait by a vote of 24,588 
to 18,707 cast for Henry Poehler. In the Third District the 
Democrats nominated Henry H. Sibley but he was defeated by 
William D. Washburn, the vote being 36,428 for the latter to 
23,804 for the former. 


The twenty-second and the first biennial session of the 
Legislature assembled January 4, 1881. In the Senate there 
were twenty-nine Eepublicans, eleven Democrats, and one Green- 
backer; in the House eighty-six Eepublicans, sixteen Democrats 
and four Greenbackers. In the Senate C. S. Powers, A. C. 
Wedge, Henry Hinds, J. B. Gilfillan, C. F. Macdonald, and An- 
drew McCrea had been reelected. S. S. Beman, Milo White, R. 
B. Langdon were former Senators, while James G. Lawrence, 
William Crooks and William M. Campbell had been members of 
the House of Representatives. Mr. Crooks was a native of New 
York City and attended the West Point Academy, where he 
learned the profession of civil engineer. He came to St. Paul in 
1857 as chief engineer of the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, and 
was engaged in railroad work until 1862 when he became Colonel 
of the Sixth Minnesota Infantry. He resigned after two years 
of service and again became interested in railroad construction. 
William M. Campbell was a native of Philadelphia and settled at 

The House of Representatives organized and elected Loren 
Fletcher, of Minneapolis, Speaker. There were twenty-four 
members reelected, the Washington County district again sent 
Dwight M. Sabin, of Stillwater; from Ramsey County came 
John B. Sanborn, of St. Paul; from Olmsted County, J. V. 
Daniels, of Rochester, and from Winona County Thomas Wilson. 
The latter was born in Tyrone County, Ireland, in 1827, received 
his education in this country, graduating in 1852 at the Mead- 
ville College, Meadville, Pennsylvania. He was admitted to the 
bar three years later and came to Winona where he became a 


member of a law firm. He was a member of the Republican 
wing of the Constitutional Convention. In 1864 he was ap- 
pointed Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, the following 
year he was elected Chief Justice for seven years, he, however, 
resigned in 1869 to resume his law practice. He served in the 
State Senate from 1883 to 1886, inclusive, and was elected as a 
Democrat to the Fiftieth Congress. He is (1908) the general 
counsel for the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Rail- 

The Governor in his message devotes the major part of it to 
a strong appeal for recognition and payment of the Minnesota 
State Railroad Bonds. He said: 

The fact that the principal of these bonds will become due so soon 
after the next regular session that too little time thereafter will be 
left to provide for meeting them, invests the subject at this time with 
new importance, and renders the prompt and final adjustment of this 
long-standing indebtedness a matter of solemn and imperative duty. 
However good citizens may honestly differ as to the nature and force 
of the obligation represented by these bonds, the absolute necessity 
that some kind of disposition should be made of outstanding paper 
bearing the sovereign pledge and attestation of our State, will be 
conceded by all. Without questioning the sincerity of those who op- 
pose full payment of the debt, it is difficult to see why there should be 
serious differences among honorable parties where the essential con- 
ditions of the contract are undeniable. 

That the original proposition was amply discussed, deliberately 
adopted, and overwhelmingly endorsed by the people, is a matter of 
record. That the railroad companies faithfully performed their part 
of the contract so far as to entitle them to the bonds conditioned upon 
such performance, is attested by the sworn statements of official in- 
spectors, as well as the high character of the faithful executive by 
whom full compliance was exacted. That the taking possession of the 
property and franchises of the companies obliges the State to pay the 
bonds is beyond question, since she acquired such property and fran- 
chises upon that sole condition; while the sole justification and purpose 
of such acquisition was reimbursement to the State, for payment by 
the State. These, it seems clear to me, include all the considerations 
that need be embraced for an honorable settlement up the legal as- 
pects of the question. When to this is added the unquestionable fact 
that our magnificent railroad system of today is largely due to the 
early labor performed upon the trunk lines for which these bonds were 


issued, there can be little need of more words to establish the justice 
of this claim upon the State. * * * 

The State having chosen foreclosure as her remedy, and disposed 
of the property thus acquired unconditionally as her own, the conclusion 
Beems to me irresistible that she assumed the payment of the debt rest- 
ing upon such property, by every principle of law and equity. The lia- 
bility having been voluntarily assumed, whether it was wisely created 
or not, is foreign to the present question. It is certain that the obliga- 
tions were fairly given, for which consideration was fairly received; 
and the State having seized the railroad property and franchises to in- 
demnify her for payment of the bonds, it is difficult to see what 
possible justification there can be for her refusal to make such pay- 

The discharge is demanded as a simple act of justice, which would 
be none the less imperative were it to involve serious sacrifices. But 
these are not required. The task is plain and easy and level to the 
simplest comprehension. The half million acres of lands, as if Fortune 
would lure us from dishonor, can be so advantageously employed in this 
direction that scarcely an appreciable increase of taxation would be 
required to liquidate the debt. Indeed, the exhibit of the State Auditor 
shows that, with a wise use of these lands, this can be accomplished 
at the present rate of taxation without any increase of taxation. 
There would thus seem to be every incentive to favorable action, and 
none for shrinking from a duty so clear and imperative. * * * 

Minnesota has, in most respects, a proud place among the States 
of the Union. She has evinced her patriotism in war and her wisdom 
in peace. She has shown more financial sagacity and concern for the 
National credit than older and wealthier States of which more was ex- 
pected. She has been permitted to grow in prosperity and power. There 
are everywhere within her broad limits, progress, order, thrift and con- 
tentment. All industries prosper, and all interests point to a glorious 
future. Only this dishonored debt dims the bright promises of her 
proud career. But it meets her at every turn. In every civilized com- 
munity her citizens are shamed with the scathing taunt of repudiation. 

This excerpt from the message of Governor Pillsbury fully 
expressed and defined his position during his public life both as 
a Senator and Governor. His earnest purpose was to remove 
from his adopted State what he considered to be the stigma of 
repudiation. In this purpose he was always supported by a large 
element of the people of the State, but a majority had heretofore 
disapproved all propositions submitted for a settlement of the 
vexed question. 


On January 19, 1881, Samuel J. E. McMillan was reelected 
United States Senator. The Legislature adjourned March 4, 
1881. Four constitutional amendments were passed to be sub- 
mitted to the people at the next general election. One prohibited 
special legislation on a variety of subjects classified in the act 
and required the Legislature to enact general laws under which 
all these matters may be disposed of by the courts or county 
and municipal authorities. 

Another amendment is chiefly of interest to cities; it pro- 
vides for the levying of an annual tax on all lands fronting the 
water mains or pipes laid down by the city for supplying the citi- 
zens with water. The constitutional limit of the session of the 
Legislature, by another amendment, was to be changed so that 
every member was to receive five dollars a day, which was not to 
exceed $450 at a regular session and $200 at a special session. 

The most important amendment was the disposition of the 
funds accruing from the sale of the swamp lands of the State, 
one-half of which was appropriated to the common school fund 
and the other half to the charitable and educational institutions 
in ratio of the cost of their support. These amendments, with the 
exception of that pertaining to sessions of the Legislature, were 
sanctioned by the people. Moorhead, Ortonville and Waseca were 
incorporated as cities. There were twenty-five villages incorpor- 
ated under general law and Ada, Alexandria, Bird Island, Du- 
luth, Elk Eiver, Fergus Falls, (Jlyndon, Hancock, Hutchinson, 
Melrose, Murdoch, Norwood, Perham, Pine City, Red Lake Falls, 
St. Vincent and White Bear by special legislation. 

The Legislature having received a proposition from Selah 
Chamberlain and others in behalf of the holders of the Minne- 
sota State Railroad Bonds, offering to accept new bonds for one- 
half the amount of the old bonds held by them on March 2, 1881, 
passed an act for the purpose of effecting a settlement upon this 
basis. This was the fifth attempt made for an adjustment of the 
bonds, and the act provided that it was not to be submitted to the 
people for their approval, until a tribunal of five judges decided 
that the constitutional amendment that no law for payment of 
the principal and interest of these bonds should take effect until 
approved by the people, was valid. 


The Governor was empowered to appoint this tribunal and 
as the Supreme Court Judges declined to serve it was composed 
wholly of District Judges. The court was ordered to convene on 
March 22, 1881, and held various sessions during the summer; 
on September 9 they decided that the act was void for the rea- 
son that it delegated legislative powers to the tribunal whereas 
the Legislature itself should have taken the responsibility for de- 
ciding on the validity of the amendment. The court further 
held that the amendment of 1860 was invalid as it contravened a 
clause of the Federal Constitution which prohibits any State 
from impairing the obligation of contracts, also that requirements 
that all acts on the subject should be submitted to the people af- 
fected not only the remedy but the obligation. 

By the apportionment act of 1881 the State was divided 
into forty-seven legislative districts, the whole number of Sen- 
ators was forty-seven, the Representatives one hundred and three, 
making on joint ballot one hundred and fifty; the State was also 
divided into five Congressional Districts, Minnesota being, by 
the Federal Census of 1880, entitled to two additional Represen- 
tatives in Congress. 


In the fall of 1881 the Republicans and Democrats held 
conventions to nominate candidates for State offices. In the plat- 
form adopted by the former, the sound business ability of Gover- 
nor Pillsbury*s administrations was commended; the brilliant 
financial policy of the National treasury by a son of Minnesota 
was referred to in terms of praise; the assassination of President 
Garfield was deplored, and cordial, considerate and united sup- 
port extended to his successor. The candidates before the con- 
vention were John S. Pillsbury, Lucius F. Hubbard, Clark W. 
Thompson, of Faribault County; T. B. Clement, of Rice County; 
and Andrew R. McGill. There was a great opposition to Gover- 
nor Pillsbury; while many had not favored even a third term 
it was a universal cry that electing a Governor for four terms 
would establish a dangerous precedent. It soon became mani- 


fest that it was Hubbard against he field and upon balloting 
taking place he was nominated on the first ballot, receiving 160 
votes; Pillsbury 51, McGill 47, Thompson 21, Clement 18 and 
scattering 9. 

The Democrats in their platform expressed sincere grief for 
the untimely death of President Garfield. The doctrine of re- 
pudiation announced by the Republican party was declared to be 
abhorrent to Democracy and the party was pledged to meet all 
obligations with honor and promptness. The ignoring of any 
allusions to the settlement of the Minnesota State Railroad Bonds 
by the Republican Convention was condemned and the hope ex- 
pressed that the Legislature would soon assemble in special ses- 
sion and solve the problem. 

The convention nominated General Richard W. Johnson; 
the candidates of both parties had earned honor and distinction 
in the Civil War, one as a civilian soldier, the other as a gradu- 
ate of West Point, and both had been promoted for gallant ser- 
vices performed on the field of battle. General Johnson was 
born in Smithland, Kentucky, February 7, 1827. He entered the 
regular army in 1849, and was engaged in wars with the Com- 
anche Indians, also was with an expedition under Major Thomas 
in Texas. During the Civil War he took part in General Patter- 
son's Shenandoah Campaign, afterwards with General Anderson's 
army before Louisville, and was defeated by Morgan's cavalry 
and taken prisoner. After being exchanged he commanded a 
division under General Thomas; later he was in the Georgia 
campaign, also with the Fourteenth Corps of the Army of 
the Cumberland. General Johnson was severely wounded at 
the Battle of New Hope Church, and being relieved from active 
field work he was appointed by General Sherman, Chief of 
Cavalry of the Military Division of the Mississippi and ordered to 
Nashville. In the last year of the war he commanded a division 
of cavalry and was officially commended by General Thomas for 
his operations at the Battle of Nashville. He was retired with 
rank of Major General, October 12, 1867. After his retirement 
from the army he was professor of military science at the Mis- 
souri State University in 1868-1869 and at the University of 
Minnesota 1869-1871. He died at St. Paul April 21, 1897. 



The decision of the tribunal having left the question of the 
liquidation of the Minnesota State Railroad Bonds with the Leg- 
islature, Governor Pillsbury accordingly called an extra session 
which convened October 11, 1881. In his message the Gov- 
ernor stated that his individual preference was that every dollar 
represented by the Minnesota State Railroad Bonds should be 
paid in full, principal and interest, but inasmuch as the holders 
of the bonds had proposed an adjustment on favorable terms, 
a compromise would not necessarily tarnish the good name of the 

The practical question was whether $4,000,000 could be 
saved to the State without the loss of honor or incur the re- 
proach of repudiation. The holders of $2,000,000 of the whole 
issue of $2,275,000 had deposited their bonds with the State 
Auditor with a written agreement expressing their willingness to 
take fifty cents on a dollar for the amount of their claims. He 
also notified the Legislature that by a decision of the Supreme 
Court the holders of the bonds were entitled to interest on interest 
coupons past due, which would make the total debt amount to 
$8,200,000 on December 1, 1881, and suggested that the Leg- 
islature should prepare an act to be submitted to the people that 
the proceeds accruing from the sale of the internal improvement 
lands, should be devoted to the payment of the new adjustment 
bonds issued for the redemption of the old bonds. 

The Legislature was in session thirty-nine days and by an 
act passed November 4, 1881, the Governor and State Auditor 
were authorized to prepare a new bond to be styled the Minne- 
sota State Railroad Adjustment Bonds, payable after ten years 
and not more than thirty years from July 1, 1881, and to bear 
interest at a rate not higher than five per cent. For the par 
value of the principal and interest of an old bond, a new one was 
to be issued for half the amount. In accordance with this act 
inside of a year there were 2,232 bonds of $1,000 each of the 
Minnesota State Railroad Bonds redeemed and in settlement of 


same $4,253,000 of 4V 2 per cent of the new bonds issued. The 
act of the Legislature applying the moneys of the internal im- 
provement lands fund for payment of the principal and interest 
of the new adjustment bonds was sanctioned by the people by a 
vote of 31,011 in favor to 13,589 against. 

The Legislature also provided for the organization of 
Kanabec County and the establishment of Norman County. 
Laws were passed for the assessment and taxation of telegraph 
and telephone lines; for the uniform taxation of mining property 
and products. 

The Governor appointed on March 14, 1881, Alonzo J. 
Edgerton, United States Senator to fill a vacancy caused by he 
resignation of Senator Windom, who had been made Secretary 
of the Treasury in President Garfield's Cabinet. Senator Edger- 
ton was born at Rome, New York, June 7, 1827. He graduated 
at Wesleyan University, studied law and after being admitted to 
the bar removed to Dodge County, Minnesota, in 1855 to com- 
mence practicing his profession. He was a member of the State 
Senate of 1858 and 1860, also in 1877 and 1878. In 1862 he 
enlisted in the Union Army and was Captain in the Tenth 
Minnesota Infantry, in 1864 he was promoted^ to the Colonelcy 
of the Sixty-fifth United States Colored Infantry. Colonel 
Edgerton was mustered out of the service in 1867, having been 
brevetted Brigadier General. Secretary Windom having resigned 
from the Cabinet after the assassination of President Garfield, 
he became a candidate to succeed himself as Senator, General 
Edgerton withdrawing in his favor, and he was again, on October 
25, 1881, elected by the Legislature to that office. During the 
following month President Arthur appointed General Edgerton 
Chief Justice of the Territory of Dakota; he took an active part 
in the formation of the new State of South Dakota, but was an 
unsuccessful candidate for United States Senator. In 1889 
President Harrison appointed him Judge of the United States 
District Court of South Dakota, which position he held at the 
time of his death at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, August 9, 1896. 

One of the incidents of the extra session was the commence- 
ment of the impeachment trial of Judge E. St. Julien Cox. 


The Judge had been a prominent Democrat, a member of both 
Houses of the Legislature, also candidate of his 'party for Con- 
gress. He had been elected in 1876 Judge of the Ninth Judicial 
District. There had been for some' time rumors of his intem- 
perate habits. A communication was received by the Legislature, 
signed by Samuel Kogers and C. B. Taylor, accusing Judge Cox 
of having been at various times and places, while seated on the 
bench, in a state of intoxication, and asking for his removal 
from office. This petition or communication was referred to the 
Judiciary Committee, with full power to take testimony and 
summon witnesses. On the submission of the Committee's re- 
port to the House, articles of impeachment were drawn up 
charging Judge Cox with having been in a state of intoxication 
caused by the voluntary and immoderate use of intoxicating 
liquors while seated on the bench at various places and times 
from January 22, 1878, to October 15, 1881. A committee was 
appointed by the House to notify the Senate, and Henry G. 
Hicks, James Smith, Jr., Loren W. Collins, 0. B. Gould, A. C. 
Dunn, W. J. Ives and G. W. Putnam were chosen as a Board 
of Managers to conduct for the House the impeachment trial 
before the Senate. The Senate organized as a court of impeach- 
ment and on being notified that the accused had selected John 
B. Brisbin, Lorenzo Allis, Walter H. Sanborn and J. W. 
Arctander as counsel for his defense, an adjournment was taken 
to January 10, 1882. 

Upon the reassembling of the court of impeachment, wit- 
nesses were examined, arguments heard and on March 22, 1882, 
Judge Cox was found guilty of conduct unbecoming his position 
resulting from the intemperate use of intoxicants and deposed 
from his office. There was brought before the Legislature of 
1887 a resolution to expung from the records the proceedings of 
the impeachment trial but it failed of adoption. 


At the State election in November, 1881, the Republicans 
were again triumphant. General Hubbard received 65,025 votes, 


while 37,168 were cast for General Johnson. The counties of 
Brown, Carver,' Mille Lacs, Stevens, Wabasha and Washington 
that were carried by the Democrats in 1879 returned to the 
Republican fold with substantial majorities. The newly organ- 
ized county of Martin that was Democratic at its first election in 
1879 gave a Republican majority of 556 in a total vote of 838. 
The Democratic plurality in McLeod County was only 
twelve, while Sibley was only carried by six votes, in fact, the 
majorities in all the Democratic Counties except Dakota, Mor- 
rison and Waseca were considerably less than they were in 1879. 

Chapter VIII. 

THE first formidable invasion of Minnesota by locusts, or 
grasshoppers, of which there is an authentic record, 
occurred in the Eed Eiver settlement in the years 1818 
and 1819. It caused much injury and distress to the members 
of Lord Selkirk's colony, which was already strugglng hard 
against other troubles. The grasshoppers made their first appear- 
ance from the west one afternoon in the last week of July, 1818. 
They ate every green thing, and deposited their eggs before leav- 
ing; in 1819 the eggs hatched, and before the close of June the 
young grasshoppers were able to fly, and the destruction of the 
crops was even more complete than in 1818. The pests covered 
the fields in such quantities, that in places they were in masses 
of two to four inches in depth. The water of the streams and 
lakes was infected by them. Every vegetable substance was either 
eaten up, or stripped to the bare stalk; the leaves of the bushes, 
and the bark of the trees, shared the same fate, and the grain 
vanished as fast as it appeared above ground. The colonists 
were obliged to send a delegation of their numbers to Prairie 
du Chien to obtain seed grain and even vegetable seeds. 

From 1820 to 1855 there was no remarkable locust invasion 
in Minnesota, though there may have been slight, or local in- 
vasions. One Michel Villebrun, of White Earth, states that in 
1830, at Fort Garry, he saw for the first time large quantities 
of grasshoppers; they thickly covered both sides of the river for 
some distance away, and the river was covered with dead hoppers. 
Twelve years after he says he came down from Fort Garry to 

iv.-e 10 7 


St. Paul; there were no grasshoppers at Fort Garry, and but few 
at St. Paul, but the prairies between these two points were cov- 
ered with them. 

In 1851 the crop in the Red River country was destroyed 
by grasshoppers, BO that the settlers did not save their seed, and 
were obliged to live by hunting and fishing. 

The grasshopper invasion in 1856 and 1857 was confined 
mostly to the Upper Mississippi Valley, and though limited in 
area seems to have been exceedingly severe. The insects ap- 
peared near the end of July in the northern part of the State. 
As they moved southward along both sides of the Mississippi, 
their progress grew noticeably slower, and they did not reach 
their southern limit, in Hennepin and Ramsey Counties, until 
sometime in September. At first "with the exception of pea 
vines every crop was devoured." The unharvested grain was 
destroyed suddenly and totally; where the corn was too hard for 
them, they devoured the blades and husks, leaving bare stalks 
and ears. They stripped the vines of potatoes, destroyed turnips, 
beets, onions, buckwheat and most garden vegetables. They 
nibbled clothing hanging upon lines, entered houses, attacked 
curtains and cushions, eating "tobacco, shoes, and even thick 
cowhide boots." They deposited eggs in 1856 'in (probably) all 
the section ravaged. The only notice found of the time, place, 
or manner of deposit is as follows: "They lay eggs in plowed 
ground in autumn about three-fourths of an inch below the sur- 
face, in bundles of six to ten in number." 

The following year the young grasshoppers commenced 
hatching about May 10, and destroyed the crops as fast as they 
appeared. Through May and the first part of June the num- 
bers and destruction increased, and in most cases the crops were 
entirely destroyed, so that in plowed ground not even a weed was 
to be seen. The time of hatching in 1857 seems to have been 
somewhat later than in other years; and though the grasshoppers 
began to leave some sections in the first half of July, large num- 
bers continued to linger in other places until about the first of 
August. The direction of departure was southward; the flying 
swarms passed over Southern Minnesota as far east as Winnebago 


City. No eggs were left behind them, and the State was free 
from grasshoppers for seven years. 

In the early part of June, 1864, the grasshoppers were thick 
in the Bed Eiver region, and over the plains of the Northwest. 
Late in June they were reported going northwards from the Bed 
Biver. In June, 1865, the Sauk Valley was invaded and vege- 
tation almost entirely destroyed. But the chief scene of invasion 
in these two years was the Minnesota Valley. As early as July 
1, 1864, they were reported to be about 100 miles west of Fort 
Bidgely. Previous to July 16 they were thick on both sides of 
the Bedwood Biver. Their march continued eastward through 
July and August. July 17 they were reported to be at Fort 
Bidgely; August 13 at New Ulm; the swarm was almost six 
miles wide on both sides of the Minnesota Biver. August 27 
they were in Courtland and Nicollet townships of Nicollet 
County; a few were in the northern part of Blue Earth County, 
and they were thick in portions of Le Sueur and Sibley Counties, 
there were also a few in Scott County, and some a few miles 
west of Glencoe. The arrivals were generally so late that few 
crops except vegetables were left to be injured. The grasshop- 
pers deposited eggs abundantly, particularly from New TJlm 
eastward, and were said to have been killed by frost in the fall. 

In 1865 the young hoppers began to appear and destroy the 
crops by the middle of May. By the middle of June they were 
doing great damage in all sections infested the year before. 
They appeared in almost every township of Nicollet County, and 
left but little grain to harvest in Sibley County. Their wings 
developed about June 24 and in the first week of July a general 
migration southward took place. On their journey they alighted 
in some towns where they had not appeared before, in the north- 
ern part of Blue Earth County. Near Judson the crop was en- 
tirely destroyed. The ravages of 1865 were especially severe in 
Brown, Nicollet, Le Sueur and Sibley Counties. As before, the 
grasshoppers left no eggs behind them, and the State was free 
from any extensive ravages by lucusts for the next eight years. 

There was a slight locust invasion beginning July 9, 1868. 
On that date immense clouds of grasshoppers were seen going 


north by the people of Jackson County. The farmers reported 
that the insects alighted in their wheat fields, and completely 
leveled the growth to the ground, but soon raised again ; the wheat 
sprang up again, and matured into a fair crop. In 1871 the 
auditor of Becker County reported that grasshoppers visited that 
county, and almost destroyed the entire grain crop. They 
deposited eggs, and in 1872 the young hoppers destroyed half 
the growing crop. The auditor of Todd County reported in 
1871 that the grasshoppers came from the northwest in July 
but only did slight damage. 

The invasion of 1873 was something unusual in its character, 
because of its early appearance, the direction from which it came, 
and its duration over several seasons. The grasshoppers reached 
the extreme southwestern counties of the State, coming from the 
west about June 12, and occupied some three weeks in making 
their way to the farthest northeastern points of their ravages. 
In the first counties reached they deposited eggs, and a portion 
of their number passed on. They moved slowly along, ravaging 
and laying eggs, until early in July, when their advance came 
to an end. At last they rose, passed far to the northwest, and 
were heard of in Minnesota no more. The damage to the crops 
in 1873 was officially stated to be $3,034,000. The locusts de- 
posited eggs in the counties of Rock, Pipestone, Lincoln, Lyon, 
Redwood, Renville, Brown, Watonwan, Blue Earth and Fari- 

In 1874 the eggs began to hatch, in some, cases as early as 
April, but mostly in May, and by the last week in June immense 
damage had already been done to crops. The counties over- 
ran the preceding year were again ravaged. Early in July a 
portion of the young grasshoppers had developed their wings and 
commenced flying northward. In addition, other swarms hatched 
out in the southwest had come along the route of the last year's 
invasion, alighting here and there, and joined by swarms rising 
from the ground as they passed along. During the first fifteen 
days of July these swarms passed up and down, as the wind 
changed, over the sections ravaged already, or into counties un- 
touched before. According to the report of the Commissioner of 


Statistics for 1874, based on the assessors' returns of farmers' 
estimates, 264 towns reported losses; these towns were in Becker, 
Blue Earth, Brown, Chippewa, Clay, Cottonwood, Faribault, 
Grant, Jackson, Lac qui Parle, Lincoln, Lyon, McLeod, Martin, 
Murray, Nicollet, Nobles, Otter Tail, Polk, Kedwood, Renville, 
Bock, Sibley, Stevens, Swift, Watonwan, Wilkin, and Yellow 
Medicine Counties. The statement of loss to the several crops 

Wheat 2,646,802 bushels 

Oats 1,816,733 bushels 

Corn 738,415 bushels 

Barley 58,962 bushels 

Potatoes 221,454 bushels 

Flax Seed 52,833 bushels 

The grasshoppers extended their ravages as far eastward as 
the Mississippi later in the season, and deposited eggs quite 
thickly, in separate localities in Todd, Stearns, Meeker, Wright, 
Sherburne, Benton, Aitkin, and Mille Lacs Counties. They made 
short and sudden raids into Isanti, Chisago, Hennepin and Da- 
kota Counties, and left a few eggs in Scott County. They ap- 
peared in their flights as far east as Dodge County, and came 
into Meeker County in the middle of October. 

The eggs deposited in 1874, in the more northern counties 
of the State, began to hatch in April, 1875, but the young locusts 
were killed by continuous cold and wet weather which followed, 
and damage was reported only in Becker County. Along the Red 
Eiver but few eggs were laid, and along the Mississippi they 
hatched in too widely distributed localities to have any great 
affect on the general crop. The damage in Wilkin and Yellow 
Medicine Counties was slight. The counties suffering the great- 
est losses were Brown, Nicollet, Blue Earth, Cottonwood, Jack- 
son, Le Sueur, Martin, McLeod, Murray, Nobles, Otter Tail, 
Eedwood, Eenville, Sibley, Watonwan, in all, 19 counties. 
Ten that were devastated in 1874 reported no damages in 1875, 
while Le Sueur County was added to the list that sustained 


The following is a detailed statement of the estimated dam- 
age to the several crops: 

Wheat 2,024,972 bushels 

Oats 1,127,780 bushels 

Qorn 790,982 bushels 

Barley 41,059 bushels 

Rye 11,031 bushels 

Buckwheat 16,450 bushels 

Potatoes 130,886 bushels 

Beans 7,971 bushels 

Sorghum 5,172 gallons 

Hay 1,803 tons 

Hops 2,253 pound* 

Flax 22,635 poundi 

By the end of August, the grasshoppers had principally dis- 
appeared. This was largely due to the action of parasites, which 
destroyed the locusts in large quantities. 

In 1875 the winged pests had reduced their breeding grounds 
in Minnesota from nearly fourteen counties in 1873 to about five 
and a half counties. There was no general departure, from the 
hatching ground, mostly in one direction, in 1876, as had been 
the case in previous years. By the last week in June they be- 
gan to leave some localities so quietly that their departure could 
hardly be observed, except that their number was noticeably dim- 
inished. For the first ten days in July small swarms were car- 
eering up and down south of the Minnesota River, and wherever 
there was anything like a movement of large bodies they left the 
State to the northwest, west and southwest. In the meantime 
others had spread themselves northward towards the Northern Paci- 
fic Railroad, and alighted here and there in some numbers suffi- 
cient to do considerable damage. 

In the latter part of June the State was invaded by new 
swarms. They were first reported in small areas at Brecken- 
ridge, June 27 and July 11, they were reported coming down in 
swarms from the north; but the following day they left going 
south. July 19 again they were reported as flying from the 
northwest by millions, the swarm resembling a great drift of 
snow. They continued to invade the country until July 24, 


when, flying with the wind, they departed to the southeast. 
August 1, another swarm appeared from the north, and August 
6, began depositing eggs; later small swarms were seen flying 
southeast. These appeared to reach Ortonville about the first, 
Herman on the third, and Morris on the fifth of August. 

Swarms of grasshoppers crossed and re-crossed the State, 
passing and repassing each other to the south and east, from 
July 20 to September 1. The counties to the south of the 
Minnesota Eiver, in the early part of July were generally free 
from them. The swarms that visited the northern counties after 
July 20, began to move southward. They passed gradually along 
over the counties that had been injured in the early spring, and 
by the first of August had reached the southern line of the State, 
and passed into Iowa. They made no extensive deposit of eggs 
until they reached the southern half of the lower range of coun- 
ties in the State. By July 20, along the lines of the St. Paul 
and Pacific, and the St. Paul and Sioux City railroads, the 
farmers were congratulating themselves that the hoppers were 
gone. The raid up to this date had been along the eastern boun- 
dary of Todd County, through Stearns, Meeker, the eastern part 
of McLeod, through Sibley, Nicollet and the northwestern corner 
of Blue Earth, and in Martin County and as far east as Fari- 

In the latter part of July and the early part of August new 
svarms began collecting in Otter Tail, Grant, Stevens, and Big 
Stone Counties and in some of the eastern counties of Dakota. 
August 6 a wind from the northwest gave them an opportunity, 
and a general flight to the east and southeast, over a large por- 
tion of the western half of the State, commenced. In the south- 
western counties there was but little alighting by the newcomers, 
and the swarms passed over into Northwestern Iowa. The area 
of visitation, however, was extended eastward to St. Cloud, into 
Wright and Le Sueur Counties, and across Blue Earth and Martin 
Counties. Between August 11 and 18 the line was still carried 
farther eastward, and large swarms- flew over Elk River, Monti- 
cello, Glencoe, Shakopee, Blakely, Belle Plaine, Le Sueur, Man- 
kato, and Blue Earth City and one flight was made as far east 


as Hastings. During the week ending August 26, locusts were 
seen flying over or alighting at various times in Rice, Waseca, 
Steele, Faribault and Freeborn Counties. By September 1, they 
had added Carver, portions of Hennepin, Sherburne and Benton 
Counties to the grasshopper regions. 

According to the report of J. B. Phillips, Commissioner of 
Statistics for 1876, twenty-nine counties reported grasshopper 
damages. Many county assessors, however, expressed the opinion 
that the damage should not all be attributed to the grasshoppers, 
88 many losses occurred on account of drouth and heat. The to- 
tal acres damaged or destroyed was estimated to be 496,797. 

The eggs deposited by the swarms of locusts in 1876 began 
to hatch in the latter part of May in the following year, and the 
devastation to crops in 1877 was as serious as the previous year. 
The damage to crops was confined to the counties of Brown, 
Becker, Blue Earth, Chippewa, Carver, Douglas, Freeborn, Fari- 
bault, Grant, Kandiyohi, Le Sueur, Lac qui Parle, McLeod, 
Meeker, Nicollet, Nobles, Otter Tail, Pope, Redwood, Renville, 
Rock, Sibley, Stearns, Swift, Stevens, Todd, Wilkin and Wright. 
The estimated loss of crops was as follows: 

........................................... . . . 4,957,538 bushels 

t8 ................................................. 1,757,570 bushels 

0001 ................................................. 1,665,993 bushels 

Bftrle y ......................... ...................... 146,985 bushels 

R y e ................................................. 34,252 bushels 

Buckwheat ........................................... 15j652 bushel8 

Potatoe8 ............................................. 350,831 bushels 

Bean8 ................................................ 2,166 bushels 

Sor K hum ............................................ 25,457 gallons 

Cultivated hay ...................................... 3>417 tong 

Hops ................................................ 25,853 pounds 

There were many artificial means of destruction introduced 
to rid the State of the locust pest. The prairies were burned; 
scoop nets were used; some parts of the States was ditched; "hop- 
perdozers" (contrivance of sheet iron and tar) were constructed, 
but all these endeavors were of little avail. Though millions were 
destroyed by the farmers, who burned their straw and surplus 
hay, they increased faster than they could be killed. In the lat- 


ter part of May the town authorities of Le Sueur inaugurated a 
bounty system. They offered a bounty of twenty cents a quart 
for dead grasshoppers. The number caught so far exceeded the 
expectation of the authorities that in a few days the bounty 
was reduced one-half, and subsequently a further reduction was 
made to one dollar a bushel. The total number of bushels cap- 
tured in Le Sueur County was 4,416, and the bounty paid for 
the same was $8,832.13. 

The bounty system of Le Sueur County was adopted by other 
counties. In Blue Earth County 15,766 bushels and eighteen 
quarts were captured, and a bounty paid of $31,255.59. Todd 
County paid a bounty of $333.84 on 130 13-32 bushels; Meeker 
County paid $959.36 on $293^ bushels; Brown County 
$1,600.00 on 4,525 bushels, Sibley County paid $8,784.50 on 
439,225 pounds and Mcollet County $25,053 on 25,043 bushels. 
The total number of bushels captured in seven counties amounted 
to 58,019, and the total bounty paid was $76,788.42. 

Governor Pillsbury, who was chief executive during the last 
years of the grasshopper raids, tried in every way, both by his 
advice and contributions from his purse, to lessen the suffering 
of the agricultural portions of the State. He visited the harvest 
fields in the summer of 1877, and was an eye witness to the 
devastation done by the grasshoppers. Everything else seeming 
to fail to rid the State of the swarms of locusts which infested 
it, the Governor, having been flooded with communications from 
prominent people in all parts of the State, asking him to appoint 
a day of prayer for deliverance from the great pest, he, by proc- 
lamation, set aside a day in April for that purpose. The differ- 
ent religious denominations joined together in the observance of 
the day; there was no clash of creed; all sectarian differences 
were lost sight of temporarily. Big prayer meetings were held 
everywhere; there was a general outpouring of the spirit on all 
hands. The Governor says: "And the very next night it turned 
cold, and froze every grasshopper in the State stiff; froze 'em 
right up solid, sir ; well, sir, that was over twenty years ago, and 
grasshoppers don't appear to have been bothering us very much 


Money was raised by private subscription to relieve the 
suffering and destitution caused by the grasshopper raids. A 
relief committee, of which Henry M. Eice was chairman, dis- 
tributed thousands of dollars, relieving temporarily want and 
destitution in the infected districts. During the winter of 1876, 
there were over 6,000 people fed and clothed by the State. The 
Legislature of 1877 appropriated $75,000 for the purchase of 
seed grain which was to be distributed by the Governor. The 
county auditor and county commissioners of each county, that 
had been devastated by the grasshoppers were to constitute a 
board to pass upon applications for relief. No person was to 
receive, however, more than twenty-five dollars. The Legislature 
of 1878 made a further appropriation of $150,000 for the same 

Chapter IX. 

IN the latter part of August, 1876, the James and Younger 
brothers, with three companions, made their appearance in 
Southern Minnesota. They were mounted on fine horses, 
and they visited various cities and villages in that part of the 
State. They spent money lavishly, and at different times repre- 
sented that they were civil engineers, looking up railway routes; 
land seekers in search of large tracts, and stock buyers looking 
for cattle. Of course they passed under assumed names, but it 
became afterwards known that the band consisted of Jesse James 
and his brother Frank; Thomas C. Younger (commonly known 
as Cole Younger) and his brothers James and Robert; William 
McClelland Miller, (commonly called "Bill"), alias Clel Miller; 
Bill Chadwell, alias William Stiles; and Charlie Pitts, alias Sam 
Wells. All but the last two named were formerly Missouri 
guerillas and bushwhackers. William Stiles was a native of 
Minnesota, whose father was, in 1896, a worthy citizen of Grand 
Forks, Dakota Territory. Sam Wells was a Missouri man. 

The members of the band had come into the State in de- 
tachments, and by different routes. They visited a number of 
places prospecting for a favorable opening for the prosecution of 
their criminal intentions, going as far north as St. Paul and 
Minneapolis, and as far east as Red Wing. At these different 
points they visited the banks, familiarizing themselves with the 
approaches to the institutions, and manner of doing business. 
Bill Stiles had formerly lived in Rice County, and knew the 



country thoroughly. He acted as guide, and it was he who insti- 
gated the raid into Minnesota. 

After due investigation, the robbers selected Mankato as the 
scene of their operations in "clearing up" a bank. They ap- 
peared on the streets of Mankato September 2, creating a sen- 
sation with their fine horses, and superb horsemanship. The 
following Monday, September 4, they mounted their horses, and 
rode forth with the intention of attacking the First National 
Bank of Mankato, but the presence of a large number of citi- 
zens on the street in front of the bank deterred them from pros- 
ecuting their original plans, and abandoning Mankato, they 
moved upon Northfield, which had been agreed upon as a sub- 
stitute, if a substitute were needed. 

Ten or twelve days previous to this time, two members of 
the band had visited Northfield, and made a preliminary survey 
of the situation. On the way to Northfield, the robber band di- 
vided, and spent the night of September 6 in neighboring villages, 
and the following day took up their march upon the roads con- 
verging upon the "College city." For an outside garment they 
all wore long linen dusters, which concealed the pistols and cart- 
ridge belts, with which they were liberally supplied. 

Nearing Northfield, the party separated into three divisions 
of two trios and one couple. To one trio was assigned the com- 
mitting of the robbery; the couple were to co-peratc with this 
trio on the principal street of the city, while the other trio were 
to act as a rear guard. 

In pursuance of this plan, about two o'clock in the afternoon 
of September 7 the trio, consisting of Pitts, Eobert Younger and 
one of the James brothers, rode into Northfield, and on reaching 
the principal street, dismounted in front of the First National 
Bank. Throwing their bridle reins over hitching posts, they 
proceeded to lounge upon some dry goods boxes, assuming an air 
of indifference. Presently two other horsemen appeared upon the 
street, and these proved to be Cole Younger and Clel Miller. 
The trio then immediately left their position on the dry goods 
boxes, and entered the bank. Thereupon Miller dismounted, and 
going to the bank closed the front door, while Younger dis- 


mounted in the middle of the street, and pretended to tighten 
his saddle girth. 

These manoeuvers of the robbers attracted the attention of 
several citizens; J. S. Allen, a hardware merchant, whose store 
was located west of the building, which was occupied by the 
bank, attempted to follow the three men into the bank, but was 
instantly seized by Miller, and ordered to "stand back." Allen 
jerked away from the robber's grasp, ran toward the store shout- 
ing "Get your guns, boys! They are robbing the bank!" About 
the same time, H. M. Wheeler, then a young medical student, at 
home on a vacation, from his studies in the University of 
Michigan, and who was sitting in front of his father's store on the 
opposite side of the street, shouted, "Robbery ! Robbery ! !" 

Upon this outcry, Miller and Younger sprang into their sad- 
dles, and began riding up and down the street at the utmost speed 
of their horses. They were joined by the three men, who had 
been left as a rear guard, and who took up the same tactics. The 
robbers generally fired into the air, but there was an incessant 
"bang, bang," of heavy revolvers, the whistling of bullets, the 
crashing of glass, and the chorus of wild yells and imprecations. 
The robbers subsequently declared that it was not their intention 
to kill anybody, but simply to strike terror into the hearts of the 
people, and drive everything from the street, so as to give the 
men in the bank time to rob it without interference, and then to 
secure to them an unobstructed line of retreat. In this constant 
fusilade from the robbers' revolvers, but one person was shot, 
Nicholas Gustavson, a Scandinavian, who did not understand Eng- 
lish; he was fatally wounded while persistently remaining on the 
street, seemingly terror stricken. 

In the meantime, the trio of robbers in the bank were not 
having things their own way. They found a trio of bank employes 
as resolute as themselves. These were Alonzo E. Bunker, teller; 
Frank J. Wilcox, assistant bookkeeper, and Joseph L. Heywood, 
book-keeper, who, on account of the absence of the cashier from 
the State, was acting cashier. When the three robbers entered the 
bank, the employes were busy at their regular tasks. Mr. Bunker 
immediately stepped to the counter, supposing they were cus- 


tomers, when three revolvers were pointed at him, and he was or- 
dered to throw up his hands. The three robbers then climbed 
over the counter, and covered the other employes with their re- 
volvers. One of them said, "We're going to rob the bank. Don't 
any of you holler; we've got forty men outside." Pointing his 
revolver at Hey wood, he then asked him, "Are you the cashier?" 
Heywood replied, "No" The same question was asked the other 
employes, each of them making the same reply. The robber then 
said to Heywood, <f You are the cashier; open the safe quick or 
I'll blow your head off." 

A second robber, Pitts, then stepped inside of the vault, 
whereupon Heywood attempted to close the door. He was in- 
stantly dragged back, and the two robbers, thrusting their re- 
volvers in his face, said, "Open the safe, now, or you havn't a 
minute to live." Heywood replied, "There is a time lock on, 
and it cannot be opened now." The robbers then dragged Hey- 
wood roughly about the room, and realizing the desperate situation 
he shouted "Murder! Murder!!" whereupon he was struck a ter- 
rible blow on the head with a revolver, and fell to the floor. The 
robbers still insisted that Heywood should open the- safe, and oc- 
casionally turned from him to Bunker and Wilcox, calling upon 
them to "Unlock the safe." To these demands the young men 
answered that they could not unlock the safe. This was true, as 
it was already unlocked; the door being closed, the bolts were 
shot into place, but the combination dial was not closed. Finally 
as a last resort to coerce Heywood, who was lying on the floor, 
Pitts placed his revolver close to Heywood's head and fired. This 
was the first shot fired in the bank, and the bullet passed into the 
vault, and through a tin box containing jewelry and papers left by 
some customer for safe keeping. The special custodian of 
Bunker and Wilcox was Bob Younger, who compelled them both 
to get down on their knees under the counter. From this posi- 
tion Bunker made several attempts to extricate himself, and 
finally, when Younger's face was turned, dashed through the di- 
rectors' room, to the rear door of the bank and throwing himself 
against the closed blinds, which were fastened on the inside, suc- 
ceeded in gaining an outside flight of stairs. His escape was 


noticed by Pitts, who fired at him, the ball whizzing past Bun- 
ker's ear. As he reached the rear entrance of the next building 
Pitts fired again, and Bunker received the ball near the joint of 
the right shoulder, the missile coming out just below his collar 
bone. Pitts then gave up the chase, and on returning to his com- 
panions, heard one of them on the outside shout, "The game is 
up! Better get out, boys; they are killing all our men." The 
three robbers in the bank, hearing this, rushed into the street. 
The last one as he climbed over the counter [claimed by latter 
members of the gang to have been Jesse James, who admitted the 
fact], cowardly and deliberately shot Heywood through the head, 
ag he was on his feet, and was staggering towards his desk. 

The battle in the street was now at its height. Henry M. 
Wheeler, had hastened to the Dampier Hotel, when the citizens 
had been driven from the streets by the robbers, and securing 
an old army carbine had stationed himself at a second story 
chamber window. Meantime, Mr. Allen, who had first sounded 
the alarm, had proceeded to his hardware store, and distributed 
guns and ammunition to his neighbors. A. R. Manning, the 
other hardware merchant, armed himself with a breech-loading 
rifle. The people had deserted the streets; the stores and offices 
were hastily closed, and the five mounted robbers were riding back 
and forth, up one side of the street and down the other, doing 
their utmost with voice and arms to intensify the state of terror. 
As Clel Miller was mounting his, horse, Elias Stacy, who had 
been armed with a fowling piece by Allen, confronted him and 
fired at his head; the fine buckshot marked the robber's face, but 
inflicted no serious wound. 

The two men with rifles, Manning and Wheeler, did the real 
execution upon the robbers, and finally routed them. Manning 
came running from his store, and stepping into the open street 
saw over the backs of the horses the heads of the two robbers. 
Drawing a bead upon them, the men ducked behind their horses; 
Manning lowering his gun, changed his aim, and shot the nearest 
horse. He then dropped back, around the corner, and reloaded, 
and on returning, seeing Cole Younger between the horses and 
the bank door, fired, wounding him badly, but not fatally. Again 


Manning dropped back to reload, and looking cautiously around 
the corner, he saw Stiles sitting on his horse, some 75 or 80 
yards away. Taking deliberate aim, he fired, shooting the 
brigand through the heart, he falling dead from his saddle. 

Meantime, Wheeler was not idle; from his vantage point, 
in the second story of the hotel, he fired his first shot at James 
Younger, who was riding by; the gun carrying high, the ball 
struck the ground beyond the brigand. His next shot was at 
Clel Miller, and the bullet passed through his body, severing the 
sub-clavian artery, and killing him instantly. 

It was at this time, when Cole Younger rode to the door of 
the bank, and shouted to the men inside to come out. On ap- 
pearing in the street, two of the men who had been in the bank, 
mounted their horses, but there was no horse for Bob Younger, 
his steed having been killed by Manning. In the meantime 
Manning and Wheeler had both reloaded, and as the former 
showed himself ready to renew the fight, Bob came running to- 
wards him down the sidewalk. Manning raised his rifle to shoot, 
while Younger drew his revolver. They both dodged, placing 
an outside stairway between them, and kept up a game of hide 
and seek. Wheeler, though he could but imperfectly see 
Younger's body from his position, took a shot a the brigand; the 
ball struck the robber's elbow, shattering the bone; he coolly 
changed his pistol to his left hand, and continued his efforts to 
shoot Manning. 

While Wheeler was reloading his gun, and Manning chang- 
ing his position, Bob Younger sprang from his hiding place, 
mounted behind his brother Cole, and the entire band, or what 
was left of it, turned and fled. The battle was over. From its 
opening to its close, it had occupied but seven minutes. The 
funds of the bank were intact. Six of the robbers were in flight, 
and at least two of them badly wounded. In front of the bank 
lay the dead horse; nearby was the body of Clel Miller, and a 
half block away, on the other side of the street, that of Stiles. 
In the bank was the dead body of Heywood. 

The robbers left Northfield by the Dundas road, leading to 
the village of that name, three miles to the south. They rode 


abreast, taking the whole road, and compelling everyone they 
met to take the ditch. Meeting a farmer they helped themselves 
to one of his span of gray horses, and '^borrowed" a saddle from 
another farmer for the use of Bob Younger, whose wounded 
arm was causing him much suffering. About 4:30 P. M., the 
band reached Millersburg, where some of them had spent the 
previous night. Here they were recognized, but they were still 
in advance of the news of their crime, and far ahead of their 

The smoke of the battle had hardly passed awaj r in North- 
field before men were running for their guns and horses to join 
in the chase of the robbers. The State capital was telegraphed 
to for aid, and as soon as practicable a small army of pursuers 
was organized. Three times in the afternoon of the day of the 
robbery small advance detachments of the force came nearly 
upon the fugitives. Just when they were seizing the farmer's 
horse on the Dundas Road, again at Shieldsville, fifteen miles 
west of Northfield, a squad of Faribault men had arrived in ad- 
vance of the pursued by taking a shorter road. They had, how- 
ever, gone within doors, leaving their guns outside, when the 
robbers suddenly apeared before the door, and held their unarmed 
pursuers in check while they watered their horses at an adjacent 
pump. On the departure of the robbers, the pursuers regained 
their guns, and being reenforced by a cjozen local recruits, has- 
tened after the robbers. The band was overtaken in a ravine, 
four miles west of Shieldsville, where shots were exchanged at 
long range, without effect on either side, and the robbers escaped 
into the thick woods beyond. 

While these little contests were taking place, a more system- 
atic company was inaugurated and organized. On the night of 
the robbery there were 200 citizens in the field; on the following 
day 500, and later the number was swelled to at least 1,000. 
Many of these, however, were a source of weakness to the force, 
their services being tendered solely from mercenary motives, as 
large rewards for the capture of the robbers, dead or alive, were 
offered by the Northfield bank, the Governor of the State, and 
the railroad companies. 



There were two objects to be accomplished, viz : The retreat 
of the fugitives was to be cut off, and they were to be hunted 
down and captured. To secure the first result, picket lines were 
thrown out in advance of them, covering every route which they 
could possibly take. To secure the second, scouting parties were 
put upon their trail, to follow them from place to place, and to 
explore the country in search of them. The robbers were in the 
vast forest and tract known as the "Big Woods." 

The brigands on the night of the robbery were left in a 
hiding place beyond Shieldsville. The following day they moved 
first westward, then southwestward, in the direction of Waterville. 
They forded the little Cannon River, and disappeared in the 
forests beyond. They pushed on into the township of Elysian, 
in Le Sueur County, camping that night between the village of 
Elysian and German Lake. On the following morning they 
abandoned their horses, and continued their journey on foot. 

They went no farther that day than to find a hiding place 
on an island in the middle of a swamp, where they encamped for 
the remainder of the day. Continuing their journey after dark, 
they marched slowly all night in Le Sueur County, and at day- 
light halted near the village of Marysburg. Passing around the 
village they made a camp four miles south from it. Nine miles 
west of this camp, and within two or three miles of Mankato, 
they found a deserted farm house in the woods, and here they 
remained two days and nights, having advanced less than fifty 
miles in five days. Even at this very moderate rate they had 
distanced their pursuers, who on Tuesday morning discovered 
the half-starved horses of the robbers, and the deserted camp 
they had left the preceding Saturday, and this was regarded as a 
sign of the hopelessness of the chase. Thereupon a large pro- 
portion of the pursuers returned to their homes. 

On Wednesday, however, news was conveyed to Mankato of 
the appearance of the robbers near that city. A new campaign 
was organized, under the direction of General E. M. Pope. 
Again patrols and searching parties were sent out, and every 
possible avenue of escape was guarded, night and day. Police- 
men and police officers came down from Minneapolis and St. 


Paul, and took part in the hunt. But again the fugitives 
escaped. Part of them crossed the railroad bridge over the Blue 
Earth River, near Mankato, while two, mounted on a stolen horse, 
passed the picket line near Lake Crystal, and were fired upon by 
a picket guard. These two men were the James Brothers, who 1 
were both thrown from the horse when the guard fired, and the 
animal then cantered back to its owner's pasture. The brothers 
escaped in the darkness, and continuing their flight stole a span 
of gray horses, which they mounted bareback. This allowed them 
to make rapid progress, and they assumed the role of officers in 
pursuit of criminals. By traveling day and night, and taking 
a due west course, in two days they made eighty miles, and on 
Sunday, September 17, they crossed the Minnesota line into 
Dakota, here they made prisoner of a Sioux Falls physician, from 
whom they obtained medical and surgical aid for the wounds 
of Prank James, whose left leg had been badly injured at 
Northfield. Pursuing their course through Southeastern Dakota 
they crossed the Missouri Eiver at Springfield, and went as 
far south and west as Columbus, Nebraska. At this point they 
sold their horses, took the cars for Omaha, and made their way to their old home in Clay County, Missouri. Rumors 
were circulated that they were en route for Texas, and officers 
were sent to that State to arrest them. However, after a short 
time at their former home, they went to Tennessee, where 
they lived in retirement a short time. 

The disappointment and mortification of the pursuers was 
intense; a thousand men had failed to capture six. The cam- 
paign had proved an utter failure, and the "robber hunt" was 
the great joke of the season. It was supposed that the entire band 
had escaped from the State, when on September 21 news was 
received that four of them had been located in the neighborhood 
of Madelia. They were the three Youngers and Pitts. The band 
had divided on account of the wounds of Bob Younger; his in- 
juries caused him so much pain that he could not travel, and 
rather than desert their brother in his misfortune, the two older 
brothers and Pitts had decided to stay with him, although thereby 
forfeiting all their chances of escape. 


The news of the presence of the band in the State was 
brought to Madelia by Oscar Oleson Suborn, a Norwegian lad, 
about seventeen years of age, who had been accosted on the morn- 
ing of September 21 by two strange men whom he believed to 
be the robbers. Riding rapidly to Madelia, seven or eight miles 
away, he alarmed the citizens, seven of whom, including James 
Glispin, the sheriff of Watonwan County, lost no time in reaching 
the refuge of the robbers. The band ^of fugitives was soon 
descried making their way on foot through what is known as 
Hanska Slough, connected with Lake Hanska, or Long Lake. 
They crossed the lake, and made several unsuccessful attempts to 
obtain horses. 

The robbers were at last hemmed in a rude triangle of 
ground, some five acres in extent covered with an impenetrable 
growth of willows, box elders, wild plums and grapevines, and 
lying between the Watonwan River and a long steep bluff. They 
"were driven to cover in these thickets, and a strong picket line 
surrounded them. Captain W. W. Murphy then asked for volun- 
teers to go into the brush and rout out the bandits. Six men 
responded to his call, namely: Sheriff James Glispin, Colonel 
T. L. Vought, B. M. Rice, G. A. Bradford, C. A. Pomeroy and 
S. J. Severson. The captain formed his men in line five paces 
apart, and ordered them to advance rapidly. They advanced 
some fifty or sixty yards, when the robbers were discovered, and 
one of them firing gave the signal for a general fusilade on both 
sides. The two forces were not more than thirty feet apart; 
the fight was sharp and brief. Bradford and Severson were 
grazed by bullets, while Captain Murphy was struck in the side; 
the ball glanced on a briar-root pipe in his pocket, and lodged in 
his- pistol belt. The robbers suffered severely; Bob Younger was 
wounded in the breast ; his brother James had five wounds ; Cole 
had eleven, and Pitts was killed, having been hit five times. On 
being called upon to surrender, Bob Younger responded "I sur- 
render; they are all down but me/' The arms of the robbers 
were taken from them, and they were taken to Madelia in a 
wagon in the custody of the sheriff; here they received from the 
citizens of perverted taste much misdirected sympathy, and a 


reception which amounted to an ovation. Their wounds were 
dressed; they were daintily fed and tenderly cared for, and silly 
women wept over them. 

On the twenty-third of September the prisoners were de- 
livered to Sheriff Ara Barton, of Eice County, and by him taken 
to the jail of that county, at Earibault, to await indictment and 
arraignment for their crimes. Here; too, they received every at- 
tention, as if they had played the role of heroes in the North- 
field tragedy;, and not that of villains. They were strongly 
guarded by a force of picked men, armed with State muskets, to 
prevent a possible lynching. On the night of October 2 an 
excited guard shot and killed a town policeman, who was ap- 
proaching the jail, but who announced plainly who he was. The 
unfortunate officer's name was Henry Kapanick, and he was indi- 
rectly the third victim of the raid of the Missouri bandits, thus 
for the three rogues killed three honest citizens gave up their 

At last, on November 16, four indictments were returned by 
the Eice County grand jury against the trio of murderous 
brothers. Two of the indictments were for murder in the first 
degree, for the killing of Cashier Heywood, and Nicholas Gus- 
tavson, one for robbery, and the other for assault with deadly 
weapons on Clerk Bunker. The same afternoon they were ar- 
raigned before the district court, Judge Samuel Lord, presiding. 
George N. Baxter, county attorney, represented the State and 
the prosecution. George W. Batchelder and Thomas S. Buck- 
ham, of Faribault, and Thomas Eutledge, of Madelia,, were the 
attorneys for the Youngers. The prisoners through their counsel, 
had their time to plead extended, first to Saturday, and again 
until Monday, November 20; on the last named date they pleaded 
guilty, as accessories, which, under the law, made them principals 
to the murder of Heywood. 

At this period the death penalty for any crime was not in 
force in Minnesota, save for the punishment of murder in the first 
degree, and then only when the jury that convicted the criminal 
should prescribe in their verdict that his punishment should be 
death. So that the death penalty could be inflicted by a judge in 


his sentence only after it had been prescribed by a jury. In such 
a case, the condemned was to undergo solitary confinement for 
fiom one to six months, and at the expiration of such time was 
to be executed on the warrant of the Governor. In all cases, 
where the jury did not impose the death penalty, punishment for 
murder in the first degree was to be by imprisonment at hard 
labor in the penitentiary for life. 

When the two Youngers had pleaded guilty to the murder of 
Hey wood, the prosecuting attorney [Baxter] rose and moved that 
a jury be empaneled to decide upon the character of the sentence. 
The attorneys for the defense promptly and vigorously objected, 
arguing that, under the law the prisoners had rendered a jury un- 
necessary, by pleading guilty, and that there was nothing left but 
for the judge to sentence them to the penitentiary for life. Mr. 
Baxter made a specious argument to the effect that even if the ac- 
cused had pleaded guilty, a jury was necessary to say what their 
punishment should be; but Judge Lord summarily put the learned 
prosecutor's arguments aside, with the statement that criminal 
statutes must be construed strictly, and if possible, in favor of the 
prisoner, and that the evident intention of the Legislature of 
1868 was to save a murderer's life if he pleaded guilty. He then 
overruled the prosecutor's motion for a jury, and sentenced the 
three brothers to life imprisonment at hard labor. 

After their incarceration in the penitentiary, the Youngers 
made the best of the situation, and were regarded as model prison- 
ers. In a few years they were favored with easy positions in the 
prison. Then began a series of annual efforts to have them par- 
doned by the Governor. The morbid, the sympathizers with vil- 
lainy, and they who were not wise, united with the prominent, 
and even eminent men of the State, in praying the Chief Execu- 
tive to set the prisoners free. Even Heywood's widow and daugh- 
ter signed petitions for the pardon of the accessories to the mur- 
Her of their husband and father. But every Governor refused. 
Bob Younger died in the penitentiary from tuberculosis, Septem- 
ber 16, 1889. The efforts to have the surviving brothers released 
were renewed. Finally, the Legislature of 1901 enacted, practi- 
cally for their sole benefit, a law, providing that life convicts 


might be released from imprisonment when they had served 
thirty-five years, less the time allowed by law for good conduct. 
In the case of the Youngers, they were entitled to about eleven 
years credit for their correct deportment. The deduction left 
twenty-four year as the period during which they should serve be- 
fore becoming eligible to parole, and they had served twenty-five 
years. The passage of the law was stoutly resisted by Represen- 
tative Kelly, of Northfield, and others, but was as ardently advo- 
cated by other legislators, and public sentiment seemed to ap- 
prove it. 

July 14, 1901, the Youngers were released from prison on 
parole, with certain conditions. They could not leave the State; 
they were not allowed to appear in any part or feature of a pub- 
lic show or exhibition of any character. They went to the Twin 
Cities, and for some time were in regular employment as sales- 

James Younger, during his parole, committed suicide in the 
Beardon Hotel, St. Paul, because the Board of Pardons would not 
allow him to marry a respectable and accomplished young Min- 
nesota lady. 

February 4, 1903, the Board of Pardons granted Cole 
Younger a pardon, on condition that he should leave the State 
and never return. He went to his old home in Missouri, and 
later engaged with his old partner in crime, Frank James, in the 
conduct of a "Wild West" show, which exhibited throughout sev- 
eral States. His repeated efforts to have the restriction regarding 
his return to Minnesota removed by the Board of Pardons, have 
always failed. 

Chapter X. 

LUCIUS Frederick Hubbard, the eighth Governor of Min- 
nesota elected by the people, was a descendant on the 
parental side from the Hubbard family that emigrated 
from the mother country to New England- in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century. His maternal ancestor was of Dutch stock 
of the Van Valkenburg family that were identified with the 
early history of the Hudson Kiver Valley. 

The Governor was born at Troy, New York, January 26, 
1836. The death of his father caused him at the age of four 
years to find a home with an aunt at Chester, Vermont. There 
the foundation of his education was laid, which was supplemented 
by a three years' course in an academy at Granville, New York. 
At the age of fifteen he was apprenticed to a tinner, and com- 
pleted his trade in 1854, when he removed to Chicago. After 
a residence of three years in that city, he came to Eed Wing and 
established the Eed Wing Republican; and the following year he 
was elected register of deeds of Goodhue County. Disposing of 
his interests in the Republican, he enlisted in 1861 as a private 
in the Fifth Minnesota Infantry, and in February, 1862, he was 
elected Captain of Company A. The following March he was 
promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of that regiment; in August to 
Colonel; and for gallantry in the Battle of Nashville he was 
made a Brevet Brigadier General. To specify the battles General 
Hubbard was identified with would be to give a history of the 
Fifth Minnesota Infantry, at the head of which he was mustered 
out of service in September, 1865. He was personally engaged in 



thirty-one battles and minor engagements, gaining an enviable 
record for his intrepidity and coolness, but returned to Red 
Wing with broken health due to fatigue, exposure and wounds. 

After the war, returning to the active pursuits of civilian 
life in 1866, he engaged in the grain business at Red Wing, 
afterwards in milling operations at Zumbrota and Mazeppa, and 
largely through his personal influence as a collateral matter in the 
development of transportation interests in his section of the State, 
the Midland railway was built, and also the Minnesota Central, 
and the Duluth, Red Wing, and Southern railroads. 

General Hubbard was elected to the State Senate in 1872, 
again in 1874, and two years later declined a re-nomination. His 
Senatorial terms were marked by the painstaking methods by 
which his military and civil life were distinguished and which 
soon made him one of the prominent members of that body. 
His two terms as Governor placed at the head of the State a 
practical business man, and assured the continuance of that 
policy of honesty and efficiency which his predecessors in office 
had so firmly established. At the commencement of the Spanish- 
American War he was commissioned a Brigadier General, and was 
assigned to the command of the Third Division of the Seventh 
Army Corps. 

For business reasons General Hubbard sundered the friendly 
and neighborly ties that made his residence at Red Wing a 
period of his life to be ever remembered not only by him but 
by the residents of that city, and removed' to St. Paul where he 
now resides. 

A man's life in this world is transitory, so that the old adage 
of "here today and there tomorrow" simply typifies the passing 
in and going out. It is not by civil functions nor military ex- 
ploits that a man becomes endeared to his friends, neighbors, and 
associates; it is by the smiling face, the ever extended hand of 
encouragement and succor, the affable and agreeable manners of 
the gentleman. General Hubbard's residence of over half a cen- 
tury in Minnesota has been characterized by repeated acts of kind- 
ness and charity to his fellow man; as the soldier's friend in help- 
ing a worthy comrade to secure a pension; in spending his time 


as trustee of the Minnesota Soldiers' Home, or helping to have 
erected in memory of the sacred dead monuments to commemor- 
ate their deeds on the battlefields of the Civil War; as a friend 
and neighbor, giving the word of sympathy and encouragement 
to the unfortunate, the liberal hand to alleviate want and distress, 
the pleasant hopeful spirit of contentment. These are the traits 
of character that outlive the triumphs of a military and civil 

The State officials elected on the ticket with Governor Hub- 
bard were the then incumbents of the offices, with the exception 
of the Auditor. William W. Braden, of Preston, who was nom- 
inated to succeed 0. P. Whitcomb in that office. 

In the Congressional elections held in 1882, Milo White, the 
Republican candidate in the First District, received 12,458 votes. 
The nominee of the Democratic ticket was Adolph Biermann, who 
received 11,788 votes. For C. H. Roberts there were cast 1,144 

In the Second District, James B. Wakefield, nominee of the 
Republican party, had 17,187 votes; while F. A. Bohrer, the 
Democratic candidate, had 6,750, and J. A. Latimer had 3,850 
votes. In the Third District Horace B. Strait, the Republican 
candidate, received 16,583 votes; the nominee of the Democrats, 
C. P. Adams, had 7,047; and Porter Martin had 696 votes. In 
the Fourth District William D. Washburn, the Republican nomi- 
neee, received 17,380 votes; the Democratic candidate was Albert 
A. Ames, who received 13,280 votes; and 1,545 votes were cast for 
Edwin Phillips, the Prohibition candidate. In the Fifth District 
the successful candidate was Knute Nelson, Republican, who re- 
ceived 16,956 votes; C. F. Kindred received 12,238, and E. P. 
Barnum, 6,248 votes. 

This was the first appearance of James B. Wakefield, Milo 
White and Knute Nelson in the National legislative halls. Mr. 
Wakefield was born at Winsted, Connecticut, March 21, 1828. 
He graduated from Trinity College, Hartford, in 1846, studied 
law, and was admitted to practice in 1851. In that year he came 
to Shakopee, and after practicing law in that locality two years, he 
removed to Blue Earth City. He was a member of the House 


of Representatives in 1858, 1863, and 1866; and of the Senate 
from 1867 to 1869, and from 1876 to 1879, inclusive. He was 
also Lieutenant Governor for four years. 

Mr. White was born in Fletcher, Vermont, August 17, 1830. 
He left his native town in 1853 for New York City, and two 
years later came to Chatfield, where he engaged in mercantile 
trade. He was State Senator from 1872 to 1876, inclusive, and 
also in 1881. 


The Twenty-third Legislature assembled January 2, 1883. 
It was composed of thirty-four Republicans, ten Democrats 
and three Independents in the Senate, and seventy-six Republi- 
cans, twenty-eight Democrats and one Farmers' Alliance in the 
House, giving the Republicans a majority of sixty-four on joint 
ballot. Owing to the new apportionment law, both Houses of the 
Legislature contained only a few members of the preceding ses- 

In the Senate, J. M. Wheat, S. D. Peterson, D. A. Morrison, 
James McLaughlin, T. B. Clement, James G. Lawrence, J. N. 
Castle, C. D. Gilfillan, J. B. Gilfillan, C. A. ^Pillsbury, R. B. 
Langdon, A. E. Rice, and John Shaleen, had been members of 
the Senate of 1881. The Fifteenth District sent Thomas Wilson, 
the sixteenth J. W. Blake, the nineteenth Michael Doran, the 
thirty-fourth W. H. Greenleaf, and the forty-sixth W. W. Billson, 
all prominent members of earlier Senates. Three of the newly 
elected members were afterwards to become Congressmen, C. B. 
Buckman from the thirty-ninth, S. G. Comstock from the forty- 
fourth, and Halvor Steenerson from the forty-fifth districts. 

The Senator from the Fortieth District, Henry C. Waite, 
of St. Cloud, was born in Albany County, New York, in 1830. 
He graduated from Union College at Schenectady, was admitted 
to the practice of law in 1852, and the same year he came to 
Iowa. The following year he removed to Madison, Wisconsin, 
where he practiced his profession two years. In May, 1855, he 
came to St. Cloud, where he has since continuously resided. Mr. 


Waite was a member of the Constitutional Convention, a member 
of the House of Kepresentatives in 1863, and of the Senate in 

The House organized and reelected Loren Fletcher, of 
Minneapolis, Speaker; only ten of the entire membership had 
been reelected. Prominent among the new members were C. F. 
Buck, of Winona; P. H. Eahilly, a former Senator; William K. 
Merriam, afterward Speaker and Governor; and Gordon E. Cole, 
a native of Massachusetts and a graduate of the law school of 
Harvard University. Mr. Cole located at Faribault in 1857, 
practiced his profession and two years later was elected Attorney 
General, which position he filled for three consecutive years. 

Loren W. Collins, of St. Cloud, a Eepresentative from the 
Fortieth Distrist, was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1838. 
His education was limited to the high school of his native city, 
and at the age of sixteen he came to Minnesota. He enlisted in 
1862 in the Seventh Minnesota Infantry and served throughout 
the war. ^Returning to his adopted residential city, he was for 
ten years county attorney of Stearns County. His legislative 
duties were limited to the sessions of 1881 and 1883. In the lat- 
ter year he was appointed Judge of the Seventh Judicial District, 
and in 1887 he received the appointment of Associate Justice of 
the Supreme Court, which position he held by election until 
April 1, 1904. 

In his message Governor Hubbard welcomed the Legislature 
to the reconstructed capitol, which had been destroyed by fire two 
years before. He emphasized -the ominous warning that the vast 
aggregation of capital concentrated within the control of the 
monster corporations of the country the past few years was sug- 
gestive of danger and possible disaster to the vital interests of 
the public. Excessive freight charges and prevailing discrimina- 
tions of rates to shippers were discussed at length. The war of 
rates between the lines of the Northwest, which arose from a dis- 
pute over "Territorial rights" between the rival companies, called 
forth a cautionary expression from the Governor. He reminded 
the companies that they were formed under the authority of the 
State; that it had endowed them with valuable franchises and 


enormous subsidies, and had afforded them that protection which 
gives to all property its greatest value; that their legitimate reve- 
nues are derived from the patronage of the public, and that their 
proper and legal relation to the public can only be maintained by 
dispensing exact justice to every individual and locality. 

The Legislature adjourned March 2, 1883. Upwards of 1,000 
bills were introduced, of which about half became laws ; the larger 
number, however, were special acts. The general laws, outside of 
appropriations, numbered 150. Thirty-one bills related to St. 
Paul and Ramsey County, while the interests of Hennepin County 
and Minneapolis received attention in twenty-five bills. 

Among the number of valuable additions to the statutes, of 
the State were the act creating a Board of Public Charities and 
Corrections; the bill making murder punishable by the death 
penalty ; and the law regulating the practice of medicine, and pro- 
viding for examination and licensing of all physicians wha 
should come to Minnesota for five years. Savings banks were 
permitted to loan money in Dakota and State banks were re- 
quired to make reports, similar to those required of National 
banks; bills, notes and other negotiable paper obtained by fraud 
or artifice were made void even if in the hands of a third party. 
By another act a codification of the laws for the prevention of 
infectious diseases was provided for. Hubbard County was 
established; Canby incorporated as a village and Fergus Falls 
as a city. A general act for the organization and incorporation 
of annuity, safe deposit and trust companies was passed. 

The following constitutional amendments were adopted and 
were sanctioned by the people at the following general election. 
Fixing official terms of the Secretary of State. Treasurer and 
Attorney General at two years and that of State Auditor at four 
years. Providing that the official year for the State shall com- 
mence on the first Monday in January in each year and that all 
terms of office shall terminate at that time. The first general 
election for State and county offices, except judicial offices, after 
the adoption of the amendment was to be held on the first Tues- 
day after the first Monday in November in 1884, and general 
elections thereafter were to be held biennially. The State, 


county and other officers elected at the election of 1884 whose 
term of office expired at the commencement of the fiscal year 
of 1886 were to hold over until the commencement of the next 
fiscal year. The term of office of the clerk of the Supreme Court 
was changed from three to four years and the official term of 
the Supreme and District Court Judges were made six instead 
of seven years. Under this change in the constitution Gover- 
nor Hubbard's second term was extended to three years, as were 
the terms of officers elected upon the ticket with him. 

The election of United States Senator to succeed William 
Windom was a leading feature of the session. Senator Windom 
was a candidate to succeed himself; he had, however, antagonized 
in various ways a large number of his political associates and 
hence opposition to his re-election had developed. 

The Legislature was overwhelmingly Republican, there being 
110 of the 160 members of that party. Dunnell, and Windonrs 
terms as Senator and Representative, respectively, expired at 
the same, time, March 3, 1883. The former became a can- 
didate for Senator but during the balloting did not develop 
much strength. Only sixty-two of the 110 Republicans took part 
in the Senatorial caucus at which Mr. Windom was nominated. 
The Democrats presented as their caucus nominee Judge Thomas 
Wilson as the fight progressed an understanding was reached 
among the Democrats that when any Republican besides Win- 
dom should secure enough Republican votes which, added to the 
Democratic vote, would give him a majority of the Legislature 
they would support that candidate. 

The first ballot for United States Senator was taken on 
January 16, 1883, and was as follows: 

William Windom 45 

Thomas Wilson 25 

Mark H. Dunnell 7 

Gordon E. Cole 5 

C. F. Kindred 4 

Cushman K. Davis 2 

Lucius F. Hubbard 2 

Thomas Armstrong 2 


There were a few scattering votes for other parties. On 
the following day two ballots were taken, Windom receiving 65, 
Wilson 37, Cole 11, and Dunnell 9. On the eighteenth in the 
three ballots taken there was no material change in the results, 
Windom lost a few votes while Hubbard and Dunnell showed 
gains. The Republicans held a caucus on the nineteenth and an 
attempt was made to withdraw Windom's name and substitute 
John S. Pillsbury, but the movement failed and the Senator 
was telegraphed to at Washington that his presence was needed 
in St. Paul. He took the first train for the West, but his pres- 
ence did not seem to help his cause. On the twenty-third of 
January he was within twenty-three votes of an election. On the 
thirtieth, in the only ballot taken that day, Windom lost eleven 
votes, and the following day three ballots were taken; in the first 
Dwight M. Sabin's name appeared for the first time with 
seventeen votes; this was increased to twenty-two in the last. 
The balloting continued until February 17. When on the first 
ballot taken that day Sabin received twenty-nine votes and in the 
fifth ballot fifty-five, this increase was caused in part by some 
of Wilson's followers voting for Sabin; on the following ballot 
he was within four votes of an election, when an attempt to pro- 
cur an adjournment failed, and on the next ballot, having re- 
ceived the full support of all the Democrats, Sabin had eighty- 
one votes and became the United States Senator-elect from Min- 

Dwight M. Sabin was born at Marseilles, Illinois, April 25, 
1843. The ill-health of his father caused the family's removal 
to Connecticut and his death in 1864 deprived young Dwight 
of the advantages of a thorough education to which he aspired. 
His early manhood was spent in managing his father's business 
and in 1867 with his mother and younger brother he removed 
to Minnesota. The next year he located at Stillwater and be- 
came a member of the firm of Seymour, Sabin & Co. 

This firm contracted for the convict labor in the State 
prison and engaged in the manufacture of doors, sash, blinds 
and cooperage. This business was extended in 1874 to include 
the manufacture of agricultural implements, also a machine 


boiler shop and foundry were established. Senator Sabin became 
interested in the C. N. Nelson Lumber Company and the 
Duluth Iron Company and in 1882 was the prime organizer 
of the Northwestern Car Company with a capital of $5,000,000. 
This company purchased the interests of Seymour, Sabin & 
Company, and elected Senator Sabin president, but before per- 
manent plans could be matured, owing to the stringency of the 
financial world, it was compelled to make an assignment. 

Politically he was a Republican of pronounced views, had 
been elected to the State Senate of 1871-72-73 and to the House 
of Representatives of 1878-81 and 1883. After his term as 
United States Senator he devoted his time to his private affaiw 
and died at Chicago, Illinois, December 23, 1902. 


At the State convention held in the summer of 1883 the 
Republicans renominated the incumbents of the State offices, 
the Democrats first nominated for Governor W. W. McNair of 
Minneapolis, who declined the honor, and Adolph Biennann of 
Olmsted County, who had been the unsuccessful candidate in 
the convention, (the ballot being McNair 132, Bierman 125), 
was substituted. 

The State election was held in November, Lucius F. Hub- 
bard received 72,462 votes, Adolph Biermann 58,251, and there 
were 5.062 cast for other candidates. The entire Republican 
State ticket was elected, Hubbard's plurality being 14,211. In 
an abstract of the vote eighteen counties were carried by the 
Democrats. The counties carried by that party in 1881 all 
gave increased majorities with the exception of Ramsey County 
which for the first time since the Civil War was carried by the 
Republicans for State offices; on the gubernatorial vote a 
Democratic majority in 1881 of 1,260 was changed to a Repub- 
lican landslide of 1,598. In Dakota County the Democratic 
plurality was reduced from 752, in 1881, to 346 in 1883, and 
McLeod County went Republican by 63 votes. The counties of 
Brown, Carver, Mille Lacs and Wabasha that went Republican 

IV. -8 


in 1881 were carried by the Democrats by substantial majorities. 
The Republican counties of Blue Earth, Clay, Fillmore, Meeker 
were carried by small pluralities by the Democrats. Hennepin 
County which gave Hubbard a plurality of 1,746 in 1881 gave 
him only 563 in 1883. The shrinkage of the Republican vote 
in many strong Republican localities was largely allowed for by 
the fact that the Democratic candidate for Governor was of 
Scandinavian nationality. 


The political canvass for the election of President and Vice 
President in 1884 was of exceptional interest and importance. 
The opposition of the stalwart and independent Republicans to 
the nomination of James G. Blaine, the "Plumed Knight of 
Republicanism," and their defection from that party to the sup- 
port of the Democratic nominee, coupled with the personal can- 
vass of the Northern States of the candidates of the Prohibi- 
tionist and the Anti-Monopoly Greenback and Labor parties united 
in a fusion under the name of the People's party, seriously shat- 
tered party lines. The masses of the Republicans of Minnesota, 
however, rallied to the support of Blaine, who was their idol, 
and the State was only exceeded by Pennsylvania and Kansas 
in the plurality given him. The vote being James G. Blaine, 
111,685; Grover Cleveland, 70,065; Benjamin F. Butler, 3,583; 
John P. St. John, 4,684; Blame's plurality, 41,620. 

The election in the Congressional districts resulted in the 
choice of five Republicans. In the first Milo White received 
16,604 to the Democratic candidate, Adolph Biermann 13,961; 

A. Bierce received 594 votes. In the Second District James 

B. Wakefield received 20,813 votes to his Democratic opponent, 
J. J. Thornton 10,639, there were also cast for William Copp 
1,079 votes. In the Third District Horace B. Strait received 
16,456 votes, the Democratic nominee was Ignatius Donnelly, 
for whom 15,038 votes were cast; I. C. Stearns also received 
568 votes. In the Fourth District John B. Gilfillan received 
28,930 votes, while for 0. C. Merriman, the Democratic candi- 


date, 24,496 votes were polled. J. M. Douglas had 978 votes 
cast for him. In the Fifth District Knute Nelson received 
25,609 votes, while Luther L. Baxter, his Democratic opponent, 
had 13,176. 

The new Congressman from the Fourth District, John B. 
Gilfillan, was horn in Barnet, Vermont, February 11, 1835, of 
Scotch descent. His education was limited to the common 
schools and an academy located at Caledonia, Vermont. After 
teaching school for three successive winters in the East he 
visited his hrother-in-law at St. Anthony and obtained a posi- 
tion as school teacher. In his leisure hours he read law books 
and finally entered a law office, being admitted in 1860 to the 
bar in Hennepin county. He soon afterwards formed a part- 
nership with James K. Lawrence which continued until his 
partner's departure for the seat of war. He practiced alone 
until 1871 when he became a member of the firm of Lochren, 
McNair and Gilfillan. This firm continued for a number of 
years when the elevation of Judge Lochren to the bench and 
the death of Mr. McNair necessitated a re-organization and a 
new partnership was formed. Mr. Gilfillan served as county 
attorney for several terms and was a member of the State 
Senate from 1876 until his election to Congress. He is now a 
resident of Minneapolis. 


The Twenty-fourth Legislature convened January 6, 1885. 
It was constituted politically as follows: In the Senate thirty 
Republicans, seventeen Democrats; in the House seventy Re- 
publicans, thirty-three Democrats. There were but four new 
members of the Senate. W. T. Wilkins from the third, E. C. 
Severance from the thirteenth, 0. M. Hall from the twenty-sec- 
ond and H. H. Wells from the Forty-second District. In the 
House nineteen members were reelected and upon its organiza- 
tion John L. Gibbs, of Freeborn County, was elected Speaker. 

Governor Hubbard in his message stated that since the last 
Fession of the Legislature there had been a marked increase in 


the population of the State and a corresponding accession to the 
aggregate wealth of the people, the assessed valuation of real and 
personal property having increased fifty per cent since 1880. 
In speaking of the agricultural prospects of the State he stated 
that the harvests of the past year had been of surpassing abund- 
ance which under ordinary conditions would assure the people 
great prosperity, but the inability of the distributing markets to 
absorb this accumulation had created a plethora of cereal prod- 
ucts that had caused a serious decline in values. 

In the older portion of the State there had recently de- 
veloped large interests in stock raising and dairy establishments 
that had been fairly remunerative. The question of State in- 
spection of grain and the regulation of railroads were largely 
dealt with. Excessive freight charges and the discrimination 
in rates to shippers were quoted as acts of gross injustice and 
tending to the establishment of monopolies which would prove 
detrimental to the best interests of the producing population 
of the State. 

The Legislature adjourned March 6, 1885. There were 615 
bills signed by the Governor, 27 having been vetoed and 13 re- 
called. Important railroad, grain and dairy bills became laws. 
A railroad commission of three persons with a salary of $3,500 
each, to be appointed by the Governor, was created. Their 
duties were to inquire into the condition and management of 
railroads and prosecute any railroad corporation that violated 
the laws of the State. They had the power to compel railroad 
companies to furnish cars to shippers in the order of their ap- 
plication without unjust discrimination, and to allow persons to 
construct warehouses of any capacity along the company's roads 
afc their way stations. During the administration the railroad 
laws of the State were so perfected that they have formed the 
basis for all subsequent railroad legislation and the policy of the 
State in relation to internal transportation was firmly estab- 
lished. The present system of State grain inspection was also 
established at this time. 

A grain and warehouse bill was passed governing the ware- 
housing and inspection of grain at St. Paul, Minneapolis and 


Duluth. Under the provisions of the dairy bill the Governor 
was to appoint a State Dairy Commissioner with a salary of 
$1,800. The manufacture of any oleaginous substance to re- 
semble butter or the producing of butter and cheese from any 
other substance than pure unadultered cream or milk was made 
punishable by a fine of from $100 to $500 or from six months to 
one year imprisonment. Several bills looking to better sanita- 
tion were passed. Also a concise and acceptable penal code was 
to be prepared. The limits of St. Paul were extended making 
the western boundary coterminous with the eastern limits of 

By another act civil rights without the distinction of color 
or race were granted to all persons within the jurisdiction of the 
State, full and equal rights in any public conveyances either by 
land or water, theaters and places of amusement, hotels, restau- 
rants, barber shops, etc. Violation of the law was punishable 
with a fine of not less than $100, or more than $500 or im- 
prisonment for not less than thirty days or more than one year. 

A general law in relation to co-operative or assessment, life, 
endowment and casualty insurance associations also for torna- 
does, hail, cyclones and mutual insurance companies were passed. 
Crookston was incorporated as a city. 

The Governor's salary was increased from $3,800 to $5,000 
and the Attorney General's, from $2,000 to $3,500. Three dis- 
trict judgeships were created. The tree planting bounty act was 
extended ten years and provisions were made to take a State 
census. The Congress of the United States was by a concur- 
rent resolution requested to place General Grant on the retired 
list and the Legislature's good wishes and congratulations were 
tendered to President Cleveland. 


The campaign for the election of State officials in 1886 
which was the first since the biennial sessions of the Legislature, 
to occur at the same time as the Congressional elections, com' 
menced early in the summer of that year. The Democratic con* 


vention was held at St. Paul September 15, and their plat- 
form, after commending the administration of President Cleve- 
land, advocated a thorough and complete tariff revision. They 
affirmed that Department of Agriculture should be raised to the 
dignity of a cabinet position; also that, inasmuch as railroad?, 
tc-legraph, express and similar corporations were created by Fed- 
eral and State law for public services they were therefore proper 
subjects for government control favored free and open markets, 
equitable transportation charges and facilities equal alike for 
producers, dealers and consumers. Anti-monopoly laws were 
urged to equalize capital and labor, also that the great corpora- 
tions, which in the past had done much for the aggrandize- 
ment of the State, should now be restrained from exercising au- 
thority and power which they now assumed in opposition to the 
weal of the people, who are their creators and therefore whose 
servants they are. 

Eight hours for a day's labor was strongly demanded, also 
the establishment of a Labor Bureau in the State to secure bet- 
ter legislation for the payment of wages, health and safety of 
operatives, indemnification for injuries received, prohibition of the 
employment of immature children, also protection from the rav- 
ages of the usurer and tax title shark. TbTey condemned the 
competition of convict labor with honest toil, also the practice of 
the State in leasing the labor of convicts. They favored a con- 
stitutional convention for adjusting the relations of labor to 
capital on a sound and equitable basis; expressed sympathy for 
the Irish patriots, also favored liberal pensions for the ex-soldiers 
and sailors of the Civil War, and for their benefit advocated the 
establishing of a soldiers home in the State. 

They nominated Albert A. Ames of Minneapolis for Gov- 
ernor, John Frank for Lieutenant Governor, Luke Jaeger for 
Secretary of State, G. A. Lundberg for Auditor, Henry Poehler 
for Treasurer and J. N. Ives for Attorney General. 

The following week the Republicans held their convention 
in St. Paul. In their platform they favored an honest silver 
dollar intrinsically equal in value to a dollar of gold. Their 
representatives at the next session of the Legislature were re- 


quested to give their vote and influence to the establishment of 
a soldiers home in the State. In behalf of the farmers of the 
State" they declared that present railroad and warehouse laws 
should be amended, that there should be a progressive reduction 
of railway freight and passenger rates, the practice of corpora- 
tions watering their stock was condemned. A legal rate of in- 
terest of eight per cent and free text books for public schools 
were recommended. The planks of the Democratic party in re- 
gard to labor were duplicated and the action of the Minnesota 
delegation in Congress in voting for a revision of the tariff was 
approved. They favored high license, local option and rigid en- 
forcement of existing laws relating to the liquor traffic. 

The candidates for nomination of Governor before the con- 
vention were Andrew E. McGill who had been Insurance Com- 
missioner for many years and had served with great credit in that 
office. He was credited to Nicollet County. Charles A. Gil- 
man, of Stearns County, and John L. Gibbs, of Freeborn County. 
On the first ballot McGill received 163 votes, Gilman 101, Gibbs 
96 and T. H. Barrett 1 vote. McGill became the nominee on 
the fourth ballot, the opposition not being able to unite on any 
compromise candidate.- The balance of the State ticket nomin- 
ated was for Lieutenant Governor, A. E. Rice; Secretary of 
State, Hans Mattson; Auditor, W. W. Braden, Treasurer, Joseph 
Bobleter; Attorney General, Moses E. Clapp. The Prohib- 
itionists nominated for Governor, James E. Child. 

This election was one of the most exciting held in Minne- 
sota, the Democrats having struck a popular chord with the 
laboring classes. In the decade previous to this time there was 
a wave of temperance reform in many States and several at- 
tempts were made to pass constitutional prohibitory amend- 
ments. Kansas in 1880 ratified such an act but though a pro- 
hibition Legislature was elected there was great opposition to the 
enforcement of prohibitory laws. Iowa also in 1882 ranged her- 
self on the side of radical temperance theories and the follow- 
ing year in Ohio the people for a third time voted in favor of 
prohibition. . In Indiana, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, 
Michigan, Nebraska, Massachusetts, New York, Illinois, Mis- 


gouri, West Virginia, Texas and Arkansas the amendment failed 
either by not passing the Legislature or not having received the 
requisite two-thirds vote. 

Local prohibition by local option was in force at this time 
in various portions of the United States, supplemented in some 
States by high license laws in connection with a distance limi- 
tation from school houses and churches, which were considered 
to be prohibitory in effect. 

There was an unsuccessful attempt to pass the prohibition 
constitutional amendment in Minnesota but there was, however, 
a growing agitation for the restraint of the liquor traffic which 
in the State campaign of 1886 influenced the Republican party 
to incorporate a plank in their platform advocating high license 
or local option. While no specified sum as a license fee was 
named the consensus of opinion seemed to favor a fee of 
$1,000 in cities of 10,000 inhabitants or over and half that 
amount in less populous localities. The Democrats while 
they expressed in their platform no stipulated sum were under- 
stood to favor a maximum fee of $500. This condition influenced 
many electors who held radical views upon the question to abstain 
from voting or to cast their ballot for James E. Child the Pro- 
hibition candidate. Those opposed to high license and local op- 
tion, including a large element that affuliated with the Repub- 
lican party, resented any restrictions that would increase the 
price or debar the sale of their favorite beverages, and mani- 
fested their hostility by working for the success of the Demo- 
cratic candidates which to quite an extent influenced the result. 

The entire Republican ticket was, however, elected; the 
vote for Governor being Republican, 107,068; Democratic, 104,- 
464; Prohibition 8,966; scattering, 37; Republican plurality, 
2,600. There was some talk among the Democrats of contesting 
the election of McGill, in fact Dr. Ames, their candidate, came 
to St. Paul and took the oath of office as Governor before a 
magistrate, but the matter never proceeded any further and 
McGill was inaugerated. 

In a resume of the election returns the Democrats carried 
twenty-seven counties; the counties carried by that party in 



1883 gave greatly increased majorities with the exception of 
Blue Earth, Clay, Fillmore, Meeker and Mille Lacs, all of which 
returned to the Republican fold except Blue Earth, the Demo- 
cratic plurality of 397 in that county in 1883 being reduced to 
138. The counties carried by the Democrats in 1886 which 
were Republican in 1883 were Aitken, Carlton, Crow Wing, 
Itaeca, Hubbard, McLeod, Hennepin, Ramsey, Rice, Todd, Tra- 
verse, Washington and Wilkin. Hennepin the home county of 
the Democratic candidate gave him 396 plurality while Ramsey 
County reversed the Republican advantage gained in 1883 by 
giving a Democratic majority of 4,869. McLeod County that 
went Republican in 1883 gave a Democratic plurality of 726. 

In the Congressional districts there were three Democrats 
and two Republicans elected. In the First District the Re- 
publican candidate, John A. Lovely, was defeated by Thomas 
Wilson, the Democratic nominee, by a vote of 17,491 to 14,633; 
D. H. Roberts received 1,458 votes. In the Second District 
John Lind, the Republican nominee, had 22,908 votes to A. H. 
Bullis, his Democratic opponent 13,260; there was also cast for 
George J. Day 2,114 votes. In the Third District John L. 
Macdonald Democrat was successful over his Republican com- 
petitor, B. B. Herbert, by a vote of 16,788 to 15,583; there 
was also cast in this district 988 votes for Noah Lathrop. In 
the Fourth District John B. Gilfillan who was re-nominated by 
the Republicans was defeated by Edmund Rice, his Democratic 
opponent, the vote being Rice 34,034, Gilfillan 28,909, Lyman 
W. Denton received 1,990 votes. The total vote cast in the 
Fourth District was larger than that of any other Congressional 
district in the United States in that year. There was little if 
any opposition to the re-election of Knute Nelson, he received 
43,937 votes; there were cast for J. Henry Long, a Prohibition 
candidate, 1,239 votes. 

The Congressman from the Fourth District, Edmund Rice, 
-was born in Waitsfield, Vermont, February 14, 1819. His 
father's death occurred when he was only ten years of age. Be- 
fore he was twenty years old he came West locating at Kalama- 
zoo, Michigan, where he read law and in 1842 was admitted to 


the bar; making commendable progress in his profession. He 
served in the Mexican War in 1847 and 1848 holding a com- 
mission of First Lieutenant in the First Michigan Volunteers. 
Mr. Rice came to St. Paul in 1849 and became the senior mem- 
ber of Rice, Hollinshead and Becker. He practiced his pro- 
fession until 1855 when he embarked in railroad enterprises. 
He was elected president in 1857 of the Minnesota and Pacific 
Railroad Company also of its successor, the St. Paul and 
Pacific and the St. Paul and Chicago Railroad Companies, per- 
forming a large amount of service in the organization and 
promotion of Minnesota's railway system. Mr. Rice was an un- 
compromising Democrat and became a prominent figure in the 
politics of the State; he was a Representative in the Territorial 
Legislature of 1851, a Senator in the State Legislatures of 1864, 
1865, 1873, 1874 and Representative in the sessions of 1867, 
1872, 1877 and 1878. He was mayor of St. Paul in 1881 and 
1882 also in 1884 which position he resigned to take his seat 
in Congress. He died at White Bear, July 11, 1889. 

Chapter XI. 

THE next occupant of the Gubernatorial chair was Andrew 
B. McGill. He was born in Crawford County, Penn- 
sylvania, February 19, 1840; his youth was spent on 
his father's farm, his education being obtained at the village 
academy. Governor McGill, in 1860, went to Kentucky, locat- 
ing near Covington, taught school and in the summer of the 
following year removed to St. Peter. In August, 1862, he en- 
listed in the Ninth Minnesota Infantry, after serving one year 
in the army he was discharged from the service on account of 
pulmonary troubles. He published and edited in 1864 and 
1865 the St. Peter Tribune. He served one term as clerk of 
the District Court and in 1868 was admitted to the bar. Gov- 
ernor Austin in 1870 appointed him his private secretary, and 
before the completion of his term of office as Governor, made 
him Insurance Commissioner, which position he held until his 
inauguration as chief executive officer of the State. He after- 
wards was postmaster of St. Paul, and died in that city October 
31, 1905. 


The Twenty-fifth Legislature assembled January 4, 1887, 
there were thirty-one Republicans, thirteen Democrats, one In- 
dependent, one Farmers' Alliance, and one Democrat and Farm- 
ers' Alliance in the Upper House, and sixty-six Republicans 
and thirty-seven opposition in the Lower House. 



The Senate was composed of new members, excepting D. F. 
Goodrich in the fifth, Thomas Welch in the eighteenth, A. H. 
Truax in the twenty-fifth, C. B. Buckman in the thirty-ninth. 
James Compton in the forty-third, and S. G. Comstock in the 
Forty-fourth District had been reelected. The pioneers of the 
State were well represented, there being twenty members who had 
settled in Minnesota previous to 1860, but one of these, however, 
Edward W. Durant, had been a resident previous to 1850. 
There were twenty-nine of the members natives of the United 
States, of these seven were from New England States, fifteen 
from the Middle States and seven from the Western States; of 
foreign nativity there were six Norwegians, four Swedes, two 
Germans, two Swiss, two Canadians, one Prussian and one 

The following members had been former Senators: Charles 
G. Edwards, Charles S. Crandall, Anders K. Finseth, and 
Edward W. Durant. Tosten Johnson, Warrington B. Brown, 
Mathias Nachbar, Elisha A. Child, Marcus Johnson, Frank A. 
Day, Milton J. Daniels, George W. Thacker, B. Sampson, 
Alonza J. Whitman, and Darwin S. Hall had been members of 
the House of Representatives. Among those that afterwards 
became prominently identified with the political history of the 
State, were the following: 

Frank A. Day, a native of Wisconsin, who settled in Min- 
nesota in 1874 and became connected with the Martin County 
Sentinel a newspaper published at Fairmont. He was a mem- 
ber of the State Legislature in 1878 and afterwards was a mem- 
ber of the Senate from 1891 to 1895, and on the promotion of 
David M. Clough as Governor' in the latter year, as president 
pro tern of the Senate, became acting Lieutenant Governor. 
He was chairman of the Democratic State Committee in 1904 
and 1906, and is now private secretary to Governor Johnson. 

Milton J. Daniels of Rochester, a native of New York, 
settled in Minnesota in 1857; at the breaking out of the Civil 
War he raised Company F, Ninth Minnesota Infantry, and was 
commissioned Captain. Returning from the war to Rochester, 
having been promoted to Brevet Major, he was elected cashier 



of the Union Savings Bank and upon the reorganization of that 
institution as the Union National Bank in 1873 was elected 
cashier, which position he held until the death of his father, 
J. V. Daniels, in the fall of 1881, when he became president of 
the bank. He was a member of the Legislatures of 1883 and 

Albert Scheffer, a native of Eheinberg, Prussia, and a 
banker of St. Paul, afterwards became a prominent candidate 
for the Eepublican nomination for Governor. The other Eamsey 
County district sent a Democrat, Robert A. Smith. He was 
private secretary to the second Territorial Governor, Willis A. 
Gorman, and was mayor of St. Paul, for a number of terms. 

James Compton, of Otter Tail County, was born in Mead- 
ville, Pennsylvania. In April, 1861, he enlisted in a Pennsyl- 
vania regiment, served three months as a private; in November 
the same year he re-enlisted in the Fifty-second Illinois Infan- 
try, was promoted to First Lieutenant, and for meritorious con- 
duct at the Battle of Shiloh was made a Captain. He came to 
Minnesota in 1872 settled at Fergus Falls "and engaged in 
banking. He was a member of the Senates of 1883 and 1887, 
and was commandant of the Minnesota Soldiers' Home. His 
death occurred suddenly at that institution in the winter of 

David M. Clough afterwards became Governor. Alonzo 
J. Whiteman of Duluth, the youngest man elected to the Senate 
for a score of years, was born in Dansville, New York, June 19, 
1860. He settled in Minnesota in 1882, after graduating from 
Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, and spending one year 
at the Columbia Law School in New York City. He was the 
first Democrat to be elected from Duluth to the Legislature, 
having been a member of the House of 1885. He afterwards 
obtained notoriety for criminal practices as a forger and for his 
latest offense of that character is now serving a term in a New 
York State penitentiary. 

A statistical review of the House of Representatives dis- 
closes the fact that of 103 members there were five that were 
natives of the State; forty-one had acquired a residence pre- 


vious to 1860 and forty-two were of foreign birth. There were 
fifty-seven of the members who followed farming for a liveli- 
hood, ten were merchants, eight lawyers, two bankers, the bal- 
ance were engaged in various occupations. There were only 
eight of the members who had been re-elected. D. A. Morrison, 
Ignatius Donnelly and Curtis H. Petitt had been members of 
earlier Senates, while Samuel P. Snider and Kittel Halverson 
were afterwards members of Congress, and William R. Merriam 
was to become the next Governor. 

One of the new members was Samuel G. Iverson, a native 
of Fillmore County, Minnesota, a graduate of the law depart- 
ment of the University of Michigan and present Auditor of the 

The House organized and elected William R. Merriam 
Speaker. Governor Hubbard in his farewell message called at- 
tention to the movement for the improvement of the Mississippi 
River as being of practical interest to the people of the State. 
Stating that by the improvement of the Western waterways a 
large portion of the products of the West could be more cheaply 
transported to market, and that imports of heavy merchandise, 
coal, etc., could be moved in competition to railroads in a man- 
ner that would assure minimum freight charges. The inau- 
guration of the Railway and Warehouse Commission created by 
the last Legislature, had resulted in an exhaustive investigation 
of the question of railway transportation, and had established 
a State policy of supervision and control of railroads that would 
prove of great advantage to the commonwealth. Though he ad- 
mitted that the problem could not be satisfactorily solved until 
the adoption by the general government of a federal policy to 
determine all questions relating to interstate commerce. He 
stated there were operating in the State 4,900 miles of railroads. 
During his five years of the occupancy of the Governor's chair, 
the population of the State had increased sixty per cent and 
the assessed real and personal estate from $271,158,961 in 1881 
to $458,241,777 in 1886. 

In his inaugural address Governor McGill called the atten- 
tion of the Legislature to the fact that the platforms of both 


parties favored the establishment of a Soldiers' Home. The 
major part of his message was devoted to a discussion of questions 
relating to railroad transportation, taxation of railroads and 
railroad lands, grain storage by railroad companies, watering of 
railroad stocks, wheat grading, cheap passenger rates, etc. 
In reference to the liquor traffic he said: 

At this session you will be called upon to consider measures looking 
to the further regulation of the liquor traffic. The people have pro- 
nounced in favor of high license, local option, and the rigid enforcement 
of the laws regulating the liquor traffic; and they now turn to you in 
the hope and expectation that you will, in the form of suitable legisla- 
tion, give effect to the verdict which they have found. Outside of tha 
limited number engaged in the liquor traffic in the State, the people 
by a very large majority and without regard to political parties, favored 
the measures proposed. 

The Legislature adjourned March 4, 1887. It- surpassed in 
industry all of its predecessors by passing 265 general laws, 
399 special laws and fifteen joint resolutions. Two most im- 
portant subjects of legislation were for the regulation of the 
sale of liquor and the restraint of railroad abuses. A local 
option law was passed and in those places where liquor selling 
was not prohibited, an annual license fee in cities of 10,000 in- 
habitants or over was fixed at $1,000, and for other places one- 
half of that amount. Liquor dealers were also required to give 
bonds for the faithful observance of all laws regulating their 
traffic. The law went into effect July 1, 1887, and by Septem- 
ber in a majority of the cities much improvement was manifest 
in the conduct of the business. There was on the average about 
one-third less saloons doing business, while the revenue derived 
from the remainder was fifty per cent greater than the total 
revenue under the old law. 

The railroad legislation consisted principally of a modifi- 
cation of the railroad commission law and the adoption of 
amendments embodying features intended to prevent rebates and 
pooling. The sale of watered stock was forbidden, companies 
were made liable for negligence of their servants in personal 
injury cases. 


Contract labor by convicts of the State or any munici- 
pality was forbidden; honorably discharged soldiers were to be 
given preference for public employment; a State Board of 
Medical Examiners was created, a Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
with a Labor Commissioner at its head was established and a 
Board of Emigration authorized. Telegraph and telephone com- 
panies were to be taxed. The probate and tax laws were to be 
revised, digested and codified; employers of female labor were 
required to furnish suitable seats for such employes. Women 
were to retain the same legal existence after as before marriage 
and sue or be sued in their own names, and possess the same legal 
rights as their husbands. Austin, Chatfield, Duluth, East 
Grand Forks and South St. Paul were incorporated as cities. 

Three constitutional amendments were proposed and were 
sanctioned by the people at the next general election. One pro- 
vided that a combination of persons seeking to monopolize the 
markets for food products in the State should be regarded a 
criminal conspiracy, a second increased the amount of exemp- 
tions from debt, while the third extended the session of the 
Legislature to ninety days. 

A resolution being before the House to make an appropria- 
tion for repairs to the Capitol, an attempt was made by some 
of the members to remove the Capitol to the shores of Kani- 
yohi Lake, locating the Capitol on the site of the ten sections 
selected by the Commissioners in 1857 in pursuance of the act 
of Congress granting land to the State for public buildings. A 
communication was received from the citizens of Minneota 
offering 640 acres of land and $3,000,000 to locate the Capitol 
at that point, also from the citizens of Crookston stating they 
would pledge themselves to raise $5,000,000 if the Capitol was 
located in that city. The matter of removal was, however, def- 
initely postponed and $20,000 appropriated to repair the Capi- 

In the State campaign of 1886 the election of a successor 
to Senator McMillan was one of the issues. Cushman K. Davis 
had for twelve years been prominently before the public as a 
probable candidate for the position. 


There had been three senatorial elections since Davis's de- 
feat in 1874, but like a wise student of politics he realized that 
St. Paul could not have two United Senators at the same time. 
Senator McMillan had been complimented by a re-election and 
now the time was propitious for the friends of Governor Davis 
to present his claims to the office. Governor Davis had always 
had a large following amongst the Republicans and many ear- 
nest friends among the Democrats. He had been careful to keep 
liimself free from entanglement in factional strife and was by 
long odds the most prominent and popular member of the 
party in the State. 

On the assembling of the Legislature, Senator McMillan re- 
turned from Washington, entertaining a hope that he might be 
elected for a third time, but on viewing the situation concluded 
there was no chance for him and withdrew his name. The 
Democrats nominated Michael Doran, but one ballot, however, 
was necessary to determine the election, Davis received every 
Republican vote except one cast for Gordon E. Cole, in joint 
convention his vote was 103, while Michael Doran received forty 
and Ara Barton two. 


The campaign for the election of State officers commenced 
in the summer of 1888, the Prohibitionists were the first to hold 
their convention which met at St. Paul, July 25, they nominated 
a full State ticket headed by Hugh Harrison for Governor. 
Their platform contained the usual prohibition declarations and 
demanded that Congress should prohibit the importation of li- 
quor into those States that had placed a ban upon the traffic. 
They also declared in favor of the imposition of various restric- 
tions by the Legislature upon the railroads of the State. 

On August 15 the Democratic State Convention was held at 
St. Paul, their nominee for Governor was Eugene M. Wilson, of 
Minneapolis. They commended in their platform the National 
Administration and policy, denounced the grain inspection laws 
of the State, deprecated the multiplicity of offices, accused the 



State government of extravagances and arraigned the State ex- 
ecutive for not interposing his veto for the protection of the 
State treasury against the schemes of the Legislature. Also that 
he had debased the civil service of the State to pay political 
debts; that even the judiciary had been prostituted by clothing 
with the judge's ermine incompetent parties to pay for services 
in the caucus and upon the stump. They thought the time had 
come to overthrow the politicians that had so long directed the 
affairs of the State. 

The most unique convention of the year was a conference of 
farmers and labor organizations that met at St. Paul, August 
28, under the name of the "Farm and Labor Party." They 
nominated a full State ticket headed by Ignatius Donnelly. 
The "Sage of Nininger," however, declined the honor, giving for 
his reason that at this time he was going to support the Repub- 
lican ticket, as he deemed it the surest way of securing the de- 
mands of the labor man. J. H. Paul was then substituted to 
fill the vacancy. 

The platform they adopted is replete with suggestions, it 
favored a revision of the tariff, government control of tele- 
graphs, restriction of railroads. Money issued for exchange was to 
be issued direct to the people without the intervention of banks, 
the Australian voting law which abolished the caucus system 
should be adopted, the right to vote was inherent in citizenship 
without regard to sex. The reduction of freight and passenger 
rates on railroads to a sum sufficient only to pay the operating 
and maintaining expenses and to return to the stockholders only 
a fair rate of interest for the actual cost of the roads was recom- 
mended. The enactment of laws for factory inspection to pro- 
tect the health and safety of employes, also for injuries sus- 
tained by them, was favored and that eight hours should con- 
stitute a day's work in all towns, and cities; that funds for meet- 
ing State and municipal contracts and weekly wages should be 
paid in lawful money. They concluded their platform with the 
following demand: "Any rate of interest above the average in- 
crease of wealth of the nation is robbery, therefore we demanded 
a reduction of interest in the State to a reasonable rate/' 


The Eepublicans met in convention on September 5. Their 
platform pledged the party to maintain the high license system, 
and commended the administration of Governor McGill and ap- 
proved of civil service reform, the interstate commerce law and 
liberal pensions. They favored modification, readjustment and 
reduction of the tariff, but that the measures should be so 
framed that while it relieved the people of unnecessary taxation, 
it would not enter into competition with American industries. 
They declared their hostility to trusts and to all monopolistic 
combinations that seek to limit the production, price and con- 
trol of the commodities of the country. They approved of a 
reform in the voting system, also a revision of the laws of im- 
migration and naturalization and the prohibition of the im- 
portation of contract labor. 

The candidates before the convention for Governor were 
Governor McGill, who sought a re-nomination, Albert Scheffer, 
a banker of St. Paul, also William R. Merriam, who as pre- 
siding officer of the House of Representatives at its last session 
had used that position as a stepping stone to the Governorship, 
and who was unwilling to curb his ambitious projects to give 
McGill a second term, became a candidate without the support 
of his home county delegates. By means of agents he had made 
a thorough canvass of the State, winning converts for his cause 
amongst the agricultural districts, while coquetting with the 
members of the Farmers' Alliance Party for their support. 

Governor McGill was supported by Hennepin County, while 
Ramsey County favored Scheffer. Charles A. Gilman, of St. 
Cloud, was the dark horse in the convention and was looked 
upon as a possible compromise candidate. The first formal 
ballot resulted in Merriam receiving 169 votes, McGill 138, 
Scheffer 106 and Gilman twenty-eight. On the fourth ballot 
Merriam was nominated, his vote being 270, Scheffer, 72 and 
Gilman, 101. There was much newspaper talk about corruption 
in the nomination, and that McGill was unjustly set aside. 

The Presidential and State elections were held in 1888 on 
the same day for the first time in Minnesota. It resulted in 
an overwhelming victory for the Republicans, the three Congres- 


sional districts carried by the Democrats in 1886 were regained 
and though their candidate for Governor ran over 5,000 behind 
his ticket he was elected by a substantial plurality and the Re- 
publicans secured a majority of ninety on a joint ballot in the 
Legislature. The vote for President was Harrison 142,251, 
Cleveland 104,385, Fisk 15,311. The Governor's vote was 
Merriam 134,355, Wilson 110,251, Harrison 17,026, Paul 385. 

There were eighteen counties carried by the Democrats for 
their State ticket, namely: Benton, Brown, Carver, Cook, 
Dakota, Hubbard, Itasca, Le Sueur, McLeod, Morrison, Pine, 
Ramsey, Scott, Sibley, Stearns, Traverse, Wabasha, and Winona, 
by reduced majorities from 1886, with the sole exception of 
Stearns County. The counties of Pine and Traverse gave ma- 
jorities for the Presidential Republican ticket. 

In the First Congressional District Thomas Wilson was 
defeated for a re-election by Mark H. Dunnell, the vote being 
for the latter 18,829 to 16,985 for the former; Robert Taylor, 
the Prohibitionist candidate received 1,568 votes. In the Second 
District John Lind, Republican, defeated Morton S. Wilkinson, 
Democrat, by a vote of 25,699 to 16,480; the Prohibitionist 
candidate, D. W. Edwards, polled 2,924 votes. In the Third 
District John L. Macdonald was defeated for re-election by 
Darwin S. Hall the Republican nominee, he receiving 19,259 
votes to his competitor's 16,391; for the Prohibitionist can- 
didate C. A. Fosnes, there were cast 1,843 votes. In the Fourth 
District Samuel P. Snider, on the Republican ticket, defeated 
Edmund Rice for re-election, Snider 44,329, Rice 34,323; the 
candidate on the Prohibition ticket, J. P. Pinkham, received 
3,721. In the Fifth District Solomon G. Comstock, the Re- 
publican candidate, received 31,350 while 23,831 were cast for 
Charles Canning, Democratic nominee, and 4,254 for Z. D. 
Scott, Prohibitionist. 

Darwin S. Hall was born in Kenosha, Wisconsin. He re- 
ceived an academic education. He enlisted in the Fifty-second 
Wisconsin Infantry, and served with his regiment to the close of 
the war. In 1886 he settled in Renville County and engaged in 
farming. He was a member of the Minnesota House of Rep- 
resentatives in 1876 and the Senate in 1887. 


Samuel P. Snider was born in Mount Gilead, Ohio, October 
9, 1845. He came to Minneapolis in 1876 and became inter- 
ested in real estate. His military record is as follows: Enlisted 
December, 1861, in Company D, Sixty-fifth Ohio Infantry; 
afterwards Captain Thirteenth United States Colored Infantry; 
wounded at the Battle of Stone Elver, Tennessee; and at Chick- 
amauga received a disabling wound through his left hand. He 
was a member of the House of the Minnesota Legislature 
ill the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth sessions. 

Solomon G. Comstock was born in Argyle, Maine, May 9, 
1842; he received an academic education, studied law and at- 
tended the law school of the University of Michigan. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1869, and the following year came to Min- 
nesota. He was a member of the House of Representatives in 
the State Legislature from 1876 to 1882 with the exception of 
one session and was elected to the Senate in 1882 and again 
in the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth sessions. 

Chapter XII. 

THE election of William Kush Merriam to the highest 
State office in the gift of the people, was a departure 
from the beaten track of State politics heretofore fol- 
lowed. He had no military record to his credit, nor had he 
distinguished himself in any civil positions of importance. He 
had been treasurer of the Board of Education of St. Paul, rep- 
resented his district in the Lower House of the Legislature for 
two terms and was Speaker one term. He was identified with 
the State Agricultural Association as its president. In the 
prime of life; not quite forty years of age, on his inauguration 
as Governor; he was simply a prominent and active business 
man, who had developed a decided taste for politics, which he 
indulged in almost to excess. 

Governor Merriam. was born in Wadham's Mills, New York, 
July 26, 1849. His father, Colonel John L. Merriam, removed 
to St. Paul when young Merriam was only twelve years of age. 
On his maternal side he was of French extraction, and his pa- 
ternal ancestors were Scotch. 

Young Merriam, at the age of fifteen entered an academy 
at Eacine, Wisconsin; afterwards a college in that city and 
graduated in 1871 as the valedictorian of his class. Ee- 
turning to St. Paul after his graduation, he secured a position 
as clerk in the First National Bank! In 1873 he was elected 
cashier of the Merchants' National Bank; seven years later, he 
became vice-president of that institution, and in 1889 president, 
which position he held at the time of his inauguration as Gov- 



ernor. After his Gubernatorial terms lie engaged in real estate 
operations at West Superior, Wisconsin, at Chicago, and at 
Tacoma, Washington. He was also interested in electric rail- 
ways and water works, and many of these ventures proved un- 
successful. McKinley appointed him Director of the National 
Census of 1900. Governor Merriam is now (1908) a resident 
of Washington, D. C. 


The Twenty-sixth Legislature began its session January 8, 
1889. It was composed of thirty-one Eepublicans and sixteen 
opposition in the Senate and eighty-nine Eepublicans, eleven 
Democrats, two Independents and one Independent Eepublican 
in the House, which gave the Eepublicans ninety majority on 
joint ballot. The only change in the membership of the Senate 
from the preceding session was in the Forty-fourth District, 
where Elon G. Holmes, a banker, of Detroit, succeeded Solomon 
G. Comstock, who resigned on account of his election to Con- 

In the House there were thirteen members re-elected. The 
foreign element did not predominate so largely - as in the last 
House. There were thirty naturalized citizens, while nineteen 
members were natives of the State. There were thirty-seven 
farmers, nineteen .lawyers, and thirteen merchants amongst the 
members. The oldest member was Stephen B. Barteau, of 
Zumbrota, who was born in 1816 and who cast his first vote for 
President William Henry Harrison. John McNelly and Jul- 
ius H. Ackerman, Jared Benson, B. M. James, Joseph Swain, 
Marcus Wing, J. C. Flynn, Charles G. Halgren, Frederick W. 
Hoyt, C. W. H. Heideman, Fred Lossow and Martin A. Ma- 
Innd had represented their districts in previous Legislatures. 

Among the new candidates for Legislative honors were 
Charles E. Davis, of St. Peter, the present Eepresentative in 
Congress from the Third District; E. C. Dunn, of Princeton, 
the defeated Eepublican candidate for Governor in 1904; Fred- 
erick C. Stevens, of St. Paul, the present Eepresentative in 


Congress from the Fourth District, and Edward T. Young, of 
Appleton, the present Attorney General of the State. 

From Houston County came a Democrat, James C. Kelly, 
who defeated G. F. Potter for re-election by a plurality of four 
votes, being the only member of his party to be elected in that 
county. From the Democratic county of Le Sueur came a Re- 
publican, Joseph C. Swain, a native of Pennsylvania and a resi- 
dent of Minnesota since 1856. The Twentieth District sent as 
one of its Representatives, Hudson Wilson, president of the 
Citizens' National Bank of Faribault. He was born in the 
Buckeye State, in 1830, settled in Minnesota in 1857, and had 
been engaged in banking for thirty-two years, and for twenty 
years was treasurer of the Board of Directors of the Minnesota 
Institute for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind, and for the School for 
Idiots and Imbeciles. 

Frederick W. Hoyt, of Red Wing, the member from Good- 
hue County, was born in New York, received a university edu- 
cation and was admitted to the bar in 1865. He was president 
of the Duluth, Red Wing and Southern Railroad, and was en- 
gaged in various manufacturing interests in his residential city. 

From the Twenty-eighth District came Alvah Eastman, of 
Anoka. He was born in Lowell, Maine, and, after receiving a 
common school education, at the age of fifteen entered a news- 
paper office, where he served three years. In 1880 he came to 
Minnesota and became editor and proprietor of the Anoka' 
Herald. He is at the present time (1908) a resident of St. 
Cloud. Frank E. Searles, of St. Cloud, a Republican elected 
in the Democratic county of Stearns, as a business man's can- 
didate, was a native of New York and located in Minnesota in 
1873. He was admitted to the bar in 1876 and was for four 
years United States District Attorney for Minnesota, George T. 
Barr, interested in banking at Mankato, and a former mayor of 
the city, was one of the Representatives from the Tenth District. 

The House organized and chose Charles Hinman Graves, of 
Duluth, Speaker. The presiding officer was born in Springfield, 
Massachusetts. He received a common school and academic edu- 
cation. He enlisted as a private soldier in June, 1861, in the 


Fortieth New York Volunteers and was promoted to Lieutenant 
and Captain in that regiment; afterwards he became Major, 
Assistant Adjutant General, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel and 
Colonel in the United States Volunteer service, and first Lieu- 
tenant, Captain, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel in the regular army 
and resigned in 1870; the last four years of his service he was 
stationed in Minnesota, After his resignation from the army, 
he located at Duluth, where he engaged in merchandising. He 
was State Senator from 1873 to 1876, inclusive, and mayor 
of Duluth two terms. He was afterwards member of the Capi- 
tol Commission, and is at present (1908) Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of Sweden. 

Governor McGill devoted the first part of his final message 
to railroad affairs. He stated that since the passage of the inter- 
state commerce laws, and the appointment of a State Railroad 
Commission, the tendency of rates had been constantly down- 
ward. He advocated the formation of a pardoning board to 
pass upon the applications of convicts for pardon, the board to 
report its findings and recommendations to the Governor. High 
license, Red River Valley drainage, civil service, a geological 
survey of the State and reapportiomnent were a few of the many 
subjects commented upon by the retiring Governor. 

Governor Merriam, in his inaugural address said: "The 
industrial development and growth in population of Minnesota 
during the last "quarter of a century are almost without parallel 
in the history of the States. The transition from an undevel- 
oped territory to the majesty of a great State has been so rapid 
that we might well believe the change was wrought by the 
hand of magic." In his message he was a zealous eulogist 
of the State; State revenues, agricultural conditions, railroad 
transportation, and the reapportionment elective system, were a 
few of the subjects to which the attention of the Legislature 
was called. He advocated the selling of the Capitol site and 
lands in Kandiyohi County, the establishment of a technological 
institute at Duluth, and a stricter enforcement of the game 


The Legislature adjourned April 23, 1889. The most im- 
portant act of the session was the establishment in cities of 
10,000 inhabitants or over, a secret system of voting, similar to 
the Australian system. The State Auditor was required to fur- 
nish to such cities, at the State's expense, printed white ballots 
containing the names of all the candidates to - be voted for 
throughout the State, and all constitutional amendments; the 
county auditors, at the county's expense were to furnish blue 
ballots containing the names of the candidates to. be voted for 
throughout the county, and city clerks were to furnish red 
ballots containing the names to be voted for throughout the 
city. Each candidate on the white ticket was to pay a fee of 
$50; candidates on the blue ballots $10 and those on the red $5. 
The voter's choice was to be indicated by a cross opposite the 
name of the candidate, or, if he wished to vote the whole ticket, 
by a cross at a place designated at the top of the ticket. Booths 
were to be provided at the polling places, and the ballots were 
to be blocked and each signed on the back by the initials of the 
ballot clerk distributing them. The voter was to retire to the 
booth alone, indicate his choice on the ticket and fold the ballot 
so that the initials of the clerk would appear on the outside, and 
hand it to the election judge, who was to deposit it, if properly 
signed, in the white, red, or blue ballot boxes respectively. 

A board of registration was established in the cities, every 
ward to constitute an election district, with the proviso that no 
district should contain more than four hundred voters. Polls 
were open from 6 A. M. to 5 P. M.; the hour of closing was 
afterwards changed to 7 P. M. A penalty was imposed upon 
the voter for disclosing his choice, or any one interfering with 
him while preparing his -ballot, and for other violations of the 
law. The bill was introduced by John A. Keyes, of Winona, 
and was modeled after the election laws of Michigan. 

A new law regulating the execution of criminals was passed, 
prohibiting the details from being published in newspapers. No 
persons were to be admitted as witnesses to an execution except 
a clergyman or priest, a doctor, three persons selected by the 
prisoner, and six persons selected by the sheriff, it specifically 


prohibited the presence of newspaper representatives or reporters. 
By another act, a person that served two terms of not less than 
three years in prison was declared a habitual criminal, and on a 
third conviction was to be sentenced for twenty-one years. 

The State was redistricted for members of the Legislature. 
A new probate code was established. Memorial Day and Wash- 
ington's birthday were made legal holidays. The sum of 
$12,000 was appropriated for the publication of the history of 
Minnesota soldiers in the Civil War. Appropriations were made 
for the erection of monuments to commemorate the Battle of 
New Ulm and the surrender of the prisoners held by the Indians 
at Camp Release during the Sioux outbreak of 1862; also for a 
bronze tablet to be erected at the point on the battlefield of 
Gettysburg where Pickett's assault was repulsed by the Union 
troops, the First Minnesota Infantry being the most noted in 
that daring action. 

Another act prohibited the gift or sale of cigarettes, cigars 
or tobacco to minors under sixteen years of age, the penalty 
being thirty days' imprisonment, or a fine of $50 or both. The 
inmates of the Soldiers' Home were declared to be legal resi- 
dents of the city in which it is located. The- cities of Barnes- 
ville, Little Falls, Sauk Centre, Tower, and West St. Paul were 
incorporated. Articles of incorporation were granted to the 
Minnesota Society for the Prevention of Cruelty, also for the 
Young Men's Christian Association. 

By a resolution of both Houses, Henry George was invited 
to address the Legislature on the subject of the single tax. 
Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, ex-Vice President of the United 
States, was, on February 19, a guest of the Legislature. A con- 
current resolution was adopted in recognition of the Presidential 
administration of Grover Cleveland as wise and patriotic; also 
one extending congratulations to Charles Stewart Parnell for 
his triumph over The London Times and the vindication of his 
honor as a man and a true patriot. 

The term of Senator Sabin as United States Senator, ex- 
pired March 4, 1889, and on the assembling of the Legislature a 
vigorous campaign was commenced for the election of his sue- 


cessor. Sabin was a candidate for re-election; his principal com- 
petitor was William D. Washburn, of Minneapolis. The Sena- 
torial contest began with the election of Speaker. C. H. Graves, 
of Duluth, was the candidate of the Sabin interests, and D. F. 
Morrison, of Albert Lea, of Washburn's followers. Graves re- 
ceived the caucus nomination which was considered as pre- 
saging victory for Sabin. 

There were one hundred and twenty-five Republicans in the 
Legislature. At a meeting of Washburn's supporters there were 
only thirty-five present, although they were the leaders of the 
party, and really counted more than that numerically. Ignatius 
Donnelly was an avowed candidate, more to antagonize Wash- 
burn's chances than with any hope of being successful himself. 
He did not have sufficient support to become a caucus nominee, 
but had been endorsed by the State Farmers' Alliance at an 
annual meeting held just before the opening of the Legislative 

The Eepublicans hardly knew whether they wanted to go 
into caucus or not, but finally decided to hold one. Accordingly 
the caucus was held on January 17. There were one hundred 
and twenty-one members present. On the first formal ballot 
Washburn received fifty-two votes; Sabin forty-three; Donnelly 
fifteen; Knute Nelson seven, and there were a few other scat- 
tering votes. There were three subsequent ballots, and when 
on the second Washburn lost two votes and Sabin gained nine, 
the result being Washburn fifty-six and Sabin fifty-five, there 
was much confidence on the part of Sabin's friends of his 
speedy nomination; but on the next ballot Washburn received 
sixty-two and thereby became the nominee of the caucus. 

Sabin afterwards claimed he had sixty-eight pledged votes. 
The usual rumors of bribery were afloat. Both Houses of the 
Legislature passed resolutions and appointed committees for in- 
vestigation, the object being to form the basis of a bolt from 
the caucus nominee. Senator Sabin, however, did not encour- 
age such proceedings. Under the laws of Congress the vote for 
Senator had to be taken on the following Tuesday, and on the 
night of that day the Senate met in secret session and the 


testimony taken before the committee was read from the steno- 
graphic notes. After the reading, without debate, the committee 
making no recommendations, it was left to each Senator to de- 
cide his course of action for himself. The result was that the 
Senate decided to ballot for United States Senator, and at mid- 
night a ballot was taken. Washburn received twenty-four votes; 
Eugene M. Wilson three. There were present fifteen members 
who refused to vote; of these three were Republicans and twelve 
were Democrats. 

The House Commitee having presented a report stating that 
it had discovered no evidence of bribery, the House proceeded 
to ballot for Senator with the following result: William D. 
Washburn, eighty; Edward W. Durant, nine; Charles M. Start, 
eight; Eugene M. Wilson, two; and Moses E. Clapp, one. Wash- 
burn having received a majority of the votes in the House and 
not in the Senate, it became necessary the following day to hold 
a joint convention and the first ballot resulted in the election 
cf Washburn, he receiving one hundred and seven votes. 

William Drew Washburn was born in Livennore, Maine, 
January 14, 1831, and was the youngest of the noted Washburn 
brothers. His primary education was obtained in the district 
school. He afterwards taught school and worked upon his 
father's farm' until twenty years of age; prepared himself for 
college and by his unaided efforts entered Bowdoin College, 
graduating in 1854. He was admitted to the bar in 1857, and 
the same year came to Minneapolis as agent of the Minneapolis 
Company, in which he afterwards became a partner. 

President Lincoln, in 1861, appointed him Surveyor Gen- 
eral of Minnesota. During his term of office of four years he 
resided in St. Paul. On his return to Minneapolis he built a 
large saw mill and engaged extensively in the lumber trade. 
He was also connected with a large lumber and flour mill at 
Anoka, and in association with others erected the Palisade Flour 
Mills at Minneapolis. He was the active leader in the promotion 
of the Minneapolis and St. Louis and Minneapolis and Pacific 
Railways, and also of the Minneapolis, Sault Ste. Marie and 
Atlantic Railway, of which company he became president in 


1883, a position he held for many years. Senator Washburn 
was a member of the State Legislature two terms and was in 
the Lower House of Congress three terms. He has been closely 
identified with the growth and prosperity of Minneapolis, 
where he now resides and is one of its most distinguished citi- 


The first State ticket in the field in the summer of 1890 
was that of the Prohibitionists, who held their convention at St. 
Paul, June 26, and nominated J. P. Pinkham for Governor. 
Their platform, in addition to the usual declarations on the pro- 
hibition question, contained planks favoring various reforms de- 
manded by the Farmers' Alliance. Some days prior to the hold- 
ing of this convention the executive committee of the Alliance 
had issued a call for a State convention of that order to be held 
at St. Paul, July 16, for the purpose of taking independent poli- 
tical action. This call was issued in response to instructions 
from a large number of local Alliances and met with the ap- 
proval of the order throughout the State. 

The Farmers' Alliance was a national organization of agri- 
culturists for mutual improvement and the furtherance of their 
political interests. It was founded in New York, about the year 
1873, and was an anti-secret organization. It spread rapidly. 
Its largest development, until about 1890, was in 1883 and 1884. 
There were various other organizations of farmers, some secret 
and others benevolent associations, namely; "The Agricultural 
Wheel," "The Farmers' Union." "The Alliance of Texas," and 
the "Farmers' Union of Louisiana." These organizations, which 
had come together under one national organization in 1889, 
adopted a plan of confederation with the "Knights of Labor," and 
the name was changed to the "National Farmers' Alliance and 
Industrial Union." There was much confusion as to name, 
however, owing to the fact that each State had its own particular 
name; and so "Unions," "Wheels" and "Alliances" existed all 
over the country. The subordinate bodies, however, conformed 


to the constitution of the national organization, and obtained 
charters from them. No Alliance, Wheel or Union, however, 
could use any secret work other than that permitted by the 
national constitution. 

The expressed purpose of the order was: 

1. To labor for the Government in a strictly non-partisan spirit, 
and to bring about a more perfect union of all classes. 

2. To demand equal rights for all and special privileges for none. 

3. To approve the motto: "In things essential, unity; and in all 
things, charity. 

4. To develop a better state, mentally, morally, socially, and fin- 

5. To strive constantly to secure harmony and good will to all 
mankind, and brotherly love among ourselves. 

6. To suppress personal, local, sectional and national prejudices, 
all unhealthy rivalry and all selfish ambition. 

7. To visit the homes where lacerated hearts are bleeding, to as- 
suage the sufferings of a brother or sister, to bury the dead, care for 
the widows, educate the orphans, exercise charity towards offenders, 
construe words and deeds in their most favorable light, grant honesl.y 
of purpose and good intentions to others, and protect the principles 
of the Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union until death. 

Women were admitted to full membership, but paid neither 
dues or fees. No person was eligible to membership who was 
under sixteen years of age. The plan of action was first to 
agree upon a needed reform, then to endeavor to persuade each 
political party to legislate in that behalf. If all parties failed 
to accomplish reform the Alliance should devise ways to en- 
force it. That the reforms must come through legislation was 
recognized, but that it required a separate ticket in the field was 
not deemed necessary. If legislation could not be shaped in any 
other way, the Alliance was to nominate its own candidates. 
State Alliance exchanges were established which enabled the 
fanners to purchase machinery and commodities at wholesale 

At the annual meeting of the National Farmers' Alliance 
and Industrial Union in 1889 friendly greetings were exchanged 
with the Prohibition and Single Tax parties. At the meeting in 
1890 a platform was adopted demanding the abolition of na- 


-? v if. So 


tional banks, and the adoption of Federal laws preventing the 
dealing in futures of all agricultural and mechanical products; 
the free and unlimited coinage of silver; the passage of laws 
prohibiting the alien ownership of lands, the doctrine of equal 
rights to all and special privileges to none, and the issuing of 
fractional currency by Congress. Amendments were incorpor- 
ated calling for the experiment of Government control of all 
means of transportation and communication "and absolute 
ownership if this plan proves inadequate." An approval was 
also given to the sub-treasury bill then before Congress, which 
provided that whenever a county could show that over $500,000 
worth of wheat, corn, oats, or cotton had been, raised, a sub- 
treasury should be established within its limits to enable the 
farmer to deposit his produce, whatever it might be, and receive 
therefor treasury notes for eighty per cent of its value, which 
were to be legal tender. 

A call was also issued for a national conference at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, in 1891 to discuss the forming a third political party. 
This conference was held and on May 19, 1891, the People's 
Party was founded. A national committee was appointed and 
authorized to make satisfactory coalition with other reform or- 
ganizations and to call a convention of the People's Party the 
following year for the purpose of nominating a national presi- 
dential ticket. 

The Farmers' Alliance convention of Minnesota, met at the 
specified date and was called to order by R. J. Hall, who stated 
that the farmers of the State had decided upon taking independ- 
ent action that would ultimately result in the formation of a 
new political party. Ignatius Donnelly was present, defined his 
position and said he woul support the ticket nominated. Labor 
delegates to the number of fifty-three were admitted; the Al- 
liance members of the convention aggregated 452. 

The platform adopted demanded that the war tariff should 
be revised; declared for the Governmental control of railroads, 
for free and open markets for grain, and for a schedule rail- 
road rate similar to that in force in Iowa. Mortgage indebted- 
ness was to be deducted from the tax on realty. The platform 


further opposed the giving away of valuable franchises to rail- 
road corporations by the State and municipalities; favored the 
improvement of waterways, also that the Australian system of 
voting should be established throughout the whole State. United 
States Senators and Railroad Commissioners should be elected 
by the people, and the settlement of strikes was to be by arbi- 

The candidates put in nomination for Governor were Knute 
Nelson, Ignatius Donnelly, Daniel Buck, R. J. Hall, Henry 
Plowman and James H. Baker, the last named, withdrew 
his name. On the second formal ballot Ignatius Donnelly re- 
ceived 238 votes. R. J. Hall 220, Daniel Buck 232. Mr. Don- 
nelly then withdrew his name, and at the commencement of 
the third ballot Sidney M. Owen exhibited such strength that 
he was nominated by acclamation. Mr. Owen was a Democrat 
and editor of the Farm, Stock and Home, an agricultural jour- 
nal published at Minneapolis, where he resided. A prohibition 
plank in the platform failed to meet with the approval of the 
convention, but the candidate for Lieutenant Governor, J. 0. 
Barrett, nominated by that party, was endorsed. The Alliance 
candidates nominated for Auditor and Attorney General, declined 
to serve and the Democratic nominee for Auditor, Adolph Bier- 
mann, and the Prohibitionist nominee for Attorney General, 
Robert Taylor, were substituted. 

The Republicans, at their convention at St. Paul, July 24, 
in their platform endorsed the National and State Administra- 
tions; and also declared that the tariff laws should be so ad- 
justed as to protect American industries. The platform ap- 
proved of the reciprocity treaties with Southern and Central 
American Republics; claimed that the high license policy in 
regard to the liquor selling in the State had inaugurated the best 
and most efficient methods of dealing with the evils attendant 
upon such traffic. It favored discriminating legislation on the 
subject of immigration, a reduction of the legal rate of interest, 
the introduction of a binding twine industry in the State prison 
and supplying the product to the citizens of the State at the 
cost of production. It approved of the Australian system of 
voting for the entire State, and recommended its adoption. 


An informal ballot for Governor was taken resulting in 
William B. Merriam receiving 350 votes, Knute Nelson seventy- 
four and William W. Braden thirty-four. A motion was made 
and carried to make the ballot formal. Joseph Bobleter was 
re-nominated for Treasurer, and Moses E. Clapp for Attorney 
General. Gideon S. Ives became the candidate for Lieutenant 
Governor, Fred P. Brown for Secretary of State and Peter J. 
McGuire for Auditor. 

The Democratic State convention met at St. Paul, Sep- 
tember 9. Thomas Wilson was unanimously nominated for Gov- 
ernor at the head of a full State ticket. 

The rapid growth in popularity of the Alliance principles 
was a market feature of the canvass preceding the November 
election. Merriam received 88,111 votes; Wilson 85,844; Owen, 
58,514; and Pinkham, 8,424; a plurality for Merriam of 2,267. 
The Eepublicans on the State ticket were elected, with the ex- 
ception of the candidate for Auditor, who was defeated by 
Adolph Biermann, the nominee of the Democratic and Alliance 
parties. The Eepublican pluralities for State offices were much 
larger than those for Governor, ranging from 8,347 to 12,463; 
Biermann's majority was 22,722. 

An analysis of the vote showed that the Democrats carried 
seventeen counties, Benton, Brown, Carver, Dakota, Hennepin, 
Houston, Le Sueur, McLeod, Morrison, Olmsted, Eamsey, Scott, 
Sibley, Stearns, Wabasha, Waseca and Winona. They lost five 
counties carried in 1888; Cook, Itasca and Pine that went for 
Merriam; Hubbard and Traverse were carried for Owen. The 
Farmers' Alliance party drew its strength mostly from the Ee- 
publican party, and principally from the Scandinavian nation- 
alities. The defection of the latter may have been from two 
causes: first, that they were strongly imbued with the principles 
and doctrines of the Farmers' Alliance platform, and, secondly, 
the neglect of the Eepublican party to properly recognize their 
nationality in the formation of its State ticket. 

Owen carried twenty-four counties, namely: Chippewa, 
Chisago, Dodge, Douglas, Grant, Hubbard, Jackson, Kittson, Lac 
qui Parle, Lincoln, Lyon, Marshall, Murray, Norman, Otter 


Tail, Pipestone, Polk, Pope, Renville, Stevens, Swift, Traverse, 
Wilkin and Yellow Medicine. 

The election in the Congressional districts resulted in the 
choice of three Democrats, one Farmers' Alliance, and one Re- 
publican. In the First District W. H. Harries, the Democratic 
candidate, defeated Mark H. Dunnell for re-election by a vote of 
17,198 to 14,875. In the Second District John Lind was re- 
elected by a plurality of 482; Lind, Republican, 20,788; Baker, 
Alliance, 20,306. In the Third District 0. M. Hall, Democrat, 
defeated Darwin S. Hall, Republican, for re-election, by a vote 
of 17,539 to 13,106; the Alliance and Prohibition parties each 
had a candidate in the district. In the Fourth District S. P. 
Snider, Republican, was defeated for re-election by James N. 
Castle, Democrat, by a vote of 35,903 to 30,175; the Prohi- 
bitionist candidate in this district had 3,382 votes. In the 
Fifth District S. G. Comstock, Republican, was defeated for re- 
election by Kittel Halverson, the Alliance candidate, the former 
receiving 19,372 votes to the latters' 21,154. The Democratic 
candidate in this district received 16,203 votes. 

William Henry Harries, of Caledonia, was born in Mont- 
gomery County, Ohio, January 15, 1843. He removed to La 
Crosse, Wisconsin, where in 1861 he enlisted as 'a private in the 
Second Wisconsin Infantry and rose from the grade of non- 
commissioned officer to a Second and First Lieutenancy in that 
regiment. He was commissioned Captain in the Third United 
States Veteran Volunteers in General Hancock's Corps. He 
was severely wounded at the Battle of Antietam, and was dis- 
charged from the service in April, 1866. He then studied law, 
and graduated from Ann Arbor Law School. He located in 
Houston County, and was admitted to the bar. His political 
affiliations were with the Democratic party and he had held 
county and village offices. He is at present (1908 1 ) Secretary of 
the State Soldiers' Home Board. 

Osee Matson Hall, of Red Wing, was born in Conneaut, 
Ohio, and was a graduate of Williams College in the class of 
1868. He located in his residential city in 1869 and was a 
member of the legal fraternity. He is at present (1908) mem- 
ber of the State Tax Commission. 


James N. Castle, of Stillwater, was a native of Sheffield, 
Province of Quebec, Canada. He received a common school edu- 
cation, read law and was admitted to practice. He came to Min- 
nesota in 1862, taught school and in 1865 was elected county 
attorney of Washington County. The following year he located 
at Stillwater, and prior to his election to Congress had repre- 
sented his district in the Senate in six legislatures. 

Kittel Halverson, of North Forks, was born at Tolmarken, 
Norway, December 15, 1846. His parents emigrated to the 
United States, settling in Wisconsin, before he was of age. He 
enlisted in the Union army in 1863 as a private in the First 
Regiment Wisconsin Heavy Artillery. In 1865 he removed to 
Minnesota, engaged in farming and stock raising, and in time 
became identified with the Farmers' Alliance, which party elected 
him to the State Legislature in 1887. 

Chapter XIII. 


THE Twenty-seventh Legislature assembled January 6, 
1896. The new apportionment law of 1889 divided 
the State into fifty-four Senatorial and Representative 
districts. The Senate was to consist of fifty-four members, 
the House of Representatives of one hundred and fourteen mem- 
bers. The advent of the Farmers' Alliance party and the 
strength of its following had upset all political calculations in 
the State. In some districts there had been a fusion of the 
Democratic and Alliance parties; but in a majority of the 
counties there were three, and sometimes four, separate tickets 
in the field. In the Ramsey County districts party politics were 
harmonized for the reason that the vital question of the retention 
of the capital was paramount to all other considerations. In 
three or the four Senatorial districts there were tickets labeled, 
"Citizen's Republican" and "Citizen's Democrat." The only 
opposition to them was in one district where there was a Pro- 
hibition Senatorial candidate. 

In the Wright and Sherburne County district, and also in 
the Kandiyohi County and Forty-ninth District, the last named 
comprising Big Stone, Grant, Stevens, and Traverse Counties 
the candidates for Senator on Independent Republican tickets 
were elected, notwithstanding there was a regular Republican 
ticket in the field. The political make up of the Senate was 
twenty Republicans, fifteen Democrats, thirteen Alliance, two 



Citizen's Republicans, one Citizen's Democrat, and three Inde- 
pendent Republicans. In the House there were forty-seven 
Democrats, thirty-eight Republicans, twenty-four Alliance, two 
Citizen's Democrats, two Alliance and Prohibition, and one Al- 
liance and Republican. 

In the Senate the Republicans had re-elected Henry Burk- 
hardt, of Wabasha County; Prank A. Day, of Martin County; 
C. S. Crandall, of Steele County. A. Y. Eaton, of Wright 
County, an Independent Republican, again represented his dis- 
trict, although the number had been changed from the thirty- 
third to the Thirty-eighth District. Henry Keller, of Stearns 
County, a Democrat, was also re-elected. 

There was one native of the State in the Senate, James C. 
Kelly, a Democrat, from the Republican county of Houston, 
who had been a member of the previous House of Representa- 
tives. George T. Barr, of Mankato; Charles R. Davis, of St. 
Peter; Eric Sevatson, of Windom; John Day Smith, of Minne- 
apolis; Hiram P. Stevens, of St. Paul, were all members of the 
House of Representatives of 1889. R. 0. Craig, of Waseca 
County; Samuel D. Peterson, of Brown County; Ignatius Don- 
nelly, of Dakota County, and John B. Sanborn-and Charles H. 
Lienau, of Ramsey County, had been members of earlier Senates, 
while J. W. 'Peterson, of Goodhue County, had been a member 
of the Senate, with the exception of two sessions, since 1881. 

There was a contest in the Washington County district. J. 
S. O'Brien, the Democratic contestant, was declared legally 
elected to the seat held by Jasper N". Searles, Republican. 
There were twenty members of foreign nativity, and the pioneer 
element of Minnesota was represented by twenty-one who had 
been residents of the State previous to 1860. The members in- 
terested in farming predominated, there being twenty-one en- 
gaged in that occupation. 

Among the new members were William B. Dean, Repub- 
lican, of St. Paul, a native of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, who 
located in St. Paul in 1856, where he was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, and had held various municipal offices. James A. 
Tawney, Republican, of Winona, present Congressman from the 


First District, made his first appearance in the Senate. J. A. 
Kiester, Republican, of Blue Earth City, represented the Fari- 
bault County district. He was a native of Pennsylvania, who 
received his education at Mount Pleasant and Dickinson Colleges 
in that State; studied law and was admitted to practice in 1855. 
He settled in Faribault County two years later and engaged in 
the practice of his profession. He had been a member of the 
House in the State Legislature of 1865. Hiram F. Stevens, 
Republican, of St. Paul, was born at St. Albans, Vermont, Sep- 
tember 11, 1852. He completed his education at the University 
of Vermont and in Columbia College Law School. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in his native State, in 1874, and came to 
Minnesota five years later and became prominently identified in 
his chosen profession. He had been vice-president of the Ameri- 
can Bar Association, secretary of the Minnesota State Bar Asso- 
ciation, and president of the St. Paul Bar Association. He died 
in St. Paul, March 9, 1904. 

John Day Smith, Eepublican, of Minneapolis, was born in 
Litchfield, Maine, in 1845. During the Civil War he enlisted in 
the Nineteenth Regiment Maine Volunteers, and participated 
in all the campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, and was 
severely wounded before Petersburg, Virginia. He graduated 
from Brown University in 1872 and was admitted to the bar in 
1878, and two years later came to Minneapolis, where he has 
since resided, being engaged in law practice, and is at present 
(1908) Judge of the Fourth Judicial District. 

W. W. Mayo, Democrat, of Rochester, was born in England 
in 1820. He settled in Minnesota in 1854, after receiving an 
ad eundem degree as a physician and surgeon from the Univer- 
sity of Missouri. He practiced medicine and surgery and had 
been mayor of the city of his residence and president of the 
State Medical Society. 

In the House of Representatives nine members had been 
re-elected. The majority of the House were fanners. There 
were nine sons of Minnesota, while thirty-five were of foreign 
nativity in the membership. The pioneer element was repre- 
sented by twenty-four members, one of whom, H. C. Lyman, of 


Big Stone County, though only fifty-one years of age, had been 
a resident of the State since 1846. E. E.' Price, Democratic 
and Farmers' Alliance candidate, in the Forty-sixth District, 
successfully contested the election of Robert C. Dunn. 

The House organized, and by a coalition of the Democratic 
and Alliance members elected E. T. Champlin, of Blue Earth 
County, Speaker. The presideng officer, a lifelong Democrat, 
was one of the three Alliance members elected from the Tenth 
District, and was born in Vermont. He settled in Minnesota in 
1860, engaged in farming, served with some distinction in the 
Third Minnesota during the Civil War, and had been a mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives in 1887. He has often 
held public positions prior to and since his service as Speaker. 

Governor Merriam, in his message, called the attention of 
the Legislature to matters pertaining to general legislation. 
He desired a careful scrutiny of all bills, which called for the 
expenditure of the people's money. Taxes should be kept at 
the lowest point consistent with prudent and wise administra- 
tion. The great and growing evil in connection with all legal 
enactments, both National and State, was a tendency to class 
legislation. The Railroad and Warehouse Commission was eulo- 
gized as having accomplished objects of great benefit to the 
general public. 

The Legislature's attention was called to a decision of the 
United States Supreme Court in regard to an act passed by the 
Legislature of 1887, in which that body, being the sole authority 
with power to establish reasonable rates for services performed 
by railroads, had delegated that power to the Board of Railroad 
and Warehouse Commissioners. In March, 1891, the Supreme 
Court decided that the act was not in harmony with the Federal 
Constitution and decided that action upon such matters was not 
final either in a commission or in the Legislature itself. The 
power of making reasonable rates for common carriers was not 
denied, but whether a given rate is reasonable is a judicial ques- 
tion, and must be settled, as other matters of law and fact, 
through the medium of the courts. This decision, the Governor 
stated, would require the passage of a law to conform with the 
Federal Constitution. 



The issuance of passes for free transportation of passen- 
gers over railroads although the practice, with other discrimi- 
nations, was prohibited by law under severe penalties, was passed 
over by the Governor with the remark: "Comment is unneces- 
sary/' He considered the Columbian Exposition of 1893 of 
such importance that the various important advantages and the 
abundant and valuable resources of Minnesota should be made 
known to the thousands that would visit Chicago to see the great 

The Legislature adjourned April 20, 1891, and its work 
included seventy general and about eight hundred special laws. 
The most noted incident of the session of the Senate was the 
organization of the standing committees. By a vote of the 
Democratic and Farmers' Alliance members, who constituted a 
majority, the presiding officer, Gideon S. Ives, the Lieutenant 
Governor, was deprived of one of the prerogatives enjoyed 
hitherto exclusively by his predecessors, of appointing the com- 
mittees of the Senate. The selection was placed in the hands 
of a committee, chosen by the anti-Republican organization. 

The chief contests were over the usury bill, to reduce the 
legal rate of interest from eight to six per cent, and the Keyes 
Australian Election Law, making it applicable all over the State, 
requiring the voter to mark every name on the ticket he desired 
to vote for, and making election day a holiday. 

The State prison binding twine plant was provided for; a 
constitutional amendment was proposed, prohibiting special leg- 
islation, and on being submitted to the people at the next elec- 
tion was adopted by a vote of 77,614 yeas to 19,853 noes. The 
State was divided into seven Congressional districts, being 
entitled to two additional Eepresentatives in Congress by the 
apportionment made under the Federal census of 1890. 

A law was passed regarding the hours of labor for railway 
employes. Ten hours were to constitute a legal workday, and 
over time was to be paid for pro rata. Trainmen, who had been 
employed twenty consecutive hours, were to have eight hours 
rest. A public park of 22,400 acres was created to be known as 
Itasca State Park. A resolution was passed vacating, canceling, 


and expunging from the records and journals of the House and 
of the Senate sitting as a high court of impeachment of any 
proceedings in the case and the verdict found against E. St. 
Julien Cox, formerly District Judge of the Ninth District. 

Memorial resolutions of respect were passed on the deaths of 
Admiral David D. Porter, Secretary William Windom, General 
H. H. Sibley and General William T. Sherman. 

The cities of Le Sueur, New Prague, Redwood Falls, 
Warren, Chaska, Henderson and Jordan were incorporated. 
Lakeside was made a city and given permission, after December 
31, 1892, to annex itself to Duluth; West Duluth was also to 
become, by annexation, a part of the Zenith City. 

Minnesota Senators and Representatives in Congress were, 
by a joint resolution, requested to favor an amendment to the 
Constitution providing that the United States Senators should 
be elected by a vote of the people. Joint resolutions were passed 
asking Congress to appropriate money for a ship canal around 
Niagara Falls; protesting against guaranteeing the bonds of the 
Nicarauga Canal; asking for the establishment of a legal holi- 
day in honor of Christopher Columbus, and protesting against 
the sale of options in agricultural products. - 

An appropriation of $400 was made for the erection of a 
monument at the scene of the Indian massacre in Swift County 
in 1862. 

The sum of $50,000 was appropriated for the purpose of 
erecting a building on the World's Fair Grounds in Chicago, a 
lot of 175 feet square, at the corner of two avenues in Jackson 
Park having been assigned to the State for that purpose. A 
board of managers was appointed consisting of D. A. Monfort, 
of St. Paul; C. McC. Reeve, of Minneapolis; J. J. Furlong, of 
Austin; L. P. Hunt, of Mankato; George N. Lamphere, of 
Moorhead; Jay La Due, of Luverne; and A. L. Ward, of Fair- 


In the summer of 1892, the Republican candidates for nomi- 
nation for Governor were John Lind, Andrew R. McGill, Gideon 


S. Ives, and Knute Nelson. Conventions had been held in April 
and May to elect delegates to the National Presidential Conven- 
tion. The tenth National Convention of the Republican party, 
for the first time in the Northwest, was held at Minneapolis, 
commencing June 7, 1892. It was in session four days, and on 
June 11, President Benjamin Harrison was nominated for re- 
election, on the first ballot; and for Vice- President Whitelaw 
Reid, of New York, was the unanimous choice of the Convention. 
The first party to hold a convention in 1892 for the nomi- 
nation of State officers was the People's party. It was held at 
St. Paul, July 13. The different parties represented were not 
in complete fusion; the leaders of the Farmers' Alliance and the 
Labor parties were W. W. Erwin, of St. Paul, and General 
James H. Baker, of Mankato. Antagonizing this element was 
Ignatius Donnelly, -who posed as the supreme commander of the 
convention, and demanded the naming of the entire State ticket. 
The Erwin and Baker contingents did not relish the arbitrary 
methods and manners of the leaders of the other faction. They 
were at first refused admission to the hall by the sergeant of 
arms, but finally a compromise was arranged and Baker and 
Erwin admitted to plead their cause. They conceded the right 
to the delegates of the People's party to name the head of the 
ticket, but wished to have a voice in the selection of the other 
nominees. They also stated that the Farmers' Alliance favored 
the platform adopted, with the exception of the sub-treasury 
plank. The eloquence of the orators was of no avail, Donnelly 
and his followers deciding to run the convention without their 
aid. This .was afterwards conceded to have been poor politics. 
The convention did not compare with the Alliance con- 
vention of 1890 in point of attendance, but what it lacked in 
numbers was made up in ability, oratory and enthusiasm. Igna- 
tius Donnelly was uanimously nominated for Governor, with a 
full State ticket. The platform adopted demanded an immediate 
and radical change in State control of corporations and trans- 
portation facilities, with direct reference to the grain traffic and 
State taxation, and resolved that the constitution should be 
amended so that the people should have the right to have all 


laws referred back to themselves for approval or disapproval. 
It demanded that the transportation companies should provide 
suitable shipping and warehouse facilities at every station on 
their lines, and that the State should erect terminal elevators at 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Duluth for the public storage of 
grain. Sympathy was extended to workmen against their oppres- 
sion by their monopolistic employers, and they were urged to 
unite with the People's party and overthrow the common enemy 
at the polls. It was declared that the millionaires in the control 
of the government and industries of the country were rapidly 
and surely reducing the people to a condition of political and 
industrial slavery. 

The Farmers' Alliance, at their convention in July, adopted 
a platform hostile to every species of class legislation, but nomi- 
nated no State ticket. The protective tariff was denounced, and 
a circulation minimum of $50 per capita was demanded. Grain 
inspection was declared to be the paramount question of the 
state. "Free passes on railroads should be prohibited." A reduc- 
tion of the interest rate was desired, with severe penalties for 
usury. Congress was appealed to for the passage of laws prohib- 
iting alien ownership of lands, and if possible to reclaim all held 
by aliens, foreign syndicates, and railroad companies, in excess 
of what was absolutely necessary, and demanding that these and 
all other lands be held for actual settlers only. 

The Republican Convention met in St. Paul, July 28, there 
were 709 delegates present. In its platform it urged the neces- 
sity of securing a free ballot and a fair count; trusts and com- 
binations to control and unduly enhance the price of com- 
modities were vigorously condemned; suggestions were made for 
the protection of the workingman, and laws were favored to 
enable the farmer to obtain cheap and safe elevator, warehouse, 
and transportation facilities. 

When it came to the nominations for Governor, there was a 
disposition on the part of the delegates to conciliate the Scan- 
dinavian members of the party. They looked with solicitude at 
their small plurality at the last election, also that of four years 
previous, when their commitment to high license had driven 


many Germans from their ranks. Although the partial illustra- 
tions of the efficiency of the liquor laws, were bringing the rene- 
gades back to their former political allegiance, still the leaders of 
the party, not staking too much on partisan loyalty, were in 
favor of placing at the head of the State ticket, for the first time 
in Minnesota, a representative of the Scandinavian race. 

There were at this time two prominent Scandinavians in 
the State who had been honored by an election to the National 
halls of legislature. John Lind was at this time a Member of 
Congress; the other, Knute Nelson, had served three terms, clos- 
ing his service in the spring of 1889. He had been a candidate 
for Gubernatorial honors before previous State conventions, and 
he entered the convention of 1892 with a strong personal follow- 
ing. Governor McGill, of St. Paul, and Lieutenant Governor 
Gideon S. Ives, of St. Peter, had been talked of as candidates for 
Governor and both had secured some delegates, but both were 
withdrawn before the convention met. This made plain sailing 
for Knute Nelson, whose name was presented by James A. 
Tawney, of Winona, and the nomination seconded by Frank 
Davis of Minneapolis. There being no other candidates named, 
Nelson was nominated by acclamation. 

In the month of August the Democratic convention was held 
and Daniel W. Lawler, of St. Paul, was nominated for Governor. 
The Prohibitionist candidate was William J. Dean. 

At the National election of 1892 in Minnesota, the Republi- 
can Presidential ticket received a plurality of the votes. There 
were only a few more than 5,000 votes cast than in 1888. There 
were, however, nearly 11,000 more than were polled for the State 
ticket. There was a partial fusion between the Democrats and 
the People's party, a part of the Weaver electoral ticket being 
accepted by the Democrats, and there was cast for this ticket 
107,077 votes. Benjamin Harrison received 122,823 votes; Gro- 
ver Cleveland, 100,920; James B. Weaver, 29,313, and James 
Bidwell, 14,182. Of the sixteen States in the Union carried by 
the Republicans, Minnesota was exceeded by only five States in 
her plurality of 15,446 for the Harrison electors. 


The vote for Governor was: Knute Nelson, 109,220; Dan- 
iel W. Lawler, 94,600; Ignatius Donnelly, 39,863; and William 
J. Dean, 12,239. The Democrats carried twenty-one counties: 
Beltrami, (by a plurality of two) Benton, Brown, Carver, Dakota, 
Itasca, Le Sueur, McLeod, Meeker, (by a plurality of twenty- 
four) Morrison, Murray, (by a plurality of sixteen) Pine (by 
a plurality of thirty) Polk, Ramsey, Scott, Sibley, Stearns, Wa- 
basha, Waseca, Winona, and Big Stone (by a plurality of thirty- 
four). Of the twenty-four counties carried by the Farmers' Al- 
liance party in 1890 but six were carried by the People's party; 
Lincoln, Marshall, Polk, Traverse, Kittson, and Hubbard, all by 
greatly reduced majorities. The Republican pluralities in the 
following counties were less than one hundred. Blue Earth, 
Cass, Cook, Nicollet, Steele, Todd and Wilkin. 

In the Congressional districts there were four Republicans, 
two Democrats, and one Populist elected. In the First District 
James A. Tawney, the Republican candidate, defeated William 
H. Harries for re-election by a vote of 18,146 to 14,995. The 
Populist candidate, James I. Vermily received, 2,342 votes, and 
the Prohibitionist, P. H. Harsh, 1,554. 

In the Second District, James T. McCleary, the Republican 
nominee, received 18,207 votes to 11,209 for -his Democratic op- 
ponent, Winfield S. Hammond. S. C. Long, the People's party 
candidate, had 6,286 and E. H. Bronson, the Prohibitionist, 

In the Third District, 0. M. Hall, Democrat, was re-elected 
by a vote of 15,890 to 14,727 polled for Joel P. Heatwole, his 
Republican opponent. Ferdinand Borchert, on the People's ticket 
received 3,464 votes, while William B. Reed, Prohibitionist, had 

In the Fourth District, Andrew R. Kiefer, [Republican, by a 
vote of 16,624 to 13,435, defeated for re-election James N. Castle, 
the Democratic nominee. James G. Dougherty, the People's 
candidate, had 2,213 votes, and David Morgan, Prohibitionist, 

In the Fifth District Loren Fletcher, Republican, defeated 
James W. Lawrence, Democrat, by a vote of 18,463 to 15,960; 


Thomas H. Lucas, the People's party candidate, had 3,151, while 
J. T. Caton, Prohibitionist, had 2,458 votes. 

In the Sixth District, M. R. Baldwin, Democrat, by a plur- 
ality of 376, defeated Dolson B. Searle, Republican, the vote be- 
ing 17,317 to 16,941. The People's party candidate, A. C. Par- 
sons, received 3,973, while 1,692 votes were cast for Edward L. 
Curial, Prohibitionist. 

In the Seventh District the People's party candidate, Haldor 
E. Boen, was elected by a plurality of 85; the vote being Haldor 
E. Boen 12,614; Henry Feig, Republican, 12,539; William F. 
Kelso, Democrat, 7,526, and L. F. Hampson, Prohibitionist, 

James A. Tawney, of Winona, was born near Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania in 1855, he settled at Winona in 1877, and is a 
lawyer by profession. He was elected State Senator in 1890 
and has represented his district in Congress from his first elec- 
tion in 1892 to the present time, his term expiring March 4, 

James T. McCleary, of Mankato, was born at Ingersoll, 
Canada, February 5, 1853. He was educated at the high schools 
and McGill University, at Montreal. He commenced teaching 
school in Wisconsin in 1871, and for the next ten years held edu- 
cational positions in that State. In 1881 he became institute 
conductor and professor of history and civics in the State Normal 
School at Mankato, and afterwards was secretary and then presi- 
dent of the Minnesota Educational Association. He represented 
his district in Congress, by successive elections, until March 4, 
1907, having been defeated for re-election in 1906 on the issue 
of tariff revision, McCleary having been what was termed a 
"stand patter/' 

Andrew R. Kiefer, of St. Paul, was born near Mainz on the 
Rhine, Germany. He emigrated to America in 1849, and set- 
tled at St. Paul six years later. In the spring of 1861 he or- 
ganized a company of German-Americans of which he was elected 
Captain and proceeded to the seat of war. He was discharged 
from the United States service in 1863 on account of ill health. 
He had been a member of the House of Representatives in the 

IV. -11 


Legislature of 1864. Also clerk of the district court of Ramsey 
County. Afterwards he was elected mayor of St. Paul and died 
in that city in 1904. 

Loren Fletcher, of Minneapolis, was born in Maine and set- 
tled in Minnesota in 1856. He served six terms in the Lower 
House of the State Legislature. He was elected to the Fifty- 
third Congress and was re-elected to each succeeding Congress 
until March 4, 1907 with the exception of the Fifty-eighth. 
He now resides in Minneapolis. 

M. R. Baldwin, of Duluth, was born in Windham County, 
Vermont, in 1838. His parents removed to Wisconsin in 1847, 
where he was educated in the public schools and at Lawrence 
University, Appleton, in that State. He studied law but after- 
wards took up civil engineering and was engaged in that calling 
for a considerable time, in the employ of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railroad Company. Mr. Baldwin enlisted in 1861 
as a private in the Second Wisconsin Infantry, and was promoted 
to a captaincy in the regiment. He was taken prisoner at the 
Battle of Gettysburg and was not exchanged until December, 
1864. After the war he was superintendent of railroads in 
Kansas, but in 1871 located in Minneapolis, removing to Duluth 
in 1885, where he died in 1905. 

Haldor E. Boen was born in Norway, January 2, 1851. His 
ancestors were farmers. He emigrated to the United States at 
the age of seventeen, locating in Mower County, but removed 
three years later to Otter Tail County, dividing his time between 
farming and teaching. He had been connected in an official 
capacity with several Farmers' Alliance organizations. 

Chapter XIV. 


THE State officials elected on the Eepublican ticket with 
Governor Nelson were Lieutenant Governor, David M. 
Clough; Secretary of State, Frederick P. Brown; 
Treasurer, Joseph Bobleter; Attorney General, Henry W. Childs. 

The Twenty-eighth Legislature met January 3, 1893. The 
only change in the Senate was the election of John T. Little, 
of Dodge County, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of J. 
Grinnell. There were twenty-five Eepublicans, sixteen Demo- 
crats, and thirteen Populists in the Senate; seventy-one Eepub- 
licans, thirty-six Democrats, two Populists, and five Democrat- 
Populists in the House. 

The House chose William E. Lee, of Long Prairie, Speaker. 
The presiding officer was born in Alton, Illinois, and settled in 
Minnesota in 1857. He was engaged in banking and had been 
a member of the House of 1885 and 1887. Thirty new members 
had been re-elected. 

Among the new members who afterwards became prominently 
identified with the political history of the State were, Samuel E. 
Van Sant, of Winona, afterwards Speaker of the House, and 
Governor; August T. Koerner, afterwards State Treasurer, and 
Eobert C. Dunn of Princeton, who became State Auditor, and 
Eepublican nominee for Governor in 1904. Mr. Dunn was born 
in the County of Tyrone, Ireland, and settled in Minnesota in 
1876. He is at present (1908) the publisher and editor of the 
Princeton Union. 



Governor Merriam's farewell address presented no special 
features. The apparent danger of a devasting plague in the 
form of Asiatic cholera, was one of the subjects of his message. 
He informed the Legislature that he had convened the State 
Board of Health, for the purpose of consultation and the adoption 
of active measures to prevent the disease from obtaining a foot- 
hold in the State. He advocated the building of a State capitol, 
with a view of the future growth of the State, and also the pur- 
chase of land for the establishment of the Itasca State Park. 
The reports of the subordinate officials were analyzed and com- 
mented upon. 

Governor Nelson, in his inaugural address, stated that the 
financial affairs of the State, were in sound and prosperous con- 
dition. With a population of 1,400,000 and an assessed valuation 
of $600,000,000 there was an outstanding indebtedness of $2,- 
154,000. There was a balance of $1,688,946.54 in the State 
treasury, to the credit of the different funds. The prison pop- 
ulation of the State had decreased, there being a smaller number 
of convicts on October 31, 1892, than on October 31, 1889. The 
manufacture of twine had been successfully established in the 
penitentiary, and the product was in much favor with the agri- 
cultural population. He recommended a re-arrangement of the 
judicial system of the State. The subject of grain elevators and 
grain inspection formed a prominent part of his message. 

One of the issues of the State campaign of 1892, was the 
endorsement of Cushman K. Davis to succeed himself as United 
States Senator. It was supposed that he would have no opposi- 
tion in the Legislature. His party controlled the House of Rep- 
resentatives, but not the Senate. There was, however, a cloud 
upon his horizon. The Republican caucus was called as soon as 
the Legislature convened, and met January 4. There were pres- 
ent twenty-one of the twenty-five Republicans of the Senate and 
sixty-four of the seventy-one members of the House. The vote 
was viva voce; and the roll being called Davis received eighty-six ' 
votes on the first ballot, every Republican present voting for him, 
besides one member of the Farmers' Alliance party, who was al- 
lowed to participate in the caucus. 


After the adjournment of the meeting there were rumors, 
of a determined attempt to defeat the will of the caucus, by 
buying up enough Eepublicans to defeat the election of the 
nominee. The plan, it was said, was not to elect a Democrat but 
another Eepublican. If the plan as charged, was ever conceived, 
it was soon abandoned. There were a few Eepublican members 
strenuously opposed to Davis, but they were few in number and 
accomplished nothing. 

The vote for Senator was taken in the House January 17; 
Cushman K. Davis received sixty-seven votes; Daniel W. Lawler, 
Democrat, thirty-one; Sidney M. Owen, Populist, twelve; the 
Eepublican Anti-Davis members gave Moses E. Clapp, Albert 
Scheffer, and C. M. Start one vote each. On the same day a 
ballot was taken in the Senate, Davis received twenty votes; 
Lawler, seventeen; William E. Merriam,- two; Sidney M. Owen, 
C. M. Start, Albert Scheffer, John Lind, and D. H. Dickinson 
one each; the scattering votes being cast by the Anti-Davis Ee- 

Davis had a majority in the House but not in the Senate, 
and it. became necessary to take a ballot in joint session. The 
following day the convention was held. There were 168 mem- 
bers present. It was known how 167 of them would vote. The 
pivotal man was John A. Holler, a member of the House from 
Wright County. He had been absent from the original caucus, 
and when the vote was taken in the House the preceding day. 
The roll was called and when Mr. Holler's name was reached he 
responded by voting for Davis, thereby insuring his election, 
which at one time some persons thought was in doubt. Davis 
received eighty-five votes, the exact number necessary for an elec- 
tion; Lawler had forty-nine; Owen, twenty-three; Lind, two; 
Clapp, three; Start, one, and Dickinson, one. Seven Eepubli- 
can senators voted against Davis. 

The Legislature adjourned April 18, 1893. In a resume of 
its labors the following may be mentioned as of importance. 
In the interests of the farmers of the State, laws were passed 
making new provisions in regard to the inspection of grain and 
the management of elevators. State inspection was extended 


over all country elevators, which were to be considered public; 
subject to the regulations of the State Railway and Warehouse 
Commission. Farmers had the right to erect independent ele- 
vators on railroad right of way; the railroad companies were 
compelled to provide side track facilities. 

An appropriation of $200,000 was made to purchase a site, 
for the creation of a State elevator at Duluth, with a capacity 
of 1,500,000 bushels, to be equipped for weighing, unloading 
and safe-guarding grain in separate bins, and placing grain of 
the same grade together. For this service there were to be 
charged a minimum fee of fifty cents per 1,000 bushels or car- 
load, and twenty-five cents for weighing, these charges to be 
lien on the grain. The State elevator was to be in charge of 
the Board of Railway and Warehouse Commissioners, who were 
to issue weekly bulletins of market reports, showing the price of 
products in Liverpool, Paris, London, Hamburg, New York, 
Buffalo, Quebec, San Francisco, Minneapolis and Duluth; also 
the freight charges between these cities and Minneapolis and 
Duluth. A test case was made enjoining the commissioners 
from carrying out the provision of the act, on the ground that 
it conflicted with the constitution. The Lower Court decided 
in favor of the act, but the Supreme Court reversed the decision. 

In the interest of labor, provision was made for safeguards 
about all dangerous machinery and placing all manufacturing 
and other establishments employing large numbers of employes, 
under the inspection of the bureau of labor. A proposed amend- 
ment to the constitution authorizing the levy and collection of 
a tax on inheritances, devises, bequests, legacies and gifts was 
ratified by the people at the next general election. 

An act regulating the selling of railroad tickets, checking 
ticket scalping, was passed; also one providing that no liquor li- 
cense should be issued to any one not an actual resident of the 
State. A county, town, city, or village, by a vote of its citizens, 
was authorized to bond itself not to exceed five per cent of the 
taxable value of its property, to aid in the improvement or con- 
struction of canals and waterways. 


Two important general acts provided for the building of a 
new capitol, and the purchasing of land and erection of buildings 
for the Soldiers' Home. The punishment for the organization 
of pools and trusts was increased by an imprisonment in the 
penitentiary, from one to ten years. -The bounties for killing 
wolves were fixed at $15. 

A joint memorial session of the Legislature was held, and 
resolutions of respect for the character of James G. Elaine ac- 
companied by expressions of regret at his death were adopted 
many eulogies being delivered by the members. The Legisla- 
ture met in joint session on February 23, 1893,, to listen to an 
address by Senator John J. Ingalls of Kansas. During the 
general session resolutions of respect were passed on the death of 
ex-President Rutherford B. Hayes and Colonel Hans Mattson. 

February 13, Representative P. H. Kelly, of St. Paul, offered 
the following preamble and resolution: 

Whereas, On February 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky, there 
was born in an humble cabin, Abraham Lincoln, a great statesman, re- 
nowned ruler, Noble martyr; and 

Whereas, Of all the preeminent and noble men of recent times, he 
was easily the greatest, singularly free from sectional and partisan 
passion and animosity, as has been well said by another lamented pub- 
lic servant; and for his loveable, manly qualities, was popular beyond 
all others of his time; counseling at Gettysburg's battle field, in days 
of bitter strife, "that we here highly resolve that these dead shall 
not have died in vain; that this Nation, under God, shall have a new 
birth of freedom, and that government of the people by the people and 
foi the people shall not perish from the earth." Keeping ever green in 
"his noble heart the sentiment, "Charity for all, Malice toward none;" 
in all walks of life great, good, patient, faithful, and sincere; and 

Whereas, The anniversary of Lincoln's natal day this year occurred 
on Sunday, and this House desires, notwithstanding, to testify in some 
measure its reverence for this great national character distinct from 
-and above even the best beloved of his contemporaries; and 

Whereas, It can truly be said of Abraham Lincoln, 
"No Caesar he whom we lament; 
A man without a precedent; 
Sent, it would seem, to do 
His work, and perish, too!" 

Resolved, That this House do now adjourn. 


The House unanimously adopted the preamble and resolu- 
tions and adjourned. At another session it was voted to forward 
an engrossed copy of them to Robert T. Lincoln, our Represen- 
tative at that time at the Court of St. James, and two hundred 
and fifty copies were ordered lithographed. 

An additional appropriation of $100,000 was made for the 
Chicago World's Columbian Exposition. A building was erected; 
the "Minnesota Days," June 1 and October 23, were well at- 
tended. The State had exhibits in all the general buildings, the 
forestry and mining exhibits being particularly fine. More than 
two hundred awards of premiums were made to the State's ex- 
hibits of cereals, with only a little over three hundred samples 
shown; forty-four awards were made for mining exhibits and 
sixty-six for flour. Fifty premiums were received for draught 
horses, forty-eight for cattle and twelve for poultry. 


The first State convention to be held in 1894 for the nom- 
ination of State officials was that of the Republicans at St. Paul, 
July 11. In their platform on national affairs- they favored a 
revised tariff, a free ballot and fair count, restrictions of im- 
migration and arbitration in case of trouble between employers 
and employes; they also favored an amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, making the presidential term six years, and for- 
bidding a second term; condemned trusts seeking to control 
prices, and denounced the pension policy of the Cleveland ad- 
ministration. The platform also included the following resolu- 
tion on the currency question: 

The Republican party believes in the use of both gold and silver 
as money, maintaining the substantial parity of value of every dollar 
in circulation with that of every other dollar. It believes in bimetal- 
lism, and that the restoration of silver as ultimate money to the cur- 
rency of the world is absolutely necessary for business prosperity, pro- 
per rate of wages, and the welfare of the people. Holding these views 
wo believe it should be the policy of the United States to do every- 
thing in its power to promote the restoration of silver in the World's 


They also demanded that the 4,000,000 acres of railroad 
lands should be taxed, by ordinary methods of direct taxation, 
in addition to a tax on the gross earnings of railroads. 

Knute Nelson was unanimously nominated for re-election, 
without even the formality of a ballot, Andrew R. McGill, who 
had been an aspirant, withdrawing from the contest. David M. 
Clough was re-nominated for Lieutenant Governor; Albert A. 
Berg nominated for Secretary of State; August T. Koerner re- 
nominated for Treasurer; Robert C. Dunn nominated for Au- 
ditor, and Henry W. Childs was re-nominated for Attorney 

The People's party met in convention at St. Paul July 12. 
A full State ticket was nominated, with Sidney M. Owen as the 
Gubernatorial candidate. The Prohibition party placed a full 
State ticket in the field headed by Hans S. Hilleboe for Gov- 

The Democrats held their State convention September 6. 
They nominated George L. Becker, of St. Paul, for Governor. 
In their platform they favored direct popular election of United 
States Senators; denounced the American Protective Association, 
and declared for the free coinage of silver, when it could be ac- 
complished consistently with the maintenance of a safe and 
sound currency. 

At the November election the Republicans gained a com- 
plete victory, electing their entire State ticket, and all their 
candidates for Congress. The vote for Governor was: Nelson, 
147,943; Owen, 87,890; Becker, 53,854; Hilleboe, 6,832; Nel- 
son's plurality, 60,053. The candidates on the Republican ticket 
outside of Governor received majorities ranging from 7,120 to 
49,682. It was said that a large number of Democrats refused 
to vote for Becker, alleging that he had been nominated by 
railroad and "gold bug" influences, and they cast their ballots 
for Owen, the Populist. 

In the First Congressional District, James A. Tawney, 
Republican, received 22,651 votes; John Moonan, Democrat, 
10,479; Thomas Meighen, People's Party, 4,675. 


In the Second District, James H. McCleary, Republican, 
23,136; James H. Baker, a tariff revisionist, 7,857; L. C. Long, 
People's Party, 10,341. 

In the Third District, 0. M. Hall, Democrat, was defeated 
for re-election, by his former Republican opponent, Joel P. 
Heatwole, by a vote of 19,461 to 14,193. J. M. Bowler, the 
Populist candidate, received 4,988 votes. 

In the Fourth District, Andrew R. Kiefer was re-elected 
receiving 20,573 votes; his Democratic opponent, Edward J. 
Darragh had 10,168; Francis H. Clark, the People's Party can- 
didate, had 5,055. 

In the Fifth District, Loren Fletcher was re-elected receiv- 
ing 20,465 votes while Oliver T. Erickson, Democrat, received 
11,506, and Ernest F. Clark, People's Party, 7,043. 

In the Sixth District, M. R. Baldwin, Democrat, was de- 
feated for re-election by Charles A. Towne, Republican, by a 
vote of 25,487 to 15,836, Kittel Halverson, the People's Party 
candidate received 6,475 votes. 

In the Seventh District, Haldor E. Boen, Populist, was de- 
feated for re-election by Frank M. Eddy, Republican, by a vote 
of 18,200 to 17,408. Thomas N. McLean, the. Democratic nom- 
inee, had 3,486, and Ole Kron, Prohibitionist, 2,726 votes. 

Of the newly elected members of Congress, Joel P. Heatwole, 
of Northfield, was born in Elkhart County, Indiana, August 22, 
1856. On arriving at maturity he became identified with news- 
paper work. He published several newspapers in Indiana, and 
Minnesota, but finally became connected wi^th the Northfield 
News of which (1908) he is still publisher and editor. 

Frank M. Eddy, of Glenwood, was born in Pleasant Grove, 
Minnesota, April 1, 1856, and was the first native of the State 
to represent Minnesota in the halls of Congress. His parents, 
in 1860, removed to Iowa; three years later they returned to 
Elmira, Olmsted County. His early education was obtained 
tinder great disadvantages. He, however, became a teacher and 
taught school at different places in the State, locating finally 
flt Glenwood, where he was employed by the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company, and was elected clerk of the district court. 


Charles A. Towne, of Duluth, was born at Rose, Michigan, 
November 21, 1858. He graduated, in 1881, from the Univer- 
sity of Michigan. He was admitted to the practice of law in 
1885, and located at Duluth in 1890. He was afterwards ap- 
pointed by Governor Lind United States Senator to fill the va- 
cancy caused by the death of Senator Davis, serving from De- 
cember 5, 1900, to January 23, 1901. He is now (1908) a 
resident of New York City, engaged in the practice of law, and 
was elected as a Democrat from the Fourteenth Congressional 
District of that State to the Fifty-ninth Congress. 


The Twenty-ninth Legislature met January 8, 1895. There 
were forty-six Republicans, three Democrats, and five Populists 
in the Senate; in the House, ninety-five Republicans, nine Demo- 
crats, nine Populiats, and one Independent Republican. There 
had been an entire new election for Senators in the State elec- 
tion of 1894. Frank A. Day, of Fairmont; Eric Sevatson, of 
Christiana; George T. Barr, of Mankato; Albert W. Stockton, 
of Faribault; Hiram F. Stevens, of St. Paul; James McHale, of 
Shakopee; Henry Keller, of Sauk Centre, and William P. Al- 
len, of Cloquet, had been re-elected. 

Among those that had had previous legislative experience 
were, Richard E. Thompson, a lawyer, of Preston, who had been 
member of the House in the Legislatures of 1883 and 1885; 
William H. Yale, of Winona, member of the Senate of 1866 
and 1875 and Lieutenant Governor in 1869; A. T. Stebbins, a 
hardware merchant, of Rochester, who was a member of the 
House in the Legislature of 1889. Job W. Lloyd, a native of 
Sharon, Minnesota, where he had always resided, was a member 
of the lower House of the Legislature of 1891, and Allen J. 
Greer, a lawyer, of Lake City, a member of the House of 1891. 

Among the new members were T. V. Knatvold, of Albert 
Lea, a native of Norway, who had been mayor of his home city. 
Eugene B. Collester, of Waseca; W. A. Sperry, of Owatonna, 
and Edward H. Ozmun, of St. Paul, were all members of the 


legal fraternity. Peter E. Hanson, of Litchfield, afterwards 
became Secretary of State, and Peter M. Ringdal, of Crookston, 
one of the present members of the State Board of Control. In 
the Senate there were thirteen foreigners, while eight were na- 
tives of the State, and only seven had been settlers previous to 
1860. Those engaged in the legal profession largely predom- 
inated, there being fifteen lawyers, thirteen merchants, five bank- 
ers, five editors, two physicians, the remainder being interested 
in farming or other pursuits. 

In the House of Representatives twenty-two members had 
been re-elected. George W. Davis, of Faribault; G. D. Post, of 
Glenwood; John M. Underwood, of Minneapolis, and Jacob F. 
Jacobson, of Madison, had been members of the House in the 
Legislature of 1889. Eli S. Warner, of St. Paul, was a member 
of the House in the Legislature of 1885; Henry Feig, of At- 
water, had been a member of the House in 1891; J. J. Fur- 
long, of Austin, was serving his third consecutive term. Andrew 
B. Robbins, a native of Maine, who settled in Minnesota in 
1855, and was for three years, during the Civil War, a member 
of the Eighth Minnesota Infantry, was one of the Representa- 
tives from Minneapolis; he had represented j;he district com- 
prising Kandiyohi, Swift, and Chippewa Counties in the Sen- 
ate of 1877. John L. Gibbs, a former Speaker of the House, 
afterwards Lieutenant Governor, was also a member. J. D. 
Jones, of Long Prairie, afterwards Speaker, and Wallace B. 
Douglas, afterwards Attorney General, were serving their first 
terms as State legislators. 

There was in the membership of the House thirty-eight 
foreigners, fourteen natives of the State, and twenty-seven who 
had belonged to the old pioneer element having been residents 
prior to 1860. There were forty-four farmers, thirty-seven en- 
gaged in banking and other pursuits, and ten lawyers. 

The House organized and chose Samuel R. Van Sant, of 
Winona, Speaker. Governor Nelson, in his message, stated that 
since the last session of the Legislature, the State had had its 
share in the general industrial depression and stagnation pre- 
vailing throughout the nation. The chinch bugs had, in several 


counties, been the cause of serious damage to the wheat crops, 
the prevailing drought having enabled them to do more than 
ordinary havoc. The commissioners of Itasca State Park re- 
ported that they had acquired control and ownership of 10,879 
acres, that there were still 8,823 acres, within, the limits of the 
park, owned by private parties. 

After dealing with the reports of State officers and in- 
stitutions, etc., the Governor concluded with suggesting the im- 
portance of exercising economy, both in appropriations and in leg- 
islation, as in these times of industrial stagnation many enter- 
prises were at a standstill, or in a comatose condition, and so 
many people were encumbered, and hampered in their progress 
for want of funds, that the situation called for a diminution in 
taxes and expenditures. 

The Legislature was to elect a United States Senator to 
succeed William D. Washburn. Senator Washburn was a can- 
didate to succeed himself. His career as a national legislator 
had been marked with ability and probity. While a member of 
the radical wing of the Eepublican party, he was a practical 
statesman. During his service in the Lower House of Con- 
gress, he had been instrumental in securing a federal building 
for Minneapolis and Mankato; he had been influential in the 
inauguration of a system of reservoirs in the Mississippi Kiver, 
and had favored the restriction of Chinese coolie labor. During 
his Senatorial term he had voted with his Eepublican colleagues 
for the maintenance of the gold standard. He was one of the 
few Eepublican Senators, by whose efforts and votes the Lodge 
Force Bill was defeated in the Senate in 1891. This proposed 
law allowed the presence of United States troops and deputy 
United States Marshals at the Federal elections or where Con- 
gressmen and Presidential electors were voted for. 

Senator Washburn was a man of wealth, had been identi- 
fied with the growth and prosperity of the State from its early 
infancy, in railroad building, logging and the manufacture of 
lumber and flour. He had not only extensive interests in his 
residential city but also at Anoka. By his becoming a candidate, 
ix years before, against Senator Sabin, he had established a 


precedent for retiring a United States Senator at the close of 
his first term. By the election of Senator Davis, two years- 
previously, his geographical location had become prejudicial to 
his success, as the people generally thought it hardly justice to 
the balance of the State that both Senators should come from 
St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

The balloting for United States Senator commenced on 
January 22, when William D. Washburn received thirty-two 
votes; Knute Nelson, forty-five; S. G. Comstock, ten; James 
T. McCleary, nine; James A. Tawney and Thomas B. Buckman 
one each; all of these were Kepublicans. Ignatius Donnelly, 
Populist, received eight votes, and James McHale, Democrat, 
nine. The balloting continued until January 30. Governor 
Nelson, whose candidacy for United States Senator was dis- 
claimed in the previous State campaign, became a competitor 
foi the prize. There was a large number of Scandinavians in 
the Legislature. They voted almost solidly to honor their fel- 
low countryman with the highest position in the National Coun- 
cils to which a foreign-born citizen can aspire. On a ballot 
taken January 30, Knute Nelson, by a vote of 102 in 168 
ballots cast, became the next United States Senator from Min- 
nesota. January 31, David M. Clough became Governor, and 
Frank A. Day, president pro tern of the Senate, became acting 
Lieutenant Governor. 

Knute Nelson was born in Norway, February 2, 1843. He 
arrived in this country with his mother in July, 1849, resided 
in Chicago for a year, and in the fall of 1850 removed to the 
State of Wisconsin, where the boy Knute grew to young man- 
hood. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War he enlisted as a 
private in the Fourth Wisconsin Infantry and served for three- 
years. He was promoted to corporal and made a good record as 
a soldier; in June, 1863, he was wounded and taken prisoner. 

Returning from the war, he studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in the spring of 1867. He immediately turned his 
attention to politics, and the following year was elected a mem- 
ber of the Wisconsin Legislature, which position he held in 1868 
and 1869. In the summer of 1871 he settled in Minnesota, lo~ 


eating at Alexandria. He was county attorney in 1872, 1873, 
and 1874, and was State Senator from that district for the 
next four succeeding years. 

Senator Nelson was first elected to Congress as a Republi- 
can in 1882, and served for three terms in the House of Rep- 
resentatives. As a member of that body he rose above the 
mediocrity of his colleagues, and was a serviceable member to 
his constituents, being always faithful to their interests. He re- 
fused to act with his party on one memorable occasion and was 
one of three Republican Congressmen to vote for the Mills low 
tariff bill in 1888. After six years service, in Congress he re- 
tired to private and professional life, and engaged actively in 
his-' law practice. 

Though his name had been presented at previous Republi- 
can State Conventions for the Gubernatorial nomination, it 
seemed in the summer of 1892, to be an imperative necessity 
that he should be called upon to become its standard bearer in 
the forthcoming political campaign. He accepted the nomina- 
tion and was elected in the fall of 1892 by- a plurality of about 
18,000 over his leading competitor, Daniel W. Lawler, Demo- 
crat. He had just been inaugurated Governor for his second 
term, when the Legislature was called upon to elect a United 
States Senator. He took his seat in the Senate March 4, 1895. 
He has since been twice elected without opposition in his own 
party. During his twelve years service, as Senator from Minne- 
sota, he has diligently and faithfully attended to the public in- 
terests and to those of his constituents. His record as a Sena- 
tor has been distinguished for its ability and efficiency. He 
will always have the distinction of having been the first native 
of Norway to be elected to the United States Senate. 

The Legislature adjourned April 23, 1895. The insurance 
and banking laws were revised and codified. Important changes 
were made in the methods to be used by insurance companies. 
The co-insurance clause was prohibited and a policy required 
calling for the payment of its face in case of total loss; also 
the incorporation of a board of underwriters and the organiza- 
tion of a salvage corps were provided for. A new banking law 


added stringent safeguards for the protection of depositors and 
the management of State banks. 

By amendments to the law regulating the traffic in intoxi- 
cating liquors the sale of liquor was forbidden to minors, either 
for their own use or that of others, and the granting of license 
within three hundred feet of a schoolhouse was prohibited. 

A number of laws were passed for the benefit of the farm- 
ers; the sum of $25,000 was appropriated for the eradication of 
the Russian thistle, and $5,000 appropriated to exterminate the 
chinch bugs. Wild mustard, wild oats, cockleburr, burdock, 
Canada thistle, quack grass and French weed were declared 
common nuisances, and persons allowing them to grow on their 
premises, or not taking precautionary efforts to destroy them, 
were subject to a fine. A bounty of one cent a pound on sugar 
made from sorghum or beetroots grown in the State, was pro- 
vided for. 

For cities a general municipal law was enacted, formed on 
the general principles of enlargement and concentration of 
power and responsibility in the authorities. 

A constitutional amendment giving district judges, the 
right to appoint fifteen men to frame a charter and submit same 
to the voters of the city, for their approval, was proposed and 
scantioned by the people at the next general election. The 
Legislature, however, classified cities on the basis of population 
and passed general laws applicable to each class. 

The laws for preservation of game and fish were made more 
stringent. Abraham Lincoln's birthday, February 12, was made 
a legal holiday. By another act a fine of $50 or imprisonment 
for not more than thirty days, was made the penalty for the 
selling of cigarettes, cigars and tobacco to pupils of public 
schools, or any school supported wholly or in part by taxation. 

The divorce laws were amended. The grounds for granting 
unlimited divorce were established as follows: 1, adultery; 2, 
impotency; 3, cruel and inhuman treatment; 4, when either 
party subsequent to the marriage had been sentenced to impris- 
onment in the State prison; 5, willful desertion of one party by 
the other for the term of one year, next preceding the filing of 


the complaint; 6, habitual drunkenness for a space of one year, 
immediately preceding the filing of the complaint. 

March 5, the Legislature in joint session was addressed by 
Henry Watterson, of Louisville, Kentucky. A resolution was 
passed congratulating Prince Bismarck on his eightieth birthday. 

A constitutional amendment was proposed prescribing the 
qualifications of the foreign born residents of the State, before 
they could vote at any election. They were to be full citizens 
of the United States, that is to say, they must have been granted 
their second or final naturalization certificates three months pre- 
ceding an election, and to have been a resident of the State for 
six months, and of the election district in which they offered 
to vote, for thirty days. Another amendment was proposed, 
creating a board of pardons, to consist of the Governor, Attor- 
ney General and Chief Justice. 

A third amendment was proposed allowing the permanent 
school and university fund to be invested in the bonds of cities, 
villages, towns, counties and school districts. 

A fourth amendment was submitted to amend Article 10, 
so as to provide for the taxation in the State of sleeping, parlor 
and dining cars, the property of telegraph, telephone and ex- 
press companies; of that owned by domestic insurance compa- 
nies; of that of the owners and operators of mines, or mineral 
ore; and that of boom companies and ship builders. 

The above amendments with three important legislative 
acts, were passed. The first called for the holding of a con- 
vention to revise the constitution; the second for the appropria- 
tion of the income derived from the internal improvement land 
fund, to the road and bridge fund, for the improvement of pub- 
lic highways and bridges; the third for the taxation of unused 
railroad lands. 

These amendments and acts were submitted to the people, 
at the general election in 1896; with the exception of that pro- 
viding for a Constitutional Convention, they were ratified. The 
majority in favor of the latter proposition was 25,760, but this 
was not a majority of the total vote cast at the election, which 
v/as necessary for its adoption. 

IV. -12 



The campaign for the Presidential election of 1896, com- 
menced early in the spring of that year. The Republicans met 
in Minneapolis, March 24. A platform declaring opposition to 
the free coinage of silver was adopted. Delegates were chosen 
to the National Convention to be held at St. Louis in June. 
Cushman K. Davis having withdrawn his name as a Presidential 
candidate, the delegation was instructed for William McKinley. 

The Democratic Convention was held June 11, at St. Paul. 
It declared for a gold standard by a vote of 436 to 232. Dele- 
gates were elected to attend the National Convention at Chicago; 
a resolution that the delegation should vote as a unit was laid 
on the table. On the fifth ballot at the National Convention, in 
which William Jennings Bryan was declared the nominee; he 
received but eleven of Minnesota's eighteen votes; of the balance 
two were cast for Adlai E. Stevenson, and five delegates refrained 
from voting. 

The Republican advocates of the free coinage of silver, met in 
convention at Minneapolis July 16. Frank A. Day, Lieutenant 
Governor of- the State, was made chairman. Prominent among 
the members of the convention, were Charles A. Towne, of Du- 
luth, Member of Congress from the Sixth District; Frank M. 
Nye, of Minneapolis, who was often alluded to as the William 
Jennings Bryan of Minnesota, and the present (1908) Repub- 
lican Congressman from the Fifth District, and John Lind, of 
New "Dim. 

Delegates were elected to attend the National Silver Party 
Convention at St. Louis, that assembled the following week, and 
John Lind was endorsed for Governor. 

The Republican Convention for the nomination of State 
officers, was held at St. Paul, July 1, 1896. The resolutions 
adopted approved of the St. Louis platform and nominations; 
favored the taxation of unused railroad lands; called for legis- 
lation favorable to labor and good roads, and approved of the 
State administration. On the first ballot for Governor, David 


M. Clough received 872 votes, Samuel R. Van Sant, 174, John 
L. Gibbs, 70, and Moses E. Clapp, 30. John L. Gibbs became 
the nominee for Lieutenant Governor, the other State officers 
were re-nominated. 

The Democratic Convention met in Minneapolis August 4. 
An agreement for a fusion had been entered into by the Demo- 
crats, Populists and Free Silver Eepublicans. By the terms of 
the alliance the Silver Eepublicans were to name one of the nine 
Presidential electors, and the other parties four each. A Free 
Silver Republican was to be nominated for Governor, while the 
Democrats were to name the candidates for Secretary of State 
and Treasurer, the Populists being accorded the nominees for 
Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General. 

In their platform the Democrats favored the free and un- 
limited coinage of silver, the parity of gold and silver, approved 
of the Chicago platform and endorsed its candidates. They de- 
nounced the Republican party of the State, as subservient to 
corporations, rings and trusts; condemned all efforts to control 
votes of employes; demanded taxation of iron mines, and un- 
used railroad lands; favored good roads legislation, and demanded 
that the Constitution of the United States should be amended to 
provide for the election of President and Senators by a direct 
vote of the people. John Lind was endorsed for Governor by 
acclamation. Julius J. Heinrichs, was nominated for Secre- 
tary of State, and Alexander McKinnon, for Treasurer. 

The Populists met in convention at Minneapolis, August 26, 
ratified the nominations of the Democrats and completed the 
ticket according to agreement as follows; for Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, J. M. Bowler; for Attorney General, John A. Keyes. 
William J. Dean was the Prohibition candidate for Governor and 
W. B. Hammond, the Socialist Labor party's candidate. 

The campaign was enlivened bp many interesting episodes, 
among which were the following: 

Albert A. Ames, of Minneapolis, announced himself as an 
independent candidate for Governor. In his platform, he an- 
nounced that it was his conviction that the people of the State 
were demanding him for Governor. In the second plank of 


this remarkable document, he expressed a willingness to accom- 
modate them. He stated that, as both of the candidates were 
Kepublicans, there was no prospect for a fair fight. As to na- 
tional issues, he endorsed the St. Louis and Omaha platforms, 
demanding that silver be placed back where it was before the 
crime of 1873. If elected he would give an economical ad- 
ministration, but would make no promises. The following in- 
dicates the general character of his platform: 

"I am in favor of the repeal of all laws, which do not afford 
ample and perfect protection in all details, to the masses as well 
as corporations. .1 am in favor of restricting the powers of 
courts and military authorities, to the same level as that enjoyed 
by the citizens." 

In the Populist convention, Ignatius Donnelly was a dele- 
gate. An attempt to make him permanent chairman was de- 
feated. Returning to his home, he issued a letter in which he 
announced that he withdrew from the People's party. He said 
that after his labors for the past years, in which he had sacri- 
ficed his time and literary ambitions and money in advancing 
the principals and doctrines of that party, he had been humil- 
iated in its convention before the whole world. Those familiar 
with his record were not surprised at the action of the talented 
but erratic politician. He had, during his residence in Minne- 
sota, changed his partisan faith and affiliations so often that the 
record of his political creeds was as checkered and variegated as 
Joseph's coat. 

The sentiment for the free coinage of silver, received in 
Minnesota many enthusiastic supporters, especially in the ag- 
ricultural districts; this was partially overcome by the gold 
standard adherents in cities and villages. The increased total 
vote in the National election of 1896 over 1892,' was 74,000; 
the increase in the Republican vote 70,000. The aggregate plu- 
ralities of counties voting Republican in 1892 and 1896 exceeded 
50,000. Of the eighteen counties changing sides, ten changed 
from Democratic to Republican; namely; Brown, Carver, Itasca, 
Le Sueur, Morrison, Ramsey, Sibley, Wabasha and Winona. The 
counties having a previous Republican record, that voted for the 


Democratic candidates, were Beltrami, Clay, Cook, Kittson, Mar- 
shall, Otter Tail, Pipestone, Traverse and Wilkin. In the 
Democratic counties of Benton, Dakota, McLeod, Scott and 
Stearns, the pluralities were greatly decreased from 1892. 
Eoseau County, which had been ' organized in 1895, gave a Demo- 
cratic plurality of 240. The total vote for McKinley, 193,503; 
Bryan, 130,735; Levering, the Prohibition candidate, 4,348; 
Palmer, National Democrat, 3,222; Matchett, Social Democrat 
954. Minnesota was the eleventh State in the Union in which 
the Eepublican ticket received the highest percentage of the total 
vote cast; being exceeded by Vermont, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Wisconsin and New York. Her percentage was 
fifty-seven, the same as North Dakota, it was only forty-five in 
1892; fifty-four in 1888, when there were but two States ex- 
ceeded it, Vermont and Maine. 

The State election simply exemplified the old saying "Poli- 
tics make strange bedfellows." The candidate for Governor of 
the Fusionists, while in general an advocate of the free coinage 
of silver in his Congressional career, was not always consistently 
and unvaringly so. In 1892, when the subject of free silver 
coinage was before the House of Representatives, he voted in 
favor of adopting the report of the committee in favor of free 
coinage, while his Democratic colleagues, Hall and Baldwin, 
voted against it. On a test vote to lay the whole matter on 
the table, which was lost by a tie vote, the Speaker voting in 
the negative, Lind's vote is recorded in the affirmative, and on 
the vote on the final resolution, which laid the matter over until 
the next session, he is recorded as not voting. 

He was caricatured by the Republican press; dubbed with 
the name of the "political orphan/' a phrase taken from one of 
his own speeches. The sarcasm, however, did not weaken the 
supporters of the "white metal;" this coupled with his Scan- 
dinavian nativity, created an enthusiastic following throughout 
the State. The vote was Clough, 165,906; Lind, 162,254; Dean, 
5,154; Ames, 2,890; Hammond, 1,125. 


An analysis of the vote shows that the western part of the 
State, largely settled by foreigners, with the exception of Big 
Stone, Cottonwood, Nobles, Pope, Redwood, Rock, Stevens^ Wat- 
onwan, Jackson, and Yellow Medicine, went strongly for the 
fusion candidate for Governor. In a number of the counties the 
Republican plurality for the head of the State ticket was very 
small; in Jackson it was only two; in Cass, twenty; in Big 
Stone, thirty-eight; in Stevens twenty-two. 

The Lake Superior Counties were all carried by the Fusion- 
ists. In the southeastern part of the State the Republicans 
carried all the counties by increased pluralities with the exception 
of the Democratic counties of Winona, Le Sueur, Scott and 
Dakota. Hennepin County gave Lind a plurality of 3,205; 
while Ramsey County was carried for Clough by 2,492. The 
Gubernatorial candidate on the fusion ticket carried thirty-nine 
of the eighty-one counties, the balance of the ticket, however, 
carried only twenty-one. 

In the Congressional districts seven Republicans were elected. 
In the First District, James A. Tawney was re-elected by a 
vote of 27,920 to 17,219 cast for P. Fitzpatrick, the Democratic- 
People's candidate, and 846 for H. Clark, Prohibitionist. 

In the Second District, James T. McCleary was re-elected, 
receiving 29,481 votes; his Democratic and People's opponent, 
Frank A. Day, received 21, 132 votes, while 1,045 were cast for 
Richard Price, Prohibitionist. 

In the Third District, Joel P. Heatwole was re-elected by 
a vote of 24,483 to 18,532, received by the Democratic-People's 
candidate, H. J. Peck; the Prohibitionist C. T. Langeson, re- 
ceived 801 votes. 

In the Fourth District, Frederick C. Stevens, Republican, 
received 24,845 votes; Francis H. Clark, Democratic-People's, 
14,640; George F. Innis, Prohibitionist, 451. 

In the Fifth District, Loren Fletcher, Republican, was re- 
elected over Sidney M. Owen, the Democratic-People's candidate. 
The vote was 24,508 for Fletcher to 21,521 for Owen. 

In the Sixth District, Page Morris, the Republican candid- 
ate, defeated Charles A. Towne, Free Silver Republican for re- 
election; by a vote of 30,317 to 29,598. 


In the Seventh District, Frank M. Eddy was re-elected, re- 
ceiving 26,003 votes; there were cast for Edwin E. Lommen, 
Democratic-People's, 23,932; for J. F. Herberg, Prohibitionist, 

Frederick C. Stevens, of St. Paul, one of the two new Con- 
gressmen-elect, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, January 1, 
1861. He graduated from the law department of the State 
University of Iowa in 1884, in which year he came to St. Paul. 
A lawyer by profession he was a member of the State Legisla- 
ture in 1889 and 1891. He is now (1908) serving his sixth 
term in Congress. 

Page Morris, of Duluth, was born in Lynchburg, Virginia, 
June 30, 1853; received his education at a private school, the 
Virginia Military Institute, and William and Mary College. 
After his graduation, he was appointed assistant professor of 
mathematics in the Texas Military Institute. In 1873, he re- 
moved to Austin in that State, and was in 1876, professor of 
applied mathematics at the Agricultural and Mechanical College 
of Texas, located near Byron. He studied law while teaching 
in the college, and was admitted, in 1880, to the bar at Lynch- 
burg, Virginia. He was nominated for Congress on the Ee- 
publican ticket in 1884, and was defeated by John W. Daniel, 
afterwards Senator from Virginia. He located in Duluth, Min- 
nesota, in 1886, was elected Judge of the Municipal Court, city 
attorney and Judge of the District Court of the Eleventh Dis- 
trict, which position he resigned to make a successful canvass 
for Congress. Judge Morris was re-elected to the Forty-sixth 
and Forty-seventh Congresses, but declined a re-nomination. 
He is at present (1908) United States District Judge for the 
district of Minnesota, residing at Duluth. 

Chapter XV. 

THE transition of a country from a wilderness to condi- 
tions of civilization, the cutting of the forests, and the 
extensive use of electricity, are among the theories 
which have been advanced as the cause of cyclones or tornadoes. 
Although no scientific reasons can be advanced for the origin of 
these destructive phenomena, the fact that these storms were 
probably as frequent in early, even in the pre-historic times, as at 
present, is evidenced that the improvements of civilization are no 
causes for these occurrences. There were no traces of these 
early atmospheric disturbances left on the plains, but in the 
forests there were often found belts and areas of fallen timber, 
commonly known as "wind falls." That these movements have 
been more destructive in later times is due to the increased 
number of inhabitants and the growth of towns and cities, in 
other words, they have been more destructive because there has 
been more material for them to destroy. 

A tornado gathered in the southwestern region of Isanti 
County, in September, 1865, in what is called the "Lake Typo 
settlement" some forty miles north of St. Paul; when first seen 
it appeared in the shape of two clouds approaching each from 
different directions. Suddenly these counter currents of strong 
winds appeared to form in the blackened heavens into a funnel 
shaped mass. The direction of the whirlwind was from south- 
west to northeast. The country was sparsely settled at the time, 
nd the storm did comparatively little damage in Minnesota, 




but after crossing the St. Croix and passing into Wisconsin, it 
created great devastation among the forests and timber lands. 

June 15, 1877 a terrific cyclone visited the town of Cottage 
Grove, Washington County. It appeared at 9 o'clock in the 
evening from the southwest in the form of a dark heavy cloud, 
accompanied with vivid lightning, loud thunder, and a strong 
wind. The cloud moved forward rapidly; the rain fell in tor- 
rents. Suddenly the wind came dashing with great violence, 
sweeping everything before it. There seemed to be two cur- 
rents of wind, one from the south and the other from the south- 
west; finally they came together. The severest force of the 
storm was confined to a path from four to six miles in length. 
Fences were laid flat, houses unroofed, moveables carried for 
miles, etc. The water and mud of a small lake were carried a 
considerable distance up the bluffs, fifty feet above the level of 
the lake. One person was killed by being hit with a flying tim- 
ber. The damage done to property was estimated at about 

The counties of Faribault, Nicollet and Blue Earth were 
the center of a heavy rain and wind storm June 11, 1881. The 
storm was accompanied by an unusual amount of lightning and 
thunder several persons were killed, and a number of farm 
buildings destroyed. 

The following month a terrific tornado or cyclone visited 
Eenville County, passing six miles south of the village of Hector. 
At about 3 o'clock in the afternoon of July 15, the cyclone passed 
through the towns of Palmyra, Wellington, and Cairo in Een- 
ville County, carrying death and devastation in its wake. The 
death list numbered eleven, while the damage to the farm build- 
ings and crops was estimated at thousands of dollars. 

At Mud Lake a surveying party of seven employes, of the 
Minneapolis and St. Louis railroad company were encamped; 
they, seeing the storm approaching hurried to their camp. One 
of the party thus graphically describes it: 

"The first thing they noticed was a large black cloud ap- 
proaching suddenly; the cloud changed to a green and purple 
color; lightning flashed and thunder rolled, the heavens looked 


like a great cloud of dust. Arriving at the camp they attempted 
to hold their tent down, but the storm scattered them in every 
direction, hurling them against trees, severely wounding some of 
the party. A boy driving a herd of cattle about sixty rods north 
of the camp, was carried into the air, cast to the ground, a life- 
less lump of humanity; when found the only article of clothing 
left on his body was his shirt collar. In the immediate vicinity 
a farmer's family, consisting of himself, wife and four children, 
were killed, while another child was fatally injured. The heavy 
sills of a bridge were picked up and driven into the ground four 
to six feet. Ducks, prairie chickens and all kinds of. birds were 
found skinned as for a pot pie." 

The cyclone passed through the western part of Sibley 
County, causing great destruction of property and the death of 
several persons. At the village of West Newton, in Nicollet 
County, five persons were deprived of life. At New Ulm, about 
4:45 o'clock, two separate cloud columns, revolving with great 
rapidity, one seemingly moving upwards from the earth, the 
other gradually descending from the sky, were seen approaching 
the city from the northwest. At the same time from the south- 
west, another storm was approaching. The two storms united, 
and their whole force was spent in the city. There was scarcely 
a building in the place left uninjured; the total property loss 
was estimated at from $250,000 to $300,000; the Catholic cathe- 
dral and nunnery were completely wrecked. One hundred and 
fifty families were rendered homeless, while six persons were 
killed and about sixty wounded. The storm lasted about twelve 
minutes. Eelief was promptly forwarded not only from the 
people of Minnesota cities, but from many points outside the 
State. After leaving New Ulm, the cyclone moved in a south- 
easterly direction, visiting the towns of Cambria and Butter- 
nut Valley, in Blue Earth County, and spent its fury in the di- 
rection of Winnebago City. 

On July 21, 1883, a hurricane, originating in the vicinity 
of Hitchcock, Dakota Territory, passed easterly through the 
southern portion of Minnesota. The storm became violent and 
destructive at Sleepy Eye, where it was accompanied by a ter- 


rific hailstorm. From Sleepy Eye it went to New Ulm, and 
crossing the Minnesota River passed through Nicollet County, 
laying waste crops in its course. The storm followed the line 
of the Winona and St. Peter railroad through Kasota, Janes- 
ville, Waseca, Meridan, Owatonna, Dodge Center and Mantor- 
ville to Rochester. 

At Rochester, the tornado made a sharp turn to the north- 
east, and its course nearly eliminated the village of Elgin, in 
Wabasha County. Of the dwelling houses left standing, all bore 
the marks of the storm, and $50,000 worth of property was de- 
stroyed. Two currents, coming from diametrically opposite points, 
met in the center of the village, and then veering off spread out 
and exhausted themselves. For over an hour before the storm, 
which occurred about noon, there was not a breath of wind, and 
clouds of dark murky green obscured the heavens; the darkness 
became intense; the rain then fell for a few minutes very heav- 
ily, when the air seemed suddenly illuminated, as if by electricity, 
and the hurricane came rushing down upon the village from 
both sides. 

At Waseca the storm struck between 11 and 12 o'clock in 
the forenoon. One storm cloud approached from the south, or 
from the direction of the village of New Richland; another 
from the northwest suddenly veered to the northeast, and then 
swept down upon the town. The two flouring mills and a num- 
ber of the principal buildings were unroofed, and there was con- 
siderable damage done to dwelling houses. A small German 
church was destroyed at Meridan. 

A mile and a half west of Owatonna, a train on the Chicago- 
and Northwestern railroad, was lifted bodily from the track, 
and dropped about thirty feet from the road bed. The cars 
were overturned, and more than twenty passengers were badly 
injured. In the city of Owatonna a large exposition building on 
the fair grounds was unroofed, trees were uprooted, and several 
buildings damaged. 

One of the most destructive cyclones that ever visited Min- 
nesota occurred in the evening of August 21, 1883, at Rochester. 
The storm struck the city at seven o'clock, and the clouds as- 


sumed a sickly greenish tint, then changed to a copper color, 
and finally to a bronze, with whitish edges and lateral lines of 
flying scud athwart it in every direction. The next thing notice- 
able was a cloud shaped like an inverted cone, with a height 
seemingly immeasurable, and of appalling murkiness; it came 
with the speed of a cannon ball down the valley of the insigni- 
ficant Silver Creek, and when within a half mile of Eochester 
its peculiar roar could be heard. Its breast, fully 300 feet in 
the air, was a whirling mass of trees, stones, animals and debris 
of every description. 

Trees were snapped as easily as common field weeds, and in 
some instances twisted like a corkscrew, and lifted bodily in the 
air with tons of earth clinging to their roots. Animals were 
dashed against stone walls, and crushed to powder. 

The roar of the fierce surge was terrific. The atmosphere 
was surcharged with electricity, and pellets of rain and hail were 
driven vertically as if shot from a rifle. The storm came from 
the southwest, and while the weather throughout the day had 
been unsettled, it was not unusually threatening; clouds would 
form and disappear and form again heavier than before. The 
wind was from the southeast, and blowing scud clouds. 

The storm originated near Sioux City, Iowa, and its first 
violence in the State occurred at Owatonna; thence it passed 
easterly, along the line of the Winona and St. Peter railroad, in 
a narrow path to the Mississippi River, its force having been 
spent before it reached Winona. The storm lasted only about 
fifteen minutes, and at 8 o'clock the stars were shining as 
brightly, and calmly as though cyclones were unknown. In Dodge 
County, in the township of Westfield and Canisteo, there were 
five persons killed, and considerable damage was done to property. 

Three whirling cones, one coming from south of west, 
one from due west, and one from north of west, came together 
above the court house in the central part of Eochester and 
swept east of north over a track about a half a mile in width. 
There were several lateral offshoots from this triple cloud, which 
caused considerable damage. It became supernaturally dark, and 
when the whirlwind came it brought with it a ghastly sort of 


lurid light, which was indescribably awful and was referred to 
by many as inducive to mental disturbance. 

Rochester was indeed hard hit, where before the storm 300 
dwellings had stood not a house remained standing. The north- 
ern part of the city had been changed from a habitable place to 
a maze of mangled matter. The dwellings were occupied by the 
poorer class of citizens of the city, and in the ruins scores of 
bodies, mangled, torn, cut, bruised, some breathing, some 
breathless were taken out. The property damage was estimated 
to be from $300,000 to $400,000. Many buildings, including 
the court house, high school, Academy of Lourdes, elevators, 
depots, business blocks, and a large number of dwellings, were 
unroofed. Thirty-five persons were killed, while ninety-seven 
were more or less severely wounded. A relief fund was raised 
for the sufferers in Minneapolis, St. Paul and other cities of 
the State. Governor L. P. Hubbard personally visited the de- 
vastated territory. 

September 9, 1884, a violent wind-storm arose in Henne- 
pin County, where it did some damage; it continued to White 
Bear Lake, Oneka and Grant in Washington County. From 
thence it passed over Marine, Big Lake, and Scandia across the 
St. Croiz River into St. Croix County, Wisconsin. In its 
duration the storm did not exceed two minutes, but in its track 
through Washington County, not fewer than fifty houses were 
demolished, causing a loss qf $30.000. The losses on barns, ma- 
chinery, and stock raised this amount to $50,000. At Marine, 
the damage done, was roughly computed at $75,000. 

The most destructive storm in Minnesota to property visited 
St. Cloud on April 14, 1886. It was between eight and nine 
o'clock Monday morning, when dark overhanging masses of clouds 
were seen over the city. Sharp bolts of lightning darted down 
with terrific force, and the storm burst with great fury. The 
cyclone track was located two or three miles south and little 
west of St. Cloud, and its total length was twenty-four miles. 
The property loss at St. Cloud and Sauk Rapids was more than 
$350,000; about seventy people were instantly killed, while a 
number died later from wounds, exposure and fright. 


The first victim of the cyclone was Nicholas Junneman, a 
farmer, whose house was left a pile of ruins. Over fifty houses 
were totally destroyed in St. Cloud, while many more were badly 
damaged. That the city was not totally destroyed was due to 
the fact that the cyclone veered in its course more to the south, 
thus sparing the costly business blocks and crowded streets. 

The tornado crossed the Mississippi Eiver, and for a few 
moments moved so slowly that it seemed to hang over the face 
of the waters like a high black column rising towards tha 
heavens. Upon leaving the river, it struck Sauk Eapids, passing 
through the main business part of the town and leaving but one 
important business house standing. Flour mills, the court house, 
a church, school building, post office, newspaper offices, hotels, 
dwelling houses, all went down under the relentless power of the 
storm. Streets were blockaded with the wreck so as to be 
practically impassable. 

Among the prominent citizens killed were John Renard, 
county auditor, Gregg Lindley, register of deeds, and Edgar Hull 
president of the German-American Bank. The business' portion 
of Sauk Rapids was almost entirely swept away, and the loss of 
life was proportionately greater than at St. Cloud. 

After leaving Sauk Rapids, the cycline struck Rice's, a sta- 
tion on the Northern Pacific railroad. Some four miles south- 
east of this station, at a farm house, a wedding party was as- 
sembled. Almost before they could realize it, the terrific power 
of the storm encircled them; nine of the company instantly be- 
came mangled corpses and among the number was the bride- 
groom, Henry Friday of Langola; the bride was also dangerously 
injured, while the Rev. G. J. Schmidt, pastor of the German 
Evangelical Church of Sauk Rapids, was killed, and the Rev. 
Mr. Seeder, pastor of the Two River district, had both legs 

At Buckman several persons were killed, and six or seven 
farm houses destroyed. The suffering caused by this cyclone 
evoked the liveliest sympathy, and large contributions of money, 
food and clothing were forwarded to the afflicted district by the 
citizens of Minneapolis, St. Paul and other cities throughout the 



Up to the present time the storm visitation most fatal to 
Minnesota people occurred in the evening of July 13, 1890, in 
the southeastern part of the State. There were two distinct 
tornadoes, one a few miles north of St. Paul, and the other, spe- 
cially violent and destructive, on Lake Pepin. In the two storms 
more than 100 people perished, and considerable amount of 
property was destroyed. 

The storm at Lake Pepin commenced as an ordinary storm, 
coming from the west; half an hour after its first appearance 
the whole heavens were converted into a canopy of lightning, 
which was soon followed by a terrific wind. 

An excursion boat, the "Sea Wing/' which ran from Red 
Wing to Diamond Bluff to an encampment of the First Regi- 
ment of the National Guard, then in Camp near Lake City, had 
started on her return trip to Red Wing about eight o'clock in 
the evening. The boat was crowded to its full capacity with 
one hundred fifty men, women and children, with about fifty 
people on a barge attached to the side of the .steamer. A ma- 
jority of the excursionists were young men and women from Red 
Wing. When about opposite Lake City the boat began to feel 
the effects of the storm; nearing Central Point, about two miles 
above Lake City, the steamer was at the mercy of the waves, 
which were now washing over the bow. Everything was in con- 
fusion; the boat momentarily stranded on a bar, and the barge 
was cut loose, and the steamer set adrift in Lake Pepin. The 
boat was carried into the middle of the lake, where it capsized," 
and the one hundred fifty people on board were precipitated 
into the tumultuous waters; those in the barge drifted nearer 
the shore and were all saved. 

In Lake City, while there were no fatalities, the business 
part of the city was badly demolished; a saw and flouring mill, 
and the starch works were totally wrecked; the roof of the opera 
house was carried away, and the business blocks badly demol- 
ished. At the encampment of the First Regiment, while the 
tents were all blown down, there were no casualties. 


By the whelming of the Sea Wing, one hundred of Eed 
Wing's young men and women, the city's bravest and bonniest, 
went to sudden death. The awful visitation was fully realized 
in the town and surrounding country, where so many households 
had personal interests in the calamity. For a long time the 
people lived in an agony of grief and bereavement, and even yet 
the incident to them is one of painful memory. 

Earlier in the same evening a cyclone passed over the 
district a few miles north of St. Paul, at Lake Gervais, prac- 
tically a summer resort for certain residents of the capital 
city of the State. Several houses were blown down, six persons 
killed outright, and eleven badly injured. 

The afternoon of June 15, 1892, in the southern part of 
the State, was sultry and dense; overhanging clouds seemed al- 
most to touch the ground, while not a breath of air was 
stirring. Later in the afternoon, in Jackson County, there was 
a heavy downpour of rain, which was preceded by a strong wind 
from the south. Between 5 and 6 o'clock a huge funnel- 
shaped cloud was noticed in the sky; the cloud advanced rapidly 
and its approach was accompanied by a loud roaring. It touched 
the ground near the town of Jackson, and advancing in an east- 
erly direction, two miles west of Sherburne, in Martin County, 
struck a little district schoolhouse, in which a teacher and 
eighteen scholars had sought shelter from the rain. Without 
a moment's warning the tornado demolished the building, kill- 
ing one of the scholars, wounding nearly all the others, besides 
severely injuring the teacher. The cyclone proceeded through 
Martin County into Faribault; reaching Winnebago City, the 
Blue Earth Eiver seemed to divide it, as one half of the 
storm took a southeasterly direction, and the other half a north- 
easterly course. There was little damage done in the vicinity of 
Winnebago City, not a single person being killed within fifteen 
miles of that city, nor a building destroyed within five miles. 

The storm that took a southeasterly direction passed over 
Faribault County, south of Wells. About one mile east of Wells 
three persons were killed and considerable property damaged. In 
Wells a few window fronts were blown out and some sidewalks 



overturned. The storm then spent its fury in the direction of 
Albert Lea, and Austin. 

The storm taking an easterly direction from Winnebago 
City visited in its progress the little village of Easton, Faribault 
County, where three houses were demolished. Here the twisting 
funnel of clouds took a northeasterly direction destroying every- 
thing in its path. Dozens of farm houses and barns were to- 
tally destroyed. From Wells to within four miles of Minnesota 
Lake not a building in the path of the storm was left standing. 
It struck Freeborn County at the northwest corner, and pro- 
ceeding to Hartland caused a sad devastation; five persons were 
killed; several wounded, and a number of buildings demol- 

The storm path extended for eighty-five miles, from Sher- 
burne to beyond Hartland; its width was not to exceed twenty 
rods. It sped howling over prairies, now and then crushing a 
building to splinters and strewing the ground with dead . cattle 
and hogs. The black rolling clouds of vapor, dust and frag- 
ments of buildings were accompanied by an awful roaring 
sound. The deluge of rain was followed by floods. The Maple 
River rose twelve feet in thirty-six hours* Cobb River was 
never before, or since, known to be so high. The Blue Earth 
River rose very rapidly, and the Minnesota in thirty hours 
reached high water mark. The Root River Valley, for seventy 
five miles, was flooded from hill to hill. A large amount of 
damage . was done to farms and farm buildings, and about 
fifty persons were killed along the track of this cyclone. 

On the evening of September 21, 1894, occurred one of 
the greatest wind storms ever witnessed in Southern Min- 
nesota. The cyclone struck the village of Le Roy, in Mower 
County, at 9:45 o'clock, and was almost thirty seconds in 
duration. It destroyed more than half of the business por- 
tion of the village; totally demolished many residences and their 
contents. There had been a heavy fall of rain in the evening, 
which was followed by hail, previous to the cyclone striking the 
village. The property damaged was estimated at $75,000; 
there were three persons killed and thirteen injured. 


The cyclone, on leaving Le Roy, proceeded in a northeaster- 
ly direction. In its course it completely destroyed the eastern 
portion of the small village of Lowther. At Spring Valley, in 
Fillmore County, twenty-five house were totally wrecked, and 
one hundred damaged; the property loss being estimated at from 
$50,000 to $75,000. There were three persons killed, and twen- 
ty- two wounded. 

The most disastrous storm in the history of St. Paul occur- 
red at 9:40 o'clock on the evening of August 20, 1904. The 
storm was reported by the Western Union Telegraph Company, 
early in the evening as originating in South Dakota. In St. 
Paul the center of the storm seemed to follow the Mississippi 
River, from Fort Snelling to Bridge Square. The greatest 
damage occurred in the wholesale district, Dayton's Bluff, and the 
northeastern part of the city, where the storm spent its force. 

Two spans of the high bridge were crumpled into a mass of 
debris. The Tivoli Concert Garden on Bridge Square was crush- 
ed like an egg shell, killing two persons and more or less injur- 
ing a score of people. A frame annex of the House of the 
Good Shepherd, was blown down, causing the death of a girl. 
The storm was particularly severe in the wholesale districts of 
the city, blowing in the windows of many of the establishments, 
and flooding the floors with water. The retail district suffered a 
severe loss in broken windows, and a consequent damage by 

Many residences were damaged, chimneys were carried away, 
houses wrenched from their foundations; roofs torn off, and 
out buildings demolished. Shade trees were uprooted, and 
blown down, making the streets impassable; electric light, street 
car, telephone and telegraph wires were carried down, and wrig- 
gling among the tree tops aided in blockading the streets. 
Building Inspector F. H. Ellerbe, estimated the property loss 
at St. Paul in the neighborhood of $1,000,000. 

The storm caused considerable damage to property in Min- 
neapolis. In the adjacent district of St. Louis twenty houses 
were demolished, and three persons killed. At Glencoe, the storm 
was reported to be about a mile in width; thousands of dollars 


of damage was done to property; two children and a man killed, 
at Waconia the property loss aggregated $250,000. A family, 
consisting of husband, wife and one child, had their lives crushed 
out by a flying piece of timber. The city of Stillwater suffered. 
a property loss of $100,000. 

Chapter XVI. 

THE great holocaust at Hinckley and the vicinity in Sep- 
tember, 1894, was preceded by a drouth which extended 
through the summer of that year. In the upper Mis- 
sissippi Valley the accumulated deficiency of rainfall at the 
close of the year, 1893, was 4.4 inches. At the end of August 
1894 this deficit had increased to 9.5 inches, or only about two- 
thirds of the amount that should have fallen. 

The conditions in the immediate locality of the fire dis- 
trict, between St. Paul and Duluth was that the soil was 
rather light and originally was covered with heavy timber of 
pine, spruce and hard woods. Except in certain locations it 
consisted of pine barrens, swamps, or lakes, and during the past 
twenty-five years much of the timber had been cut off, leaving 
accumulation of dead and down timbers, stumps and brush. 

As early as July 16 forest fires were reported in Eastern 
Minnesota, section men in the employ of the railroads were set 
to work fighting the flames. Hundreds of tons of hay were 
destroyed. The fires were generally removed quite a distance 
from the right of way of the railroads or the habitations of the 
resident, and there had been no reports of any damaged build- 

The theory has been advanced that the origin of the fire was 
caused by charcoal dust and carbon being absorbed by the at- 
mosphere, and then becoming so heated by the long continued 
drought, so as to produce spontaneous combustion. The basis 
however, of this theory is simply that persons claimed to have 



witnessed that the air seemed to be on fire, and that the flames 
made great leaps, often breaking out from 1,500 to 2,000 feet 
ahead of the foremost blaze, without any apparent cause. The 
survivors of the calamity, however, state that the wind was 
terrific and the smoke was so black and dense that it was im- 
possible to see anything three feet away. The fact was, that 
for three months there had been a continuation of forest fires, 
some of which had not been properly extinguished by the fire 
fighters, and this, with the intense dryness, had made a regular 
tinder box of the accumulated debris, which igniting laid the 
foundation for the great conflagration. 

The exact origin of the fire is somewhat indefinite, the one 
that visited Hinckley must have started in the region south of 
Mission Creek. Around this little village much of the pine had 
been cut. There was in the hamlet twenty-six houses, a school- 
house, a small saw mill a general store, hotel and blacksmith 
shop. At the time of the fire there were seventy-three people 
living in, and adjacent to, this village; a great number of the 
population were away from home, having gone to Dakota for 
the harvest. The people had been fighting local fires for a 
month. At noon, on September 1, great clouds of smoke could 
be seen in the southwest. By two o'clock the wind became a 
hurricane, and at three o'clock it was almost as dark as night. 
The people flocked to the store, and asked the proprietor to 
telegraph for a train to take them away. By this time the 
whole village was on fire, and the people proceeded to a potato 
patch in the rear of the store. For two hours they laid with 
their faces to the ground until the worst was over, and that 
night were conveyed by a work train to Pine City. Everyone 
lost all they had, with the exception of a few who saved a little 
wearing apparel which happened to be stored away in satchels. 

About six miles west of Mission Creek was Pokegama, now 
shown on the railroad maps as Brook Park. It had been first 
settled in 1893, and there were one hundred and thirty-five per- 
sons in the settlement. On the day of the fire, the wind blew 
a gale from the southwest, and swept the fire, which started 
three miles away, in a direct line to the village. The fire reached 


this settlement about two o'clock in the afternoon; the atmos- 
phere was filled with smoke; the people, for protection, sought 
the water of a small pond, about fifteen feet deep in the center, 
near a railroad bridge. This increased the danger, as only the 
edges of the pond could be used by the people for fear of getting 
beyond their depth in the water. The people were all huddled 
together, throwing water upon each other, and the heat became 
so intense they were obliged to stand in the water, barely leav- 
ing their mouths and noses exposed so as to breathe. They 
were kept in the pond by the heat from two to six o'clock in 
the afternoon, when they took possession of two box cars which 
the fire had left untouched. Twenty-three persons lost their 
lives, and the schoolhouse, saw-mill, store and dwellings were 
completely devastated. 

Between Pokegama and Opsted, twenty-three Chippewa In- 
dian bodies were found; these belonged to the Chief Wacouta 
band, who perished with his followers. They had left the reser- 
vation two months before the fire, and built a hunting lodge on 
one of the forks of the Shadridge Creek. 

At this time the fire fiend was advancing with rapid strides 
upon Hinckley, one of the lumbering town of Pine County, hav- 
ing a population of about 1,200 people. All around the village 
were woods as dry as tinder, and ready for a terrible bonfire. 
The danger of fire had long been seen, and warning had been 
given of possible damage to the town. The inhabitants, however, 
had become fearless of danger. The fire that reached Mission 
Creek swept onwards towards the north, following the direction 
of the St. Paul and Duluth railway tracks, where they intersect 
with the Great Northern tracks. This alone was certain doom 
to Hinckley, but soon the fire which had laid Brook Park in 
ashes joined the other fire, and Hinckley became one avalanche 
of flame, wind, heat and storm, dealing death and destruction in 
its path. The depot, public buildings, schools, etc., simply 
melted down in a few minutes; the earth, the air, even the 
heavens, seemed to be on fire; it was only in flight, water, or 
the train that escape could be hoped for. 


About two o'clock on the afternoon of the fire, the fire 
department of Hinckley was called to the west side of the town 
to fight a slight blaze; in about half an hour a dozen small 
buildings on the outskirts were in flames. Two thousand feet of 
hose was laid down, and a telegram sent to Rush City for 600 
feet more. The wind was blowing a perfect hurricane, from a 
direction a little west of south. At twenty minutes to three 
o'clock, the local from Duluth, on the Great Northern railroad, 
pulled into Hinckley; everything was afire at that time, and 
the heat and smoke were intense almost to suffocation. The 
freight train was side-tracked awaiting the arrival of a pas- 
senger train, northbound, due at Hinckley at 3:25. After a 
consultation of the conductors and engineers, Barry, engineer of 
the freight train, ran up to the other end of the yard, and 
coupled on to three box cars, a caboose and five passenger coaches, 
besides the two engines. 

All this time the fire had been pushing on in its mad course, 
and the chief of the fire department informed the people that 
the fire was beyond control, and that they must save them- 
selves, as he could do nothing for them. The emergency train 
was drawn up before the depot and the panic stricken men, 
women and children, to the number of 276, were placed on board. 
The train, after waiting for three quarters of an hour at the 
depot, and until men and animals were falling in the street 
from the heat, moved out towards a place of safety. Everything 
was burning, fire on all sides, and the heat continued so in- 
tense, that combined with the smoke it seemed as if all on board 
would perish of suffocation. Seven miles out of Hinckley, the. 
first cool current of air was struck, and the passengers could 
breath easier. When Sandstone was reached the train pulled 
up, and many people of that town boarded it. Just out of 
Sandstone, the bridge over Kettle River was on fire; the train 
slowed up, and the watchman cried: "For God's sake go on, 
you can cross it now, but it will go down in five minutes." The 
engineer threw the throttle wide open, ran out on the bridge, 
and crossed it in safety; five minutes later the bridge fell by its 
own weight. 


A twenty minute stop was made at Partridge, where the 
occupants of the cars were supplied with water, they having been 
exposed to the terrible heat for so long a time, that they were 
suffering agonies. The train stopped at Mansfield and Kerrick, 
and reached West Superior without any further exciting inci- 

The south-bound limited train, on the St. Paul and Duluth 
railroad, left Duluth for St. Paul at 2 o'clock in the afternoon 
of the first day of September. The train consisted of one com- 
bination car, one coach, two chair cars and engine No. 69. The 
atmosphere was heavy with smoke, when the train pulled out of 
the Duluth depot. All the way to Carlton the smoke grew 
gradually thicker and more dense. The train had aboard one 
hundred and thirty-five to one hundred and fifty passengers, 
who became greatly alarmed by the flames, that could be seen 
on both sides of the track, and the roar of the fire could be dis- 
tinctly heard. The heat became more and more intense and in- 
sufferable; the smoke increased until it was found difficult to 
breathe. The train men attempted to allay the fears of the 
passengers, and when within a mile and a half of Hinckley the 
first information was received of what had occurred at that 
place. A number of fleeing and panic stricken citizens flagged 
the train, and in a few words told their story. About one hund- 
red and fifty to two hundred of these refugees boarded the train. 
The conductor finally decided to run his train back to Skunk 
Lake, located near the track, about four miles from the place 
where the refugees were met. The engine was reversed, and the 
four miles to Skunk Lake accomplished, though the flames 
gained upon the train every minute, finally bursting over it in a 
hurricane blast. Smoke and flames were everywhere; came in 
through the ventilators, the tops of the cars, and through the 
cracks at the sides of the windows. The rear coach being on 
fire, the terror-stricken passengers fled to the other coaches. The 
heat was so intense that it cracked the glass in the windows of 
the cars, and many of the passengers became delirious. Skunk 
Lake was reached, and the passengers and refugees immersed 
themselves in the morass of mud and water, where they laid 


for hours, holding their faces close to the ground to escape suf- 
focation. All the passengers were saved on the train except 
one, who wandered away from the party, and whose body was 
found west of the track. 

On the line of the Eastern Minnesota railroad in Hinckley, 
the railroad company had made a gravel pit two or three acres 
in extent; its bottom was some twenty or thirty feet below the 
level of the surrounding country. After the departure of the 
train about seventy persons sought shelter in this pit. It con- 
tained a pool of water about three feet in its greatest depth, 
and closely huddled together in this pool were the fugitives, 
domestic animals and from 300 to 400 trunks, all of which 
passed through the fire unscathed. This pit was large enough 
to have saved all the people of Hinckley, and their household 
goods, had they only sought its refuge. The loss by the fires at 
Hinckley was one hundred and ninety-seven persons. 

A half an hour after the emergency train had left Sand- 
stone, which is situated on the Kettle River, in Pine County, 
about nine miles from Hinckley, the conflagration reached the 
village. The people had refused to heed the warning of the 
refugees from Hinckley, on board the emergency train, which 
pulled out and left them to their fate. Every building in the 
village, with one exception, became a heap of ashes, and sixty- 
three of the villagers perished in the flames, the balance finding 
safety in the waters of the Kettle River. 

Partridge, a small station six miles north of Sandstone, had 
a population of about fifty people; this hamlet was totally de- 
stroyed. The residents were all saved except one, a refuge being 
found about three miles from the hamlet in a lumber camp of 
one hundred acres, that had been burned over. Here they re- 
mained from a few minutes before six until midnight, when 
they were rescued by a relief train from West Superior. 

Sandstone Junction (or Miller), a station nine miles north 
of Hinckley, on the St. Paul and Duluth railroad, was merely 
a sidetrack for lumber cars, and most of the residents adjacent 
to it were farmers, who had made clearings and settled on them. 
To escape the conflagration, the inhabitants placed themselves 


in wells and potato patches, in the latter covering themselves 
with earth. Quite a number of the settlers were away at the 
time of the fire, but fifty per cent of those at home were burned 
to death. 

According to the certified report of Dr. D. W. Cowan of 
Pine County, under date of November 24, 1894, there was a 
total of 413 deaths, caused by the conflagration. The State 
Commission, appointed by Governor Nelson, consisting of 
Charles A. Pillsbury, Kenneth Clark, Charles H. Graves, Matthew 
G. Norton and Hastings H. Hart, estimated the property loss 
would approximate $750,000; this did not include damages done 
to the lumber and soil. The treasurer of the commission ac- 
knowledged the receipt of $96,458.69 cash donations; of this 
amount, $11,600 was received from England and Canada; $14,- 
711.19 from the United States, outside of Minnesota and $70,- 
147.50 from Minnesota. Besides this, $23,565.74 was donated 
and distributed by local relief committees. The total estimated 
value of relief furnished to the fire sufferers was $184,744. 

Chapter XVII. 

THE inauguration of David M. Clough as Governor of 
Minnesota occurred January 6, 1897. He was born in 
Lyme, New Hampshire, December 27, 1846. When he 
was nine years of age, his father removed to Waupaca, Wiscon- 
sin; the following summer he came to Spencer Brook, Isanti 
County. At this time this was the extreme limit of civilization. 
The elder Clough took up a claim, the grubbing and cleaning 
up of a farm was supplemented by logging, in which he was 
assisted by his sons. 

When the Governor reached the age of sixteen, he went to 
work in the summer time in a saw mill at Minneapolis. He as- 
sisted his father and others in lumbering winters, this continued 
four years, when his father gave him his time, which was the 
only endowment he had to bestow upon him. The next four 
years were spent in lumber camps in the winter, in farming in 
the summer. In 1870, in partnership with his brother they 
commenced lumbering for themselves at Spencer Brook, where 
they remained ten years. They then removed to Minneapolis 
where the logging was continued for several years, when they 
commenced to manufacture lumber, first hiring their logs sawed; 
finally they built a saw mill and subsequently conducted an ex- 
tensive business. 

Governor dough's first appearance in the political history 
of the State was in the Legislature of 1887 as Senator from 
the Twenty-eighth District, which composed the First and Sec- 
ond Wards of the city of Minneapolis, the township of St. An- 



thony, in the county of Hennepin, the counties of Anoka and 
Isanti. He was elected Lieutenant Governor in 1892, re-elected 
in 1894. Succeeded to the office of the chief executive of the 
State the following year, on account of the resignation of Knute 
Nelson. His election to the Governorship placed in the chair 
a self-made man, a transplanted product of the virgin soil of 
Minnesota, whose health, energy and wealth were the result of 
his environments within her confines. 


The Thirtieth Legislature assembled January 5, 1897. The 
membership of the Senate was the same as the preceding session, 
with the exception of two changes. One occasioned by the res- 
ignation of William P. Allen in the Fifty-third District; George 
A. Whitney was elected to fill the vacancy. The other by the 
election of Frank A. Day to the acting Lieutenant Governorship, 
resulted in a contest in the Sixth District. The retiring Lieu- 
tenant Governor by his defection to the silverites in the last cam- 
paign had antagonized his former Republican colleagues, and 
some of his constituency; he claimed that he was elected Senator 
for four years, that his selection as Lieutenant Governor, to fill 
a vacancy caused by the resignation of the Governor, did not 
terminate his term. At the State election in the Sixth District 
H. H. Dunn had received in a few election districts some votes 
to fill the vacancy; on the assembling of the Legislature he 
presented his credentials and desired to take the oath of office. 
An objection being raised the matter was referred to the com- 
mittee on elections, which reported it back to the Senate with 
recommendations, that the Senate as a committee of the whole 
should hear the arguments of both sides. The Senate sat several 
days, as a committee of the whole, listened to testimony and 
arguments; and on January 25, by a vote of thirty ayes to- 
twenty-three nays decided that a vacancy did exist in the Sixth 
District, and that H. H. Dunn was entitled to take the oath of 


The House of Kepresentatives consisted of ninety-one Re- 
publicans, thirteen Populists, seven Democrats, two Silver Re- 
publicans, and one Democrat-Populist. J. D. Jones, of Long 
Prairie was chosen Speaker. He was born in Pennsylvania in 
1849 and located in Todd County in 1867. His education had 
been obtained at academies in his native State. He had been reg- 
ister of deeds, and county attorney for his home county, as- 
sistant secretary and secretary of the State Senate, also clerk 
of the Supreme Court. 

In the membership of the House thirty-seven had been re- 
elected, there were thirty-seven foreigners, thirteen natives of the 
State, and nineteen residents previous to 1860. The majority of 
the House were either farmers or lawyers; there being forty- 
three of the former and twenty-two of the latter. For three 
consecutive terms, the Seventh District comprising, Nobles, 
Murray, Rock and Pipestone Counties had sent Ole 0. Holman, 
a native of Norway, who was engaged in the mercantile business 
at Slayton, and Daniel Shell, a native of St. Lawrence County, 
New York, a real estate and insurance broker of Worthington, 
who had been mayor of that city five terms. Dakota County 
had elected C. F. Staples, a practical farmer and dairyman, for 
a third consecutive term. The district comprising Chisago, Kana- 
bec, and Pine Counties had sent for a fourth consecutive term, 
August J. Anderson of Taylor Falls, a native of Sweden, author 
of the law to tax unused railroad lands. Jacob Truwe, a native 
of Switzerland, a settler in Minnesota since 1856, represented 
Carver County. He had served in the First Minnesota Artil- 
lery, and was a member of the Legislature of 1878. 

Henry G. Hicks, an ex-judge of the Fourth District, a 
member of the Legislature for five consecutive terms commenc- 
ing in 1877, was one of the Representatives for Minneapolis. 
Ignatius Donnelly, of Ninniger, was elected from Dakota 
County, by the People's Party. S. J. Abbott, a lawyer of Dela- 
van, a member of the House of 1893, represented Faribault 
County. From Dodge County came Samuel T. Littleton, an 
attorney of Kasson. A native of Missouri, at the age of sixteen 
he began teaching; in 1884 he removed to Minnesota, being 


admitted to the bar three years later. Henry Feig, the Repre- 
sentative from Kandiyohi County, was a member of the Legisla- 
ture of 1891 and 1895. He was born in Minneapolis and settled 
in his new home in 1870; he was engaged in farming. He was 
defeated in 1892 in the Seventh District for Congress on the 
Republican ticket, by eighty-five votes. The Fiftieth District 
sent Wallace B. Douglas of Moorhead, a native of Lynden, New 
York, he graduated from the law department of the University 
of Michigan. He afterwards practiced law eight years at 
Chicago, removing in 1883 to Moorhead. He was a member of 
the House of Representatives for 1895; afterwards was elected 
for three consecutive terms to the office of Attorney General of 
the State. 

The Governor in presenting his biennial message to the 
Legislature stated, that the citizens of the State, in common 
with other States had for over three years suffered financial 
depression and industrial stagnation. The market for the pro- 
ducts of the farmers had been circumscribed, prices thereby 
being greatly depreciated. He advocated that business methods 
should be applied to all State and municipal affairs. At the 
suggestion of the superintendent of public education, he recom- 
mended that "Minnesota Day/' for public schools should be 
established, which should be devoted, especially to teaching the 
history of the early discovery and settlement of the State. He 
aJso favored the restoration of the bureau of immigration, which 
had been abandoned for twelve years, as there were thousands 
of acres of vacant lands waiting the hands of intelligent toil to 
make them sources of wealth. 

The Legislature adjourned April 21, 1897. The total of 
the appropriation bills was somewhat larger than the two pre- 
ceding sessions; the Governor called the attention of the Legis- 
lature to the fact that the general bill contained many items, 
that heretofore had been the subject of special bills. The bounties 
for killing wolves were reduced to $5.00 during the months of 
January, February, March, April and May; $3.00 at every other 
season of the year. The sum of $5,000 was appropriated for 
the dedication of a monument erected at Gettysburg's battle 


field, to commemorate the immortal charge of the First Minne- 
sota Infantry. This dedication took place July 2, 1899. Ad- 
dresses were made by Governor Clough, Colonel E. B. Cope, 
government engineer in charge of the park, Judge Lochren 
acting adjutant at the close of the second day at Gettysburg, 
Senator Davis, Colonel Colvill, who led the charge, Major Martin 
Maginnis, a member of the regiment, and others. 

The Legislature memorialized Congress to establish a mili* 
tary park at Vicksburg, Mississippi. An appropriation of $5,000 
was made for the purchase and distribution of sugar beet seeds. 

By another act, the Legislature provided for laying a tax 
on the gross earnings of telephone, fast freight, equipment, 
express and sleeping car companies. The military code was 
revised. By a vote of two-thirds of its legal votes, any county 
or municipality could use a voting machine at its elections. A 
general law was passed for reorganizing counties, by which they 
could become permanently organized when there were 800 regis- 
tered voters. The State was apportioned into sixty-three Sena- 
torial and Eepresentative districts; the Senate to consist of sixty- 
three and the House of one hundred and nineteen members. 

The following constitutional amendments were adopted, and 
ratified by the people at the general election of 1898. Cities and 
villages were given the right to frame their own charters, the 
general limits to be prescribed by the Legislature, and for the 
purpose of general laws the cities were divided into four classes. 
Women were given the right to vote on management of schools 
and libraries, and were eligible to hold office on boards of these 
institutions. The "State Road and Bridge Fund" was created 
for the purpose of lendings moneys to be used in the construction 
and improvement of public highways and bridges. 

Ex-United States Minister to Russia, Andrew D. White, of 
New York, was on February 15, the honored guest of the House. 


The campaign for State officers commenced in the summei 
of 1898. The Democratic Silver Republicans, and Populists, 



held conventions at Minneapolis on June 15. By an agreement, 
a committee of seven from each convention was appointed to act 
in joint conference. The Democrats and Silver Republicans had 
no trouble in making their appointments; the Populists, however, 
consumed the entire day in discussion; the majority finally agreed 
to a compromise plan of fusion and appointed a conference com- 
mittee; the minority bolted the convention, nominated a full 
State ticket headed by Lionel C. Long, for Governor, and en- 
dorsed Ignatius Donnelly for United States Senator. 

The joint conference committee after a lively session agreed 
to divide the candidates for the State offices between the three 
parties, allowing the conventions fo make the nominations. John 
Lind, the Gubernatorial candidate was endorsed by the conven- 
tions. The Populists having been allowed the following officers 
nominated J. M. Bowler for Lieutenant Governor, John F. Kelly 
for Attorney General, and George M. Lamphere for Auditor. 
The Democrats completed the ticket by nominating J. J. Hein- 
rich for Secretary of State, and Alexander McKinnon for Treas- 

The Democrats and Silver Republicans in their platforms 
endorsed the "Chicago Platform" and the candidacy of William 
Jennings Bryan for the Presidency; the latter platform also 
endorsed the initiative and the referendum. 

The Republican State Convention met at St. Paul June 30. 
The candidates for Governor were William H. Eustis, of Min- 
neapolis, Samuel R. Van Sant, of Winona, and Lorin W. Collins 
of St. Cloud. There were 1,175 delegates in the convention; it 
took two ballots to determine the result, Van Sant was a for- 
midable candidate, and Judge Collins also developed considerable 
strength, but Eustis, being the winner was introduced to the 
convention as the next Governor. Lyndon A. Smith received the 
nomination for Lieutenant Governor, the State officials were all 
renominated, expecting the Attorney General, Wallace B. 
Douglas being the nominee for that office. 

The platform adopted commended the tariff legislation of 

.897 ; approved of the National administration's treatment of our 

foreign relations, and its management of the war with Spain. 


It favored the immediate annexation of Hawaii, and the con- 
structing of the Nicaragua Canal by the United States. It 
declared for a gold standard, abounded with praise of Senators 
Davis and Nelson, the former being endorsed for re-election. 
The Prohibitionists nominated for Governor George W. Higgins, 
and the Social Democrats, William B. Hammond. 

The vote for Governor was Lind, 131,980; Eustis, 111,796; 
Higgins, 5,299; Hammond, 1,685; and Long, 1,802. The total 
vote was 252,562, over 60,000 less than it was in 1896 ; Lind not 
receiving as many votes a? he did in that year by over 30,000. 
This is partially accounted for by the fact that it was an off 
year, no Presidential election being held. The registration, 
especially in the cities, was very much lighter, falling off over 
15,000 in Minneapolis and 10,000 in St. Paul. The country 
districts did not, however, show such discrepancies. Among the 
factors that contributed to the defeat of the Republican candidate 
were the inexperience of the managers of the campaign, Lind's 
Swedish nativity, and the open hostility and unwarranted opposi- 
tion of Governor Clough to Eustis, as indicated by the following 
extraordinary telegram sent to Governor Lind: 
"Hon. John Lind, New Ulm. 

"Allow me to congratulate you from the bottom of my heart. 
There is still a God in heaven. 

"D. M. CLOUGH/' 

Of the eighty-two counties, twenty-two changed their party 
affiliations from their status in 1896. Aitkin, Anoka, Big Stone, 
Blue Earth, Carlton, Carver, Isanti, Mille Lacs, Nobles, Eamsey, 
Sibley, Stevens, Wabasha, Waseca, Washington, Wright and 
Yellow Medicine were carried by the Democratic-People's 
ticket; while Beltrami, Hubbard, Norman, Pipestone and Todd 
were turned from the Fusion ticket and made Republican coun- 
ties. The new county of Eed Lake gave the Democratic-People's 
ticket 666 plurality. All of the Congressional districts were car- 
ried by the Eepublicans, the then incumbents being all re- 
elected. The Republican State officials were all elected, having 
pluralities from 24,743 for Lieutenant Governor, to 46,754 for 

Chapter XVIII. 


THE proclamation of War with Spain found Minnesota in 
a much better situation to respond to the call of the 
National Government for troops than she was at 
the breaking out of the War of the Kebellion. The Adjutant 
General's report, under date of August 1, 1897, shows that the 
militia forces of the State consisted of three regiments of in- 
fantry having a membership of 1,701 men, also two battalions of 
artillery with 125 members. This body of citizen soldiery well 
drilled and disciplined formed a nucleus to draw upon to fill the 
quota called for by the Federal Government for volunteers for 
the Spanish-American War. 

In obedience to the orders received from the Secretary of 
War for three regiments of infantry, steps were taken to recruit 
each company to one hundred men, the maximum peace footing 
being seventy-six men. On April 29, 1898, the First, Second 
and Third Eegiments of the Minnesota National Guards, having 
signified their willingness to enter the service of the United 
States, were ordered to report for duty at the State Fair Grounds 
in St. Paul. The regiments assembled in the afternoon of the 
date specified and Camp Eamsey, named in honor of the late 
Alexander Eamsey was established. This rapid mobilization re- 
sulted in Minnesota's troops being the first volunteer force to be 
mustered into service for the United States. It is also, worthy 
to note as a coincidence that the First Minnesota Eegiment of In- 
fantry was mustered into service for the War of the Eebellion on 



April 29, 1861, and that Minnesota's first three regiments for 
the Spanish-American War were mobilized April 29, 1898. The 
final mustering of the regiments was completed in the early part 
of May and they were officially reorganized as the Twelfth Regi- 
ment of Infantry Minnesota Volunteers, Thirteenth Regiment 
of Infantry Minnesota Volunteers, and the Fourteenth Regiment 
of Infantry Minnesota Volunteers. 

The mustering in and organization of the Twelfth Regi- 
ment of Infantry was completed May 6 and 7, 1898, Joseph Bob- 
leter, of New Ulm, being commissioned Colonel; Frank B. 
McCoy, of St. Paul, Lieutenant Colonel; George W. Mead, of 
Mankato, Arthur W. Wright, of Austin and George S. Whitney 
of Faribault, Majors. Camp Ramsey was left May 15, and the 
regiment arrived at Camp George H. Thomas, Chicakamagua 
Park, Georgia May 19, and was assigned to the First Brigade, 
Third Division, First Army Corps. The Twelfth remained in 
camp at Chickamauga Park until August 23, when it was removed 
to Camp Hamilton, Kentucky, arriving there the following day. 
Orders were received for the regiment to return to Minnesota 
and on September 15 it embarked for home arriving at New 
TJlm on September 17. Here the regimeni went into camp 
and on September 21 was furloughed for thirty days and mus- 
tered out of the United States service at New Ulm on November 
5, 1898. The regiment's losses were one commissioned officer 
and eighteen privates from disease contracted while in the South. 

The Thirteenth Regiment of Infantry completed its organi- 
zation May 7, 1898, by the appointment of Charles McReeve, 
of Minneapolis, Colonel; Wescott W. Price, of St. Paul, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel; Frederick W. Ames, of Minneapolis, Edward S. 
Bean of St. Paul, and John H. Frederick of Red Wing, Majors. 
Camp was broken May 16, and the regiment proceeded to San 
Francisco, California, to prepare for service in the Philippine 
Islands. The regiment upon its arrival May 21, in San Fran- 
cisco, was sent to- Camp Merritt where it remained until June 
26, when it was embarked on the steamer "City of Para," ar- 
riving at Manila Bay, July 31. 


On August 7 the Thirteenth marched to Camp Dewey where 
it encamped and was engaged, in the Battle of Manila against 
the Spanish army as part of the Third Brigade, Second Divi- 
sion, commanded by Brigadier General McArthur. 

In this engagement Captain Oscar C. Seebach, of Eed Wing, 
and Captain Alfred W. B. Joinstad, of St. Paul, was severely 
wounded. In the latter part of August the regiment was as- 
signed to Brigadier General Hughes's command as provost guard 
of Manila on which duty they continued until March 19, 1899. 
The following day they were assigned to field service in the 
Third Brigade, Second Division, commanded by General R. P. 
Hall, and on March 25 and 26, took part in an attack on the 
insurgent army in the Mariquina Valley. From March 29, 
to August 4, the regiment guarded the line of railroad communi- 
cation from Meriloa to San Isabel. During this period the regi- 
ment had a number of engagements with the insurgents among 
which were an attack on the railroad, April 10 and 11, and the 
Battle of Santa Maria, April 12. 

The Second and Third Battalion of the regiment were 
assigned to the Provisional Brigade under the command of 
Colonel Summers, and formed a part of General Lawton's ex- 
pedition to the interior. It was while engaged in this service, 
on May 8, when in pursuit of a body of insurgents, that 
Major A. M. Diggles, of Minneapolis, received a bullet in 
his forehead the wound resulting in his death. During the 
absence of the two battalions the First Battalion performed guard 
duty on the line of railroad from Bigaa Bridge to San Isabel 
The Second and the Third Battalions, on May 25, were re- 
lieved from duty with the Provisional Brigade, and detailed 
to guard the railroad line from Caloocan to Guiguinto, also to 
protect and patrol the towns of Malabon, Polo, Meyecanaan, and 
Guiguinto. The Thirteenth, was, on August 4, relieved from any 
further duty and returned to Manila where on August 16, 
they embarked for home on the transport Sheridan reaching 
San Francisco, California, September 7. They encamped at the 
Presidio where they remained until mustered put of the United 
States service October 3, 1899. The regiment's casualities 


were, one commission officer, died of wounds, and one from 
sickness, six privates were killed in battle, thirty-three died of 
disease, and three by accidents. There were six commissioned 1 
officers and sixty-eight privates wounded. 

The organization of the Fourteenth Regiment of Infantry 
was completed May 8, 1898, Charles A. Van Duzee, of St. Paul, 
being commissioned Colonel; Charles E. Johnson, of Mankato, 
Lieutenant Colonel; Francis H. Bidwell, of Duluth, Edward S. 
Person of Zumbrota, and Charles M. Schaeffer of Minneapolis, 
Majors. The regiment left Camp Ramsey May 16, and arrived 
at Camp George H. Thomas, Chickamauga Park, Georgia three 
days later. They remained in this locality perfecting themselves 
in drill, company and battalion movements until August 28, 
when the regiment marched to Rossville, Georgia, where railroad 
transportation was taken to Knoxville, Tennessee, where they 
went into quarters at Camp Poland. On September 20 the 
Fourteenth left Camp Poland for St. Paul, arriving in that city 
September 23 and were furloughed for thirty days. The regi- 
ment was mustered out of the service at St. Paul, November 18, 
1898. They had lost by disease during their term of enlistment 
nine of their number. 

To fill Minnesota's quota for the second call of President 
McKinley for volunteers for the Spanish-American War, the 
infantry regiments of the National Guards of the State having 
enlisted to fill the quota under the first call for troops, for enlistment 
were commenced for a new regiment. Companies were mustered 
in at St. Paul from July 9, to 18, and the regiment became 
officially known as the Fifteenth Regiment of Infantry Min- 
nesota Volunteers. The organization of the regiment was com- 
pleted by commissioning John C. Shandrew, of St. Paul, 
Colonel; Harry A. Leonhaeuser, of Minneapolis, Lieutenant Col- 
onel; Paul H. Gotzian, of St. Paul, and Daniel W. Hand, of 
St. Paul, Majors. The regiment remained at Camp Ramsey 
until August 24, when it was removed to Camp Snelling. The 
Fifteenth was embarked September 15 for Camp Meade, Pennsyl- 
vania, and arrived there on the eighteenth of that month. 
The regiment on November 15, proceeded to Camp Mackenzie, 


Georgia, where they remained until they were mustered out at 
Augusta, Georgia, March 27, 1899. The casualities during their 
term of enlistment were twenty members from disease con- 
tracted in the service. 

Chapter XIX. 

IN" the early part of October, 1898, occurred a series of 
troubles, ending in an armed conflict between the United 
States authorities and a certain faction of the Pillager band 
of Chippewa Indians. The incident as a whole, thoroughly 
excited the people of the northern portion of the State for some 
weeks, attracting National attention, and engaged the efforts of 
the Government authorities for some time, besides entailing a 
large expense. The affair ended in an almost complete victory 
for the Indians, and in the discomfiture and humiliation of the 
Federal authorities. 

The Indians involved were connected with the Pillagers, and 
lived on Bear Island, which is in the eastern part of Leech Lake, 
and is a part of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation. Some of 
them, however, occupied lands on the adjacent shores of the lake, 
but all of them were known to the whites as <r Bear Islanders." 
Their number included about one hundred men and boys who 
were capable of bearing arms. While the Bear Islanders had 
adopted most of the customs of civilization, they still clung to 
many of their aboriginal habits. In their religious belief they 
were still pagan, paying reverence to the Manitou. They did 
not believe in polygamy, and their women were noted for their 
chastity. In their dress they adopted some of the habiliments of 
civilization, but generally wore some article distinctly Indian. 
Commonly they wore no head covering, and in warm weather 
wore blankets around their shoulders, and in many cases moc- 
casins on their feet. They, however, were generally orderly, and 



caused the officials at the agency less trouble than some of the 
other bands of Chippewas. They were to some extent tillers of 
the soil, lived in cabins or shacks, but spent a great deal of their 
time in hunting and fishing. 

Time and again disputes had arisen between the Indians 
on the reservation and the whites, and though on several 
occasions soldiers had been sent to the reservation to maintain 
order, the troops had not been resisted and the Indians remained 
peaceable. In the spring of 1898 Poh-gon-ne-gi-ohik 1 , an old Bear 
Islander Indian, had been summoned as a witness to appear and 
testify against another Indian in the United States Court at 
Crookston. Sometime previously he had been subpoenaed, before 
the United States Court at Duluth. He attended, but for some 
reason was refused his witness fees, and compelled to walk back 
to his cabin at Sugar Point. He then vowed that he would never 
again obey a process from the white man's court. So when, in 
the spring of 1898, another subpoena was served upon him, 
Poh-gon-ne-gi-ohik declared he would not obey it. When the 
court convened, and his name was called, he did not answer, and 
a warrant was issued for his arrest for contempt of court. 

September 15, Deputy United States Marshal Robert Mor- 
rison, under this warrant arrested Poh-gon-ne-gi-ohik and an- 
other Indian at the Leech Lake Agency. When the deputy and 
the Indian police attempted to put the two prisoners on board a 
steamer to convey them to Walker, they were attacked by some 
of the other Indians, and the prisoners rescued. Warrants were 
then issued for the arrest of twenty-two Indians, said to have 
been concerned in the rescue, and arrangements were made to 
arrest them. 

United States Marshal R. T. O'Connor, believing it impos- 
sible for his deputies to make the arrest without military assis- 
tance, informed the department of justice that he must have 
the assistance of the troops. September 28 General John M. 

'As spelled by R*v. Charles Wright, alias, Chief White Cloud, chief 
of the White Earth Indians. The name means literally "hole in the 
sky," but is commonly translated hole in the day, and is the same as 
that borne by the two noted chiefs, father and son, of the former 
Mississippi band of Chippewas. 


Bacon, then in command at Fort Snelling, received an order 
from the War Department to send twenty men to the Leech 
Lake reservation to assist in the arrest of the twenty-two Indians. 
He at once communicated with Marshal O'Connor, informing 
him that the detachment would be sent. The Marshal informed 
General Bacon that twenty men were, in his opinion, too small 
a force; that it would not intimidate the Indians, but probably 
would make them the more willing to fight. 

On investigating the matter General Bacon fully agreed with 
the Marshal, and advised the . War Department that at least a 
full company of soldiers should be sent to the Marshal's assis- 
tance. The reply came in a positive order to send but twenty 
men. September 30, the detachment under Lieutenant C. M. 
Humphrey, of the Third United States Infantry, left St. Paul 
for Walker. The following day Marshal O'Connor arrived at 
Walker with the warrants for the offending Indians. On his 
arrival the Marshal wanted to go out at once and arrest the In- 
dians but yielded to the wishes of the Indian officials, who 
said that there was no danger of any immediate armed re- 
sistance by the Indians, it would be best to call a coun- 
cil to see if the trouble could not be arranged peaceably. 
The council was set for October 3, and though some of the In- 
dians attended not one member of the Bear Island band put in 
an appearance, though they had been notified by runners sent out 
by Inspector Tinker. 

The fact that the Bear Islanders did not attend the council 
made the matter look worse than at any previous time. As was 
subsequently learned, thirty-five of the Bear Islanders had decided 
to fight rather than have their brothers arrested. The band had 
left Bear Island, and removed their women, children and old 
men, amongst the number being old Poh-gon-ne-gi-ohik, to the 
northern part of the reservation. The thirty-five fighting men, 
nineteen of whom were armed with Winchester rifles, and the 
balance with double-barrel shot guns, went into camp in the thick 
woods on the eastern side of Leech Lake, about three miles north 
of Sugar Point, where the troops would probably land. 


The rumors of the hostile intent that one hundred and 
twenty-five of them were under arms, determined to fight reach- 
ing Walker, Marshal O'Connor and Lieutenant Humphrey tele- 
graphed General Bacon, who was then at Fort Snelling, that 
more men were needed. The War Department was advised by 
the General that at least two companies should be sent to re- 
enforce the detachment at Walker. He, however, received posi- 
tive orders that the remainder of one company, or eighty men, 
and no more, should be sent. The second expedition, consisting of 
eighty men of Company E, of the- Third Infantry, under the di- 
rect command of Captain Melville C. Wilkinson, arrived at Wal- 
ker in the evening of October 4. General Bacon accompanied 
these troops and on arriving at Leech Lake assumed the general 

On the arrival of General Bacon he found that Marshal O'- 
Connor and Inspector Tinker had just returned from a council 
with the Bear Islanders. The Indians had sent for the two offi- 
cials, and when they arrived at "Old Bug's" cabin, on Sugar 
Point, they were met by forty or fifty Indians; a short council 
was held, in which the Marshal demanded that the Indians wanted 
to be given up; but this was emphatically refused, the Indians 
stating that they would not surrender, but would fight to the 
bitter end. 

Marshal O'Connor, on reaching Walker, found General 
Bacon, and after a conference, it was decided that the troops 
and deputy marshal should leave the following morning to ac- 
complish the arrest of the Indians. The troops reported at the 
dock at 4 o'clock on the morning of October 5, it having been de- 
cided that the parly should proceed directly to Sugar Point. 
The soldiers were embarked on a large barge and the United 
States officials and chief officers of the expedition were conveyed 
in the small steamers Flora and Chief. The trip across Leech 
Lake was uneventful, and at a few minutes after 9 o'clock the 
thirty-mile trip was finished, and a landing at Sugar Point was 

There were about half a dozen Indians assembled in "Old 
Bug's" log house, near the landing, and Colonel T. J. Sheehan, 


one of the United States deputies, recognized Mah-quah, as one 
of the men for whom he had a warrant. He at once placed 
him tinder arrest, and after a hard struggle, the man was subdued 
and handcuffed. During this struggle four or five Indians 
entered the cabin returning with Winchester rifles, and disap- 
peared in the woods. As soon as the arrest was accomplished 
Captain Wilkinson, who was directly in command, detailed skir- 
mishers who beat up the woods thirty rods in every direction, but 
did not find an Indian. On their return it was decided to make a 
reconnoisance in force around Sugar Point, through several 
small Indian villages for a distance of two or three miles. A 
detachment under Lieutenant Eoss was left at the clearing and 
lake shore; the balance of the troops made an uneventful trip, 
but not an Indian warrior was seen; the old men and women 
stating that the men had gone away, where they did not know. 

During the absence of the reconnoitering party Lieutenant 
Boss and his men thoroughly beat up the woods around the 
clearing and stationed pickets. There were three or four In- 
dians in the clearing at the time who made certain hostile 
demonstrations. On the return of the party to the clearing, 
Lieutenant Eoss informed General Bacon that the Indian police 
had informed him they believed there were armed Indians hid- 
ing in the woods. 

It was then decided to send the Flora back to Walker to 
bring tentage and supplies; the soldiers were dismissed, and 
ordered to forage upon "Old Bug's" garden for materials for 
dinner. The men stacked their arms in rear of "Old Bug's" 
cabin, and men were detailed for picket duty. The officers were 
at the landing attending to the departure of the steamer when 
a shot was heard from the direction of the soldiers. One of 
the soldiers had failed to turn the safety catch on his Krag- 
Jorgensen, and in trying to place it in the stack it fell to the 
ground and the shock discharged it. 

The nineteen Indians armed with the Winchester rifles had 
taken up a position in the woods commanding the clearing and 
the landing; their sixteen comrades with double-barreled shot 
guns were back in the position about three miles away, first 
taken by them to protect their rear. 



The discharge of the gun seemed to be a signal for a general 
uprising on the part of the Indians; their first volley caused 
great surprise and confusion in the ranks of the seventy-eeven 
soldiers, fifty-eight of whom had never been under fire before. 
The others had seen active service in Cuba, and were present at 
San Juan Hill. The recruits were badly rattled, fired their 
guns in the air, and then ran for the nearest cover. The first 
Indian volley killed one soldier, and wounded two others. 
Through the efforts of the officers a firing line was soon estab- 
lished. The Indians fired a second and third volley, and were 
located near the edge of the clearing, not fifty yards from the 
soldiers. General Bacon then ordered a general movement on 
the part of the soldiers, and the entire line charged from their 
position back of the cabin up to the very edge of the clearing, 
and the Indians fell back into the woods. The soldiers by this 
time had recovered their coolness. The Indians, however, were 
firing only occasionally; every warrior lay prone on the ground, 
behind a tree. General Bacon issued orders to the troops, that 
if they could not see any Indians to fire at the trees from which 
the smoke of their rifles came, as their Krag-Jorgensen bullets 
would pass through trees of from two or three feet in diameter. 
At this time the General did not know that the Indians were 
not trusting to the trees for protection. About 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon the firing ceased almost entirely. 

The two steamers as soon as the firing commenced cast off 
their lines, and pulled a quarter of a mile out into the lake. 
On board of the Flora was Marshal O'Connor and on the Chief 
was Inspector Tinker. The steamers returned to Walker, Tinker 
wishing to send a telegram to Washington, while O'Connor had 
the idea of going to the Agency to induce Lieutenant Humph- 
rey, with his twenty men, to come to the rescue of General 
Bacon. This Lieutenant Humphrey refused to do. He said he 
had been placed to protect the whites at the Agency, and that 
he must remain there until relieved by the orders of his supe- 
rior officer. 

Early in the fight, while trying to rally his men, Captain 
Wilkinson was wounded in the right leg. A tourniquet was ap- 


plied to the limb, and the Captain returned to the firing line. 
While encouraging his men another bullet found the brave offi- 
cer; the ball entered his body just above the hip joint, ancf 
passed entirely through the abdomen; he died an hour and a half 
afterwards. Thus perished one of the bravest and best of 
soldiers, and the truest of men. His murder was never avenged. 
The hours that intervened between the cessation of firing 
and dark were anxious ones for the soldiers at the Point. They 
had had nothing to eat since 4 o'clock in the morning, and it 
could not be determined whether or not the Indians had given 
up the attack. Trenches were dug around the north and west 
sides of the cabin, and rifle pits excavated on the east side. The 
men on duty were relieved every hour; at 3 o'clock in the morn- 
ing all the soldiers were roused and sent into the trenches. 
General Bacon expected an attack at daylight and prepared in 
every possible way to defend himself against it. The dawn, 
however, brought no attack. Shortly after daylight a shot was 
fired from the woods which was followed by occasional shots for 
several hours. About 9 o'clock a private went to a potato patch 
to dig potatoes; he had just reached the patch when a bullet 
plowed up the ground within a few inches of him ; he ran back 
to the cabin and several shots were fired in the direction from 
which the shot had come. A half hour later he again visited 
the patch, and while picking up potatoes a shot struck him and 
he fell ; a comrade was at his side almost instantly, but he was 

About 8 A. M. the steamer Yera landed at Sugar Point. 
The captain of the boat immediately brought ashore a box of 
ammunition and a barrel of provisions, announcing that he was 
willing to take the wounded soldiers back to Walker. The men 
were carried down to the shore, but after putting one soldier 
aboard a shot was fired from the woods, and the boat put off 
without waiting for the rest of the wounded. It was at this 
time that the dead body of William Eussell, a mixed blood Chip- 
pewa and an Indian policeman, was found on the shore. Dur- 
ing the previous night he had attempted to leave the Point in a 
canoe, a soldier on picket, not recognizing the policeman in 


the darkness, ordered him to halt, and when he did not comply 
with the order fired and killed him instantly. 

About noon the steamer "Flora," in charge of Dr. J. L. 
Camp, of Brainerd, and another gentleman, also Hospital Stew- 
ard Lawrence, of the Third United States Infantry, arrived off 
the Point; the dead, wounded and newspaper correspondents were 
put on a barricaded barge, towed by the steamer and taken back 
to Walker. General Bacon decided to retain the rest of the 
command at the Point until the following day. The Hospital 
Steward informed the General that Lieutenant Colonel Harback 
of the Third United States Infantry, and reenforcements of 200 
soldiers from Forf Snelling were encamped at the Indian Agency 
awaiting orders. The General sent a message to Colonel Har- 
back that he did not need reenforcements, and would return to 
Walker the next day, as soon as a boat and barge were sent to 
him. Early the next morning the steamer returned to Sugar 
Point to remove the soldiers. In the meantime, for several 
hours, not a shot had been fired by the Indians. Skirmishers- 
sent out through the woods failed to locate a single warrior, 
although they brought back several Winchester rifles. The en- 
tire force was drawn off from the battlefield, and embarked for 
Walker on the steamer and barge. 

As soon as General Bacon returned to Walker he began to 
formulate plans for a campaign against the Indians. He ordered 
two more companies at Fort Snelling to hold themselves in readi- 
ness to move to his reenforcement at any moment. The small 
forces which had been sent early in the trouble to Leech Lake 
dam were reenforced. Two companies of volunteers were placed 
on the western line of the Indian reservation, and Governor 
Clough sent the men of two batteries armed as infantry into the 
Cass Lake country. The reservation was practically surrounded. 
The Indians were encamped on Black Duck Point, about three 
miles east of Sugar Point, and plans were made to attack them 
at the former point. 

But, just as the plans were nearly completed, W. A. Jones, 
United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs, arrived at Walker. 
General Bacon and Marshal O'Connor received positive order* 


from their departments to turn the entire matter over to Com- 
missioner Jones. The latter immediately sent messengers to 
the hostile Indians with presents and provisions asking for a 
council. The Indians refused to come to Walker, or the Agency 
for a council, but said they were willing to council if the com- 
missioner would come to them. This he did, taking with him 
more provisions and presents. Then followed a week or two 
of 'long talks/' finally, on October 20, some of the Indians who 
had resisted Deputy Marshal Morrison, agreed to surrender them- 
selves to the authorities. Nine of them reported to the Agency, 
and were turned over to the United States Marshal who took 
them to court at Duluth. They were tried for resisting United 
States officers, and received sentences of from sixty days to 
ten months; those whose terms had not expired were afterwards 
pardoned by President McKinley. 

Six soldiers had given their lives that the marshals might 
be protected in their attempts to take Indians into courts as 
witnesses in unimportant cases. 

The total casualties were six soldiers, including the gallant 
Captain Wilkinson, and an Indian policeman killed; ten soldiers 
and five civilians wounded. Not 9 single Indian was killed or 
wounded. One fell from a tree hurting his back, and the 
soldiers believed they had killed him, but he is alive today. 

The fears of an uprising which had been entertained by 
the people in the Leech Lake district were turned into wild 
alarm immediately following the affair at Sugar Point; urgent 
calls for troops and military protection came to Governor Clough 
from every place where the slightest danger existed. The Gov- 
ernor promptly secured permission to distribute the Fourteenth 
Minnesota Volunteers, then in camp at Fort Snelling, through 
the Indian country. At first the War Department revoked the 
order, but after some earnest telegraphing by the Governor to 
Washington the regiment was again placed at the Governor's 
disposal. He calmed the fears of the people in the threatened 
section by stationing fifty soldiers at Bemidji and Bena. Fifty 
soldiers were also distributed along the railroads between these 
points. The infected district was thoroughly patrolled, and all 


preparations made to prevent any general outbreak or uprising 
among the Pillagers. But there was no further trouble. The 
Bear Islanders were satisfied, as they evidently had a right to 
be, and as they were not molested further, they soon returned to 
their former cabins and gardens, and resumed the former even 
tenor of their simple lives and primitive ways. The white au- 
thorities seemed overcome with shame, disgust and chargin, and 
covered up the matter as best they could from investigation and 
discussion. The entire affair was most discreditable to them, 
even to the extent of being disgraceful and humiliating. That 
nineteen Indians should defeat eighty white soldiers, led by a 
Brigadier General, was only one of the repulsive incidents of 
the affair with the Bear Island Chippewas in the autumn of 

Chapter XX. 

THE inauguration of John Lind as Governor placed in 
the chief executive office, the first successful candi- 
date of a fusion of political parties in the State. He 
was born in Sweden, March 25, 1854, and became a resident 
of Minnesota when he was fourteen years of age. He attended 
the public schools, also the University of Minnesota, read 
law and was admitted to the bar in 1877. He practiced his 
profession at New Ulm, and became an active member of the 
Eepublican party; in 1881 he was appointed receiver of the land 
office at Tracy, and in 1886 became his party candidate for 
Representative to Congress in the Second District. Governor 
Lind was loath to accept the nomination for Governor in 1896, 
but deferring to the urgent demands of a multitude of friends 
he acquiesced in his nomination. His administration of State 
affairs was commendable, and redounded to his credit as a praise- 
worthy and efficient chief executive officer. He was defeated 
for re-election in 1900; in 1902 refused again to lead a forlorn 
hope, but accepted the Democratic nomination, for Represen- 
tative in the Fifth District, and was elected to the Fifty- 
Eighth Congress. In the Spanish American War, he was con- 
nected with the Twelfth Regiment Minnesota Volunteers, being 
Quarter-master with the rank of First Lieutenant. Governor 
Lind, during his Gubernatorial term, changed his place of resi- 
dence from New Ulm to Minneapolis, where he now resides en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession. 




The Thirty-first Legislature assembled January 3, 1899. 
The new apportionment act of 1897 required a new election of 
Senators. The membership consisted of forty-three Republicans, 
fifteen Democrats, three Populists, one Democrat-Populist and 
one Independent Republican. It was largely composed of Amer- 
ican-born citizens, as it included only seven foreigners; fif- 
teen were natives of the State, while the pioneer element was 
represented by only nine who had settled in Minnesota previous 
to 1860. There were only three representatives of the agri- 
cultural interests, the lawyers, however, predominated, there be- 
ing twenty-eight nearly a majority of the body, the balance were 
either editors or engaged in mercantile pursuits. 

The following Senators had been re-elected: Allen J. Greer 
of Wabasha; Sam Sweningsen, of Mower; Edwin J. Jones, of 
Stevens; T. V. Knatvold, of Freeborn; Charles J. Larson, of 
Sibley; George D. McArthur, of Faribault; Edwin G. Potter, of 
Hennepin; E. K. Roverud, of Houston; Albert Schaller, of 
Dakota; Timothy D. Sheehan, of Ramsey; Albert W. Stockton, 
of Rice; John H. Smith, of Benton; Richard E. Thompson, of 
Fillmore; and Edward T. Young, of Swift. 

Among the new members who had previous legislative ex- 
perience were George P. Wilson of Minneapolis, a native of 
Pennsylvania. He located at Winona in 1860. He had been 
county attorney of Winona County, secretary of the Senate, Gov- 
ernment Commissioner of the Northern Pacific Railroad, mem- 
ber of the house of the Legislature of 1873 and Attorney General 
of the State from 1874 to 1880. 

Joseph Underleak of Olmsted County, a native of Aus- 
tria, emigrated with his parents when only ten months old 
to Wisconsin, in 1856 came to Chatfield. On becoming of age 
he successfully engaged in mercantile pursuits, and finally became 
interested in banking. In 1880, in connection with his other 
business he commenced reading law; in 1895, disposing of his 
banking interests, he devoted his time exclusively to the prac- 


tice of law. Mr. Underleak was first elected Representative to the 
Lower House in 1892, and served during three consecutive ses- 
sions in 1895 and was chairman of the Judiciary Committee. 

Peter McGovern of Waseca County, was a member of the 
Senate of 1875 and 1876, Daniel Shell, an ex-mayor of 
Worthington had been member of the Legislature from 1893 
to 1897, William A. Sivright a native of Hutchinson, a Republi- 
can elected in the Democratic county of McLeod, had been a 
member of the House for 1895. Frederick E. DuToit, of Chas- 
ka and had been a member of the Legislature in 1872 and 1873. 
L. H. McKuslick, an attorney, of Pine City, a native of Maine, 
a settler in Minnesota since 1877 had represented his district in 
the Legislatures of 1883, 1884 and 1889. 

In the St. Paul delegation there was John H. Ives, a 
lawyer, who had been a member of the Legislature in 1889 
and 1893; Hiler H. Horton, a native of Wisconsin, had practiced 
law in St. Paul since 1878, and was a member of the House 
of Representatives in 1894; Andrew R. McGill formerly In- 
surance Commissioner and Governor; Frederick B. Snyder one of 
the Senators of Minneapolis, practiced law and was a member of 
the preceding House of Representatives; S. A. Stockwell, an 
insurance agent from the same city, had been a member of 
the House of Representatives during the sessions of 1891 and 
1897. Edward E. Smith, a native of the State, a practicing at- 
torney of Minneapolis served as a Representative in the Legis- 
latures of 1895 and 1897. 

Clarence B. Buckman of Little Falls, had served one term 
in the House and two terms in the Senate; he afterwards became 
a Member of Congress. Frank B. Daugherty of Duluth, was a 
member of the State Senate in 1891 and 1893. J. D. Jones of 
Long Prairie, had been Speaker of the House and member of 
the Legislatures of 1895 and 1897. 

Edward T. Young, a native of Sibley County, who had been 
a resident of Appleton since he was sixteen years of age, repre- 
sented the district comprising Swift and Big Stone Counties. 
He was a member of the legal fraternity, a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, and was admitted to practice of law in 


1881. He had been president of the city council of Appleton, 
a member of the House of Representatives in 1889 and 1893, 
was serving his second term as Senator, being chairman of the 
Judiciary Committee. He was afterwards elected Attorney Gen- 
eral of the State in 1904, and re-elected two years later. 

Charles A. Reeves, a lawyer of Glenwood, was a member of 
the House of 1895 and 1897. Among the new aspirants for 
legislative honors that were to become prominently identified 
with the political history of the State was John A. Johnson, of 
St. Peter, the present Governor, and Samuel Lord of Kasson, 
a native of Olmsted County. The latter was educated at Shat- 
tuck school, at Faribault, and Carlton College, Northfield. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1885 and had been county attorney of 
Dodge County. He afterwards became a prominent candidate 
for the Republican nomination for Governor in 1906, and is at 
present a member of the State Tax Commission. 

In the House of Representatives there were ninety-two Re- 
publicans, thirteen Democrats, eight Populists, four Democrat- 
Populists, one Independent, and one People's Democrat. There 
were forty-five foreigners, thirteen natives of the State, and 
twenty-one who had settled in the State previous to 1860. The 
majority of the members were either farmers or lawyers, there be- 
ing forty-four of the former and twenty of the latter. Thirty- 
two members had been re-elected. 

From Winona County came ex-Lieutenant Governor William 
H. Yale; S. J. Abbott, of Delavan, and Jens K. Grondahl, 
of Red Wing, were serving their third consecutive term. A. B. 
Kelly, a merchant of Northfield, had been a member of the 
legislature of 1893 and 1895. C. F. Staples, of Dakota County, 
was serving his fourth consecutive term. From Minneapolis 
came Philip B. Winston, a Democrat, by birth a Virginian, he 
had served in the cavalry branch of the Confederate Army. He 
came to Minnesota in 1872, and was by occupation a railroad con- 
tractor. He was mayor of Minneapolis in 1891 and 1892. 
David A. Lydiard, of Minneapolis, a native of Nova Scotia, en- 
gaged in farming, had been a member of the Legislature in 1883. 


H. C. Stivers, an ex-mayor of Brainerd, editor of The 
Brainerd Journal, was also a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives during the session of 1891. An old pioneer of the 
State was Thomas M. Pugh, a native of Wales, he came to Min- 
nesota and located at Mankato in 1855. He served in the Indian 
War of 1862, was provost marshal during the Civil War; ap- 
pointed surveyor of the United States Land office at Fargo, 
Dakota, and represented that district in 1885 in the Territorial 
Legislature of Dakota. He afterwards took up his residence 
at Duluth, where he was engaged in the grain and produce busi- 

D. P. O'Neill, a Populist, of Ortonville, was a member of 
the House of 1893. Lewis 0. Foss, a farmer, of Grant County, 
was serving his third consecutive term. He settled in Minnesota 
in 1879 and had held many offices of trust in his community. 
Henry Plowman, of Otter Tail County, had been a member of 
the House of 1889. D. F. McGrath, a native of Wisconsin, came 
with his parents to Minnesota , in 1864. On becoming of age 
he engaged in farming and general merchandise business at 
Barnesville. He had held various municipal offices in that city 
and was serving his third consecutive term as Representative of 
the district comprising Wilkins, Clay and Becker Counties. 

The Thirty-second District comprising Chisago, Pine and 
Kanabec Counties was represented by Samuel C. Johnson of 
Rush City, a native of Sweden. He settled in Minnesota in 
1867, and was engaged in the mercantile business. J. C. Pope, a 
Vermonter, settled in the State in 1860. He had been a prac- 
ticing attorney at Mora and county attorney for Lac qui Parle 
County, for two years. He, for fourteen years, held that same 
office for Kanabec County. Mr. Pope was re-elected to the 
Thirty-second Legislature. 

The House organized and chose Arthur N. Dare as Speaker. 
The presiding officer was serving his third consecutive term as 
Representative. He was born in Onondaga County, New York, 
in 1850, seventeen years later he settled in Minnesota. He was 
editor and publisher of the Star News a newspaper published at 
Elk River. 


Governor Clough, in his message mention, the Spanish- 
American War and the part taken by Minnesota in equipping her 
four regiments. The Chippewa Indians, on account of a series 
of acts and neglects of the United States Government had be- 
come turbulent and unruly and October 7, 1898, it had been 
necessary for the Governor to call out the State militia to act 
with the regular troops to restore confidence amongst the inhabi- 
tants in the northern part of the State. The Bureau of Labor, 
Railroad and Warehouse Commission were highly commended for 
their efficiency and the reforms so far accomplished. 

In referring to the educational matters of the State he 

"In all departments the enrollment of students had in- 
creased in larger proportion than the population, especially was 
this true of the State University; the special school for defec- 
tives received the commendations of the philanthropic workers, 
"throughout the State and Nation." A special investigation of 
the penal institutions had been made, in the early part of 1899, 
and the management was reported as being above criticism. 

The first part of Governor Lind's inaugural address, was di- 
rected to the subject of taxation; he recommended legislation 
for shifting more of the burdens of taxation from the possessions 
of the poor to the various forms of wealth, that were escaping 
assessment. The law, requiring a minimum incorporation fee 
of $50 to obtain a charter, also taxation on its capital stock; he 
thought should apply to foreign corporations, doing business in 
the State, as well as domestic. He also recommended the laying 
of an annual franchise tax, upon both foreign and domestic cor- 
porations. He said: "The legislation now in force for taxing 
express, telegraph, telephone, and sleeping car companies in the 
State is in my judgment radically defective, and should be re- 
vised. The rate of three per cent on gross earnings, computed 
solely on local business is grossly inadequate." He therefore 
advocated either a higher rate for gross earnings taxation, or a 
payment of a tax on their franchise and valuation, stating that 
the maximum rate on gross earnings of railroads in Illinois was 
seven per cent; in Wisconsin and Iowa four per cent. 


The management of the State institutions was commended. 
The subjects of agriculture and forestry were dealt with. The 
evil of free railroad passes was taken up the peculiar distinction 
that Minnesota was the only State, that authorized the issue 
was dwelt upon; he recommended an abolishment of the evil, 
root and branch; also that the lobby, otherwise known as the 
"third house," should be legislated out of existence. 

As previously stated, the election of a United States Sen- 
ator to succeed Cushman K. Davis, had been one of the issues 
of the State campaign. The Senator had been fully endorsed by 
the members of his party, it was of . course only necessary for 
the Legislature to take a ballot, to record the popular choice. 
Therefore it became one of the first duties of the Legislature, 
after its organization, to vote for a United States Senator, there 
being no necessity for a caucus to designate the nominee. 
The election was held January 17, and in the Senate Cushman 
K. Davis received forty-three votes and Charles A. Towne 
seventeen; in the House, the same day Davis received ninety- 
three and Towne twenty-five. 

The Legislature adjourned April 18, 1899. In a concise 
review of its work, the following may be mentioned: The 
sum of $24,500 was appropriated to reimburse the business 
men of the State for their contributions for an exhibit, at the 
Trans-Mississippi and International Exhibition at Omaha, Nebras- 
ka; the preceding Legislature having failed to make such ap- 
propriation. The Governor was authorized to set apart each year 
a day, to be known as "Arbor and Bird Day," and to request 
its observance by all public and private schools, colleges, and 
institutions of learning. The day was to be passed in planting 
trees and ornamenting school and public grounds. 

A new civil rights law was passed more clearly defining 
the civil and legal rights of persons, irrespective of race, color 
or previous conditions of servitude, not only making the 
violation of the law a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine, but by 
imprisonment; the party offending could collect civil damages in 
a sum not exceeding $500. 


The docking and multilation of horses was prohibited 
any breach of the law was punishable by fines and im- 
prisonment. The killing of wolves was again the subject of 
legislation, bounties were increased to $7. 

Joint resolutions were passed, requesting the Senator's 
and Representatives of the State in Congress, to use their in- 
fluence to have the Federal Constitution so amended as to pro- 
vide for the election of United States Senators by a direct vote 
of the people; also opposing the admittance to the National 
Legislature, of Mr. Roberts, of Utah, a Mormon. 

On account of alleged abuses in connection with the State's 
binding twine plant, and the administration of the grain in- 
spection department, an act was passed regulating the sale of 
twine at the penitentiary, and a board of appeals created for the 
latter commission. The members of the Railroad and Warehouse 
Commission, were hereafter to be elected by the people; the 
term of office was extended from three to four years. State 
boards of forestry, and of electricity, also a library commission 
were established. 

The legal rate of interest was reduced from seven to six 
per cent. State institutions were forbidden to exceed their ap- 
propriations. By another act, the election laws were amended, 
the use of voting machines was allowed, when sanctioned by 
a two-third vote of the citizens of an election district. Primary 
elections were provided for in counties of 200,000" inhabitants, 
the nominees to be chosen by popular vote seven weeks before 
election day; the same set of election officers must act for 
all parties. 

The railroad laws were amended, so that foreign corporations 
in control of railroads in the State were subject to the laws of 
the State; also that parallel lines must not consolidate. Ship- 
pers of car loads of live-stock were to be furnished free trans- 

Changes were made in the tax laws; the gross earnings of 
express companies were to be taxed four and one-half instead of 
three per cent; also minerals and standing timber were to be 
reckoned, as real estate for the purpose of taxation. 


An anti-trust law was passed prohibiting combinations, and 
making violations of the law a felony. One-fifth of the net prof- 
its of a bank was to go to the surplus fund, instead of one-tenth 
as heretofore. 

An act, providing for a bounty on beet sugar was amended, 
limiting it to $40,000 a year at $4.25 a ton. The Governor 
vetoed a bill appropriating $19,975 for the payment of bounties 
for 1895, but the Legislature repassed the bill. 

Students, who enlisted in the Spanish-American War were 
entitled to free tuition at the University of Minnesota. Pro- 
visions were made for a naval reserve of eight companies. It 
was made unlawful, to deface the United States or State flag; 
their use for advertising purposes was prohibited. The age of 
consent was raised from fourteen to sixteen years. 

On February 18, William Jennings Bryan, being in the 
State Capitol, on a visit to Governor Lind, was by a resolution 
requested to address the Legislature, as their honored guest. 


The campaign for the election of State officers in 1900 
was opened, by the holding of the Eepublican Convention at St. 
Paul, on June 28. The defeat of Eustis, two years before, made 
the pathway clear for a new nomination. There was, however, 
but one candidate, much in evidence. Van Sanfs manly way 
of accepting defeat at the preceding convention, had placed him 
in the forefront for the nomination; which was made unani- 
mous by a rising vote. The State officers were re-nominated ex- 
cept for Secretary of State and Treasurer. Peter E. Hanson, 
became the candidate for the former office, and Julius H. Block 
for the latter. 

The platform adopted favored the amending of the Federal 
Constitution regulating trusts and prohibiting monopolies, also 
the election of United States Senators by direct vote. It de- 
clared for a fair and equal system of taxation, and commended 
the gross earnings system of taxing railroads. 


The Democratic Convention met at St. Paul, September 5, 
and re-nominated John Lind for Governor. The platform ex- 
pressed the belief that "the Constitution follows the flag," and 
therefore denounced the Porto-Rican tariff. It extended sym- 
pathy to the Boers; condemned the Dingley protective tariff, 
trusts, etc. 

The People's Party met in convention September 5, at 
Minneapolis. The Democratic State ticket was endorsed. The 
platform adopted was largely an argument for free silver, it 
also favored a graduated income and inheritance tax, postal 
savings banks, and Government ownership of railroads; it con- 
demned trusts and as means to kill them off asked for direct 
legislation, giving the people the lawmaking and voting power 
under the initiative and referendum. Sympathy was extended 
to the Boers; Government efforts were denounced in suppressing 
rebellion in the Phillipine Islands. Municipal ownership of 
public utilities was advocated. 

The Middle of the Road Populists nominated Sylvester M. 
Fairchild for Governor, the Prohibitionist, Bernt B. Haugan, 
and the Social-Labor, Edward H. Kriz. 

The most notable event of organic political, importance in the 
State was the first test of the direct election law in Min- 
neapolis, to which city the Legislature had restricted the opera- 
tion of the law, after unsuccessful attempts to include St. Paul, 
and Duluth. Under this law nominations for elective office 
were made at the primaries under the Australian ballot sys- 
tem instead of at party conventions, there being but one ticket 
with candidates of all parties on it. The first practical test of 
statute, was not a complete success, but it was, however, demon- 
strated that a better class of men were placed in nomination 
by the operation of the law and the politicians that sought to- 
discredit it failed in their purpose. 

The National election of 1900 was an overwhelming victory 
for the Republicans. 'Bryan carried, but four counties in the 
State, by the following pluralities, namely: Red Lake; 342 Scott 
592; Stearns, 1,784; and Winona, 131. The vote was for 
McKinley, 190,641 ; Bryan, 112,901 ; John G. Wooley, Prohibition 


8,555; Eugene V. Debs, Social-Democrat, 3,065; Joseph F. 
Malloney, Social-Labor, 1,529. McKinley's majority, 64,611. 
There were other Presidential tickets in the field, namely: Uni- 
ted Christians, Union Reform and Middle Eoad Populists, 
but there were no votes polled for their candidates in Minnesota; 
McKinley's plurality of 77,740 was only exceeded by the 
one given him in Pennsylvania, New York, Wisconsin, Michi- 
gan, Iowa, Illinois and Massachusetts. 

At the same election Samuel E. Van Sant received 152,905 
votes; John Lind, 150,651; Bernt B. Haugan, 5,430; S. M. 
Farichild, 763 ; Edward H. Kirz, 886 ; Thomas H. Lucas, 3,546. 
Van Sant's plurality 2,254. 

In an analysis of the vote the Republicans carried forty-five 
of the eighty-two counties; the Democrats losing the counties of 
Aitkin, Anoka, Blue Earth, Carlton, Carver, Hennepin, Isanti, 
Itasca, Kanabec, Kandiyohi, Lac qui Parle, Lyon, Mille Lacs, 
Nobles, Renville, St. Louis, Wabasha, Washington, and Wright, 
carried in 1898, and gaining Beltrami and Norman. There was 
no change in the representation to the Fifty-seventh Congress. 
The Republican nominees being re-nominated and re-elected by 
substantial majorities ranging from 1,795 to 10,051. 

In the vote cast for Governor, the Democrats alleged fraud, 
claiming that a number of their party, through ignorance, had 
been deprived of their votes. The arrangement of the names on 
the ballot was such, that voters with Democratic proclivities 
and of illiterate minds, not only placed a cross opposite John 
Lind's name for Governor, but also after that of Thomas H. 
Lucas, the Social-Democratic party candidate. The voter thus 
having voted for two candidates for the same office, his ballot 
became void and had to be thrown out. In Shakopee alone, it 
was claimed, that 150 such ballots were not counted. In other 
precincts it was alleged that the same difficulty occurred. 

Excitement attendant on the political contest of 1900 had 
hardly subsided, when the citizens of the State were called upon 
to mourn the loss of one, who had advanced the renown of Min- 
nesota not only in National but International Conventions. Gush- 
man Kellogg Davis died at St. Paul November 27, 1900. In 


the passage of all that was mortal from this earthly world, no 
encomiums can be said in too high a praise of this brilliant star 
of "The North Star State." From the time of his coming to 
St. Paul in his early manhood, either by his personal magnetism, 
his acknowledged genius, and his rare culture, he had raised 
himself from the lowest round in the ladder of life, to the high- 
est altitude attained by any of his contemporaries in the State. 

Cushman K. Davis on his entrance into the life of the State, 
had no prestige of wealth, or of successes accomplished, to ad- 
vance his prospects in the then frontier city of the Northwest; 
he was to meet his compeers, with only what God had endowed 
him, health, youth and intellect. 

His private life and virtues are not within the compass of 
this work, what we have to deal with is his public career in ele- 
vating himself by his personal endeavors, the glory he attained 
redounding to the credit of his adopted State. 

Senator Davis entered upon his Senatorial career March 4, 
1887; he was at this time in his forty-ninth year. Since the 
Civil War the leadership of the Senate had been largely dom- 
inated by the Senators from the New England and Middle 
States. About this time there came a change, a coterie of 
Western members were for the next decade to establish a leader- 
ship and largely influence the deliberations of that body. The 
eloquent but sarcastic Conkling had retired to private life; the 
diplomatic Elaine had sought cabinet appointments; the consti- 
tutional lawyers Evarts and Edmunds, were soon to retire from 
their Senatorial duties to the practice of their chosen profession. 
The veterans Sherman, Cullum, and Allison, who, during their 
legislative careers had seen the West grow in population and 
wealth, were to have their ranks recruited by Spooner, Davis 
and Wolcott, the rising statesmen and orators, and by this addi- 
tion, to place the West in the vanguard of the leadership of the 

Of this trio, Davis devoted to his labors his matchless 
energy, and by the strictest application, being a careful student 
of current events, gradually but surely made his presence felt 
amongst his associates. He served for a time as Chairman of 



the Committee on Pensions; in the discharge of which duties, 
he won the respect of his fellow Senators, and the regard of 
his comrades of the Civil War. He was soon placed on the 
Committee of Foreign Kelations, and later became its Chairman, 
in which position he found the sphere of his life's work. With 
a wealth of knowledge of constitutional and international law, 
reenforced by high qualities of statesmanship, his reports and 
advice upon questions affecting the foreign relations of the coun- 
try were accepted and formed the basis of the policy of the Gov- 
ernment in the conduct of its relations with foreign nations. 

It was after the Spanish-American War, when the oppor- 
tunity came for the display of Senator Davis's peculiar talents. 
He was named by President McKinley as one of the commission- 
ers to negotiate a treaty of peace with Spain. The representa- 
tives of that proud and arrogant nation, once the ruler of the 
seas, had to be placated with subtle diplomacy; they were past 
masters of international law, but the keen insight and resourceful 
statesmanship of Senator Davis gave material aid to the com- 
mission in reducing to a reasonable basis the extraordinary de- 
mands of the representatives of the Spanish government. 

Senator Davis's connection with the framing and securing 
the passage of the dependent pension act of 1890; the terms of 
settlement of the financial difficulties between the Government 
and the Union and Central Pacific railroad corporations; his 
diplomatic skill and ability in the Venezuelain contention; the 
annexation of the Hawaiian Islands, are but few of the many 
National questions which were largely by his wise statesmanship, 
practical and broad views, consummated to a successful termina- 
tion, and are but a few of the many services he performed for 
the Government, and for the benefit of his people. 


Chapter XXI. 

THE inauguration of Samuel E. Van Sant, as Governor, 
placed in the chief executive chair of the State, a "man 
of the people." He was born at Eock Island, Illinois 
in 1844. Before reaching the age of eighteen, he enlisted in the 
Ninth Illinois Cavalry, serving to the close of the War of the Ee- 
bellion. On his return to civil life he attended Knox College, 
at Galesburg, Illinois. After leaving college, he engaged in 
rafting on the Mississippi Eiver. In 1883 he came to Winona, 
where he became president of the LeClaire Navigation Company, 
and the Van Sant and Musser Transfer Company. His political 
life, with the exception of holding city offices, commenced in 1892, 
when he was elected to the House of Eepresentatives ; he was 
re-elected in 1894, and on the assembling of the Legislature was 
unanimously chosen Speaker. In 1894 he was Department 
Commander of the Grand Army of the Eepublic of Minnesota. 
After his Gubernatorial terms he removed to Minneapolis, where 
he now resides. 


The Thirty-second Legislature assembled January 8, 1901. 
There was no change in the members of the Senate from the 
preceding Legislature. In the House there were forty-five mem- 
bers re-elected; its political make-up was as follows: Ninety- 
six Eepublicans, fourteen Democrats, six Populists, and one 



Democrat-People's. The House organized and elected Michael 
J. Bowling of Renville County, Speaker. The presiding officer 
was a native of Massachusetts. He had been a resident of Min- 
nesota since 1887. His legislative service commenced in 1893, 
as first assistant clerk of the House of Representatives. He was 
chief clerk at the session of 1895, and for three years he was 
secretary of the National Republican League. Speaker Dowling 
had been identified with banking interests, also was publisher 
and editor of the Renville State Farmer, but at the time of his 
election was engaged in the real estate business. 

Jacob F. Jacobson, of Madison, was serving his fifth 
consecutive term, he had been a member of Legislature since 
1889. Thomas Torson, of St. James, was, serving his fourth 
consecutive term. William R. Mahood, of Le Sueur County, was 
a member of the House during the Thirtieth session. A. B. 
Kelly, of Northfield, was a member of the Legislatures of 1893, 
1895, and 1899. 

William Drew Washburn, Jr., of Minneapolis, was a native 
of the State, a graduate of Yale University and was engaged in 
the real estate business and railroad contracting. Warner Hem- 
stead, of Brainerd, a native of Iowa, settled, in Minnesota in 
1882. He was educated at the Iowa Wesleyan University, and 
as a physician in the Missouri Medical and the Omaha Medical 
Colleges. He was a practicing physician and surgeon; also 
interested in banking and other business enterprises. Henry 
Plowman, of Otter Tail County, a prominent member of the 
People's party, was born in Canada, but came to Minnesota in 
the fall of 1856. He had been a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1887 and 1899, and sergeant at arms in 1891. 
Albert Berg, of Roseau County, was Secretary of State from 
1895 to 1901. 

Governor Lind, in his farewell message, reviews the progress 
made by Minnesota in half a century, emphasizing the fact 
that the past had been phenomenal, the present great, and that 
the wonderful discoveries and inventions of the present century, 
would tend to produce in a State as rich in natural resources 
as Minnesota, results that beggar the dreams of fancy, and pre- 


dieted that at the end of the twentieth century, the population 
of the State will be 10,000,000 and the comfort and happiness of 
this aggregation of people will depend in a large measure, on the 
work of the present generation. 

He contended that the system of taxation was radically 
wrong; that the State exacted taxes on the little stock of tools, 
implements, etc., of the struggling poor, while thousands who 
possess great wealth escaped. He also insisted that the taxation 
on the gross earnings of railroads should be increased. He rec- 
ommended that the act giving a bounty on beet sugar be repealed. 
The Legislature's attention was called to the Pan-American Ex- 
position at Buffalo, also the one to be held in 1903 at St. Louis 
to coirimemorate the Louisiana Purchase, and that exhibits of 
the products of Minnesota should be represented in both of these 
great expositions. He reviewed the reports of the various State 
departments, commenting on the admirable work that had been 
performed by the Eailroad and Warehouse Commission, since its 

Governor Van Sant, in his inaugural address, thought it 
necessary for the Legislature to consider the question of se- 
curing the funds to defray the expenses of the State Government. 
The State Auditor recommended a tax levy of one and three- 
tenth mills, which the first year would amount to $2,929,743 
and the second year to $3,114,734.20; this would leave a balance 
of over $400,000, to be available for new buildings, and under 
the most favorable circumstances could not be increased to 
$800,000, without increasing the tax levy, and this the Governor 
urged should not be done but that the strictest economy should 
be used and the most careful investigation be given every ap- 
propriation presented to the Legislature for consideration. 

He reported the progress that had been made in building 
the new Capitol, favored good roads, preservation of the forests, 
also stated that great benefit had been derived by the drainage 
of the Eed Eiver Valley. He spoke of the importance of the 
St. Louis and Buffalo Expositions, recommending that suitable 
appropriations should be made that the State might be repre- 


The Legislature adjourned April 12, 1901. It was called 
upon to elect two United States Senators. There were several 
avowed candidates for the short term, made vacant by the death 
of Senator Davis. Moses E. Clapp, of St. Paul, and Robert G. 
Evans, of Minneapolis, were the most prominent candidates, 
but after the Legislature assembled Thomas Lowry, of Minnea- 
polis, James A. Tawney, of Winona and Tarns Bixby, of Red 
Wing became candidates. The Republican caucus was held on 
the evening of January 14. On the first ballot Clapp received 
44; Evans, 53; Tawney, 27; Bixby, 11; Lowry, 3 and there were 
a few scattering votes. Fourteen ballots were taken, and no 
nominee receiving a majority an adjournment was taken at mid- 
night till the next day. There were one hundred forty Republi- 
cans in the Legislature, and at the afternoon caucus one hundred 
thirty-eight being present, an attempt was made on the first 
ballot to stampede the Tawney followers to Evans, but the sup- 
porters of Clapp engineered a stampede for their candidate, 
which gave him seventy votes, to which Speaker Dowling, who 
was presiding officer of the caucus added his vote, thereby making 
him the nominee. 

On January 22 the vote was taken foj Senator. The 
Democrats and Populists nominated Charles A. Towne, who had 
been appointed by Governor Lind to fill the vacancy until the 
Legislature assembled. In the Senate Clapp received forty-three 
votes and Towne seventeen; in the House Clapp received ninety- 
two and Towne twenty-one. On the same day a vote was taken 
for Senator Nelson's successor. It was not necessary to hold a 
Republican caucus to nominate Knute Nelson, there was little 
opposition in his party to his re-election. The Democrats nomi- 
nated Rensselaer R. Nelson, of St. Paul. The vote in the 
Senate stood Knute Nelson forty-two, R, R. Nelson eighteen; 
in the House Knute Nelson ninety-four, R. R. Nelson twenty- 

Moses E. Clapp was born at Delphi, Indiana, May 2, 1851, 
and removed with his parents to Hudson, Wisconsin, in 1857. He 
attended the common schools and graduated from the Wisconsin 
Law School in 1873. He commenced the practice of the legal 


profession at New Richmond, Wisconsin, and in 1875 removed 
to Hudson, that State, where in 1878 he was elected county 
attorney of St. Croix County. In June, 1881, he became a resi- 
dent of Fergus Falls, Minnesota, and in the fall of 1886 was 
elected Attorney General of the State, and by re-elections he 
served in that office for three terms. In the spring of 1891, 
he removed to St. Paul. At the expiration of his Senatorial 
term, he was reelected for the term expiring March 4, 1911. 

Among the important legislation enacted during this session 
was an inheritance tax law, by which on a gift, devise, or legacy 
of $5,000, or over, a tax of five per cent was to be levied when 
the beneficiary was not a direct heir; if a direct heir the tax 
was to be one per cent, providing that the grantor was a resi- 
dent of the State, or a non-resident if the property was located 
in the State. 

An appropriation of $30,000 was made for exhibiting the 
State products at the Pan- American Exposition, at Buffalo, 
and a board of managers, consisting of three persons, appointed 
by the Governor, was created. 

The State was divided into nine Congressional districts in 
accordance with the apportionment of Congress. A commission 
was created to investigate the advisability of establishing a san- 
itorium for the care of consumptives. The ox-eyed daisy 
was declared a public nuisance fines and imprisonment, being 
imposed for neglect to restrain its growth. 

The primary election law was so amended that party nomi- 
uees were chosen on the first registration day and to be voted 
for on separate party ballots. It was also made applicable to 
all elective offices, including Representatives to Congress, with 
the exception of State officers. 

The tax on the gross earnings of express companies was 
increased from three to six per cent. Commissioners were ap- 
pointed to revise the tax laws and the statutes. 

Memorial resolutions were passed on the death of ex-Presi- 
dent Harrison; also by a rising vote the flag on the Capital 
was ordered to be placed at half mast, and resolutions of con- 
dolence were adopted on the death of Her Eoyal Majesty, Queen 


The Legislature held in the hall of the House of Represen- 
tatives on February 18, a memorial session on the death of Gush- 
man K. Davis. Eulogies were delivered by Lieutenant Governor 
Smith, Senators Snyder, Riley, McGovern, Pennington and Mc- 
Carthy, and Representative Roberts. 


In obedience to a proclamation of the Governor, the Legis- 
lature convened in extra session February 4, 1902. The officers 
and members were the same as at the general session, except that 
by the death of John W. Torrey, of Meeker County, the Twen- 
ty-third District was not represented in the House. 

The Governor in his address stated the session was called 
for the purpose of receiving and considering the report of the 
Tax Commission. While the bill creating the Commission was 
practically unanimous, at the last session, in order to have the 
measures proposed effective during the present year, the Com- 
mission was to complete its work by February 1, 1902. They 
had their report ready on the date specified and the Legislature 
was called for the purpose of receiving the xeport, and have 
its recommendations enacted into law as soon as possible. The 
Legislature at its last regular session had adjourned before its 
constitutional limitation in order that the subject might be 
taken up in extra session without additional expense to the 

He also informed the Legislature that a suit had been 
brought by the State of Minnesota, against the Northern 
Securities Company of New Jersey, a holding corporation formed 
for the purpose of consolidating the Great Northern and North- 
ern Pacific Railroad Companies, in defiance of the laws of the 
State, which prohibited any railroad corporation consolidating, 
leasing or purchasing a competing or parallel line; this law 
had been declared constitutional by the United States Supreme 

The extra session of the Legislature adjourned March 11. 
The report of the Tax Commission with a few minor changes 


was approved. The inheritance tax law was also amended, 
that when the gift, devise, bequest or legacy exceeded $10,000 
the tax levied should be one per cent if the beneficiary was a 
direct heir, if not, ten per cent. 

The primary election laws were made applicable to cities, 
villages and boroughs of over 10,000 inhabitants. 

The sum of $50,000 was appropriated for the St. Louis Ex- 
position, and $25,000 for the prosecution of the suit brought 
against the Northern Securities Company. Congress was mem- 
orialized to increase the powers of the Inter-State Commerce 

Eesolutions were adopted of sympathy for the South Afri- 
can Eepublic, and the authorities of the United States were 
condemned for permitting horses and mules to be shipped to the 
English Army, thus aiding and abetting England, in her unholy 
war against the Boer Republic. 

The pink and white Lady Slipper, or Moccasin Flower, 
Cypripedium Reginae, was adopted as the State flower or floral 


There was but little opposition to the nomination of Gov- 
ernor Van Sant for a second term. The Democrats nominated 
John Lind, but he refused to be a candidate and Leonard A. 
Eosing, who had been Governor Lind's private secretary, was 
substituted. The campaign was devoid of excitement, there 
was little effort on the part of the Democrats to defeat Van Sant 
for a second term, they neither seemed disappointed or surprised 
at the result. Thomas J. Meighen was the People party's, 
Charles Scanlon the Prohibition, Jay E. Nash the Socialist, 
Thomas Van Lear the Social-Labor candidates for Governor. 
The vote was Van Sant, 155,849; Eosing, 99,362; Meighen, 
4,821; Scanlon, 5,765; Nash, 2,570. Other Eepublican State 
officers were elected by the following majorities: Bay W. Jones, 
Lieutenant Governor, 49,155; Peter E. Hanson, Secretary of 
State, 54,713; Samuel G. Iverson, Auditor, 68,155; Julius H. 


Block, Treasurer, 57,421; and Wallace B. Douglas, Attorney Gen- 
eral, 75,224. The Democrats carried only six counties with the 
following plurality; Dakota, 123; McLeod, 24; Morrison, 139; 
Scott, 563; Stearns, 1,142; and Lake, 49. 

In the First Congressional District, James A. Tawney was 
re-elected receiving 19,561 votes, there were cast for his Demo- 
cratic opponent, Peter McGovern, 12,545. 

In the Second District, James T. McCleary was re-elected 
receiving 16,100 votes to 9,316 cast for his Democratic competi- 
tor, C. N. Andrews. 

In the Third District, Charles E. Davis, Republican, re- 
ceived 16,700 votes; Charles C. Kolars, Democrat, 10,966, and 
Charles H. Blood, Prohibition, 647. 

In the Fourth District, Frederick C. Stevens was re-elect- 
ed receiving 17,404 votes to his Democratic opponent, John L. 
Gieske, 11,412. 

In the Fifth District, Loren Fletcher was defeated for 
re-^lecton by John Lind, Democrat, the vote being Fletcher, 
17,809; Lind, 19,863; there were cast for other candidates 
1,062 votes. 

In the Sixth District, Clarence B. Buckman, the Republi- 
can candidate, was elected by a vote of 17,894 to 13,705 cast for 
his Democratic opponent, J. A. DuBois. 

In the Seventh District, Andrew J. Volstead, the Republican 
candidate received 20,826 votes, there were cast 5,397 votes for 
the People Party's nominee, August 0. Fosberg. The Prohibi- 
tion candidate received 2,288 votes. 

In the Eighth District J. Adam Bede, the Republican nomi- 
nee, had 14,163 votes; Fay, Democrat, 8,882. 

In the Ninth District Halvor Steenerson, Republican, had 
18,055; Alexander McKinnon, Democrat, 4,572; Nels T. Moen, 
Populist, 6,784 votes. 

We append a brief notice of the new members of Con- 
gress. Charles Russell Davis, of St. Peter, was born at Pitts- 
field, Illinois, September 17, 1849. His parents removed to Le 
Sueur County in 1853. His education was obtained in the 
public schools of Minnesota, Supplemented by a business 


college course at St. Paul. He studied law and was admitted 
to practice in 1872. Locating at St. Peter he became county 
attorney of Nicollet County; also city clerk and city attorney 
of St. Peter. He was a Representative in the Legislature of 
1889; also a member of the Senate of 1891 and 1893. He 
was re-elected to the Fifty-ninth and Sixtieth Congresses. 

Clarence B. Buckman, of Little Falls, was born in Newton, 
Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in 1852. He settled in Minnesota 
in 1872 and is interested in the lumber business. He served 
one term in the House and three terms in the Senate of the 
State Legislature. He was re-elected to the Fifty-ninth Congress. 

Andrew J. Volstead, of Granite Falls, was born in Goodhue 
County, in 18560. He was educated at the common schools, St. 
Olafs College and the Decorah Institute. He studied law, 
and was admitted to practice. He has been city attorney and 
mayor of Granite Falls, and county attorney of Yellow Medicine 
County. He was re-elected to the Fifty-ninth and Sixtieth 

J. Adam Bede of Pine City, was born in Lorain County, 
Ohio, in 1856. He received his education at the public schools 
of Ohio and attended a business college. He learned the print- 
er's trade, taught school, studied law and became engaged in 
newspaper work. In politics he affiliated with the Republican 
party, but supported Grover Cleveland for President in 1888 
and 1892. He was appointed United States Marshal of Min- 
nesota in 1894, and served until the great railroad strike of 
that year was settled, when he resigned. He supported the 
Republican party in 1896, on the financial issues. He was re- 
elected to the Fifty-ninth and Sixtieth Congresses. 

Halvor Steenerson, of Crookston, was born in Dane County, 
Wisconsin, June 30, 1852. The following year his parents re- 
moved to Minnesota. He attended the public schools, also 
the Union College of Law at Chicago, and was admitted to the 
bar in June, 1878. He began the practice of his profession and 
in the spring of 1880 removed to Crookston. In the fall of 
that year he was elected county attorney He was a member of 
the State Senate of 1883 and 1885. He was re-elected to the 
Fifty-ninth and Sixtieth Congresses. 



The Thirty-third Legislature assembled January 6, 1903. 
In the Senate there were fifty-one Republicans and twelve 
Democrats; twenty members had been re-electd. Among the 
latter were Samuel Lord, of Kasson; Patrick Fitzpatrick, a 
Democrat, of Winona, a native of Illinois, and a graduate of the 
State University. Daniel Shell, of Worthington; George W. 
Somerville, an attorney of Sleepy Eye; Charles H. Dart, of 

In the Ramsey County districts three of her five Senators 
namely, Richard S. McNamee, Hiler H. Horton, and Andrew 
R. McGill were re-elected. Winslow W. Dunn, an attorney and 
graduate of the State University, who had served two terms in 
the House of Representatives, and John C. Hardy, a native 
of St. Paul, engaged in the ice business, represented the other 

In the Hennepin County districts, J. T. McGowan, George 
P. Wilson, Lowell E. Jepson and Edward E. Smith were re- 
elected. The Senator representing the Forty-fifth District was 
Henry F. Barker, of Cambridge. He was born at Naples, Maine 
and attended the common school, also academies, graduating 
from the Albany Law School. He first came to Minnesota in 
1868, remaining two years. He was admitted to the practice of 
law in 1875, and settled at Cambridge three years later. He held 
various county offices and was a member of the House in 1883 
and 1887 and first elected Senator in 1898. 

The other Senators re-elected were Frederick E. Du Toit, of 
Chaska, Julius A. Coller, of Shakopee, Mahlon R. Everett, of 
Waterville; Albert Schaller, of Hastings, and Valentine Batz, of 
Holdingford, all Democrats, and Ripley B. Brower, of St. Cloud; 
E. B. Hawkins, of Biwabik, Republicans. 

Among the new Senators the following had been members 
of the preceding House of Representatives: Lytle 0. Cooke, of 
Kellogg; Thomas Torson, of St. James; Julius H. Nichols, of 
Pipestone; A. F. Ferris, of Brainerd, a native of New York State 


and president of the First National Bank of Brainerd. He had 
served three terms in the House. John T. Alley, who had been 
judge of probate and county attorney of Wright County. John 
G. Schutz, a merchant at Marshall, Thomas M. Pugh, and 
George R. Laybourn, of Duluth, and G. B. Ward, a banker of 

The following were the other members of the Senate : H. H. 
Witherstine, by profession a doctor, had served five years as 
mayor of Kochester; Richard E. Thompson, a lawyer of Pres- 
ton, had been a member of the House of 1883 and 1885, and 
the Senate of 1895 and 1897; Alexander S. Campbell, of Austin, 
had been mayor of that city two terms; George W. Peachey, of 
Owatonna, was an active member of the Republican party. 
Henry A. Morgan, a lawyer, had been mayor of Albert Lea. 
Eugene B. Collester, a lawyer, of Waseca, was first elected State 
Senator in 1894 and 0. G. Laugen a native of Norway, engaged 
in farming, represented Houston County. 

From Mankato came A. 0. Eberhart, present Lieutenant 
Governor of the State. Faribault County sent Frank E. Put- 
nam, a lawyer residing at Blue Earth City. The Fourteenth 
District was represented by W. A. Smith, a banker, of Windom, 
who had been mayor of that city. 

0. G. Dale, of Madison, a Norwegian, represented Lac 
qui Parle and Chippewa Counties; while C. A. Johnson, a mer- 
chant, of St. Peter, a Swede, was a member from Nicollet 
County. Charles A. Benson, a banker, of Winthrop, was Sen- 
ator from that district. A. V. Rieke, a lawyer, of Fairfax, 
represented Renville County. W. E. Harrington, banker of 
Hutchinson, a native of that city, a graduate of the University 
of Minnesota and the Law School of the University of Michi- 
gan, was Senator from McLeod County. C. M. Buck, another 
banker, resided at Faribault and represented Rice County. Ole 
K. Naeseth, a farmer, was Senator from Goodhue County. 
Washington County was represented by the veteran pioneer, Ed- 
ward W. Durant. 

The district comprising Chisago, Pine and Kanabec Counties 
sent D. W. Cowan, of Sandstone, a Republican, born in Can- 


ada. He was a practicing physician and was coroner of Pine 
County, at the time of the Hinckley fire. The new members 
from the Hennepin County districts were : E. F. Comstock, 
a railroad contractor, who had served three terms as member 
of the House; John F. Calhoun, a broker, and Henry J. Grjert- 
sen, an attorney. 0. N. Mausten, of Aitkin, Senator from the 
Fifty-second District, was a member of the House of 1899. 
E. B. Wood, of Long Prairie, a veteran of the Civil War and 
Captain in the Fourteenth Minnesota during the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War, represented the district comprising Hubbard, Wadena, 
and Todd Counties. 

The Fifty-fifth District was represented by L. 0. Thorpe, 
a member of the Senate of 1895 and 1897. H. W. Stone, a 
banker, of Benson, and a member of the House of Eepresentatives 
in 1897, was Senator from Swift and Big Stone Counties. The 
Fifty-seventh District was represented by J. T. Schain, a na- 
tive of Norway, a merchant and farmer residing at Brown's 
Valley. From Otter Tail County came Alonzo B. Cole, of Fer- 
gus Falls, a homeopathic physician and surgeon, a native of 
New York State and a resident of Minnesota since 1881. Frank 
H. Peterson, a lawyer, of Moorhead, represented the Sixtieth 
District. E. J. Swedbach, of Bemidji, a native of Sweden, en- 
gaged in lumbering, was Senator from the Sixty-first District. 
From Polk County came A. D. Stephens, a banker, of Crookston, 
and from the northwest corner of the State, the district compris- 
ing Kittson, Marshall and Roseau Counties came Begent E. Sund- 
berg, of Kennedy, a native of Sweden, engaged in farming. 

In the House there were one hundred four Republicans, 
twelve Democrats and one Independent. Twenty-seven mem- 
bers had been re-elected. Nils Nyquist of Smith Mills, was serv- 
ing his fourth consecutive term. Among the members of the 
House, that were pioneers of the State were James E. Bos- 
worth of Houston County, his second term, and a resident since 
1854. D. Sinclair, of Winona, a newspaper editor, a native of 
Scotland, and a resident since 1856. John Schwager, a farmer 
of Bethany, a natve of Switzerland, and who first came to Min- 
nesota in 1857. Andrew C. McCoy of Byron, came from Illi- 


nois in 1856, when he was only thirteen years of age. He was a 
veteran of the Civil War, and spent six and a half months as a 
prisoner at Andersonville. H. W. Ruliffson an early pioneer, 
came from his native State, New York, in 1857. He was a 
member of the House of Representatives of 1870. S. D. Peterson 
of New Ulm, settled in Minnesota in 1856. Fred Sander, a 
farmer of Sibley County, born in Germany, came to the State 
in 1855. This was his third term ; he was also a veteran of the Civil 
War. John Taylor, of Le Sueur, a native of Canada, settled in 
Minnesota in 1856. He was a member of the House in 1874. 
D. F. Kelley, of Northfield, a native of New Hampshire, had 
been a resident of the State since 1855, being then fifteen years 
of age. He was a veteran of the Civil War, and was serving his 
second term. Swen Magnuson of Marine Mills, a native of Swe- 
den, settled in Minnesota in 1853. 0. B. Soule of Withrow, a 
native of Maine, came in his infancy with his parents to the 
State in 1856. 

H. E. Craig, a farmer, residing at Orrock, was born in 
New Brunswick, and settled in .Minnesota in 1856. He had 
served two terms in the House of Representatives. A. J. Wood, 
a native of Canada, a farmer residing at Otsego became iden- 
tified with the State in 1855. H. C. Block of Maine Prairie, 
a native of Germany, had been a resident since 1857, and H. Ward 
Stone, a miller, residing at Morris, settled in Minnesota in 1856. 

Among the younger members were J. H. Burns, of Lanes- 
boro, a former member and chairman of the committee on gen- 
eral legislation. S. A. Nelson, a banker of Lanesboro, and ex-mayor 
of that city. G. G. Dalen;, a merchant, of Hayfield, and a native of the 
State. George W. Wilson, an attorney of law, had been mayor 
of Worthington. J. 0. Haugland, of Montevideo, a native Min- 
nesotian, and a lawyer by profession. Frank Clague, a lawyer, 
of Lamberton, afterwards, Speaker. George W. Armstrong, a 
native of the State, a lawyer by profession and a member of 
the session of 1901. From Two Harbors came Joseph D. 
Budd, a physician and surgeon, a native of Wisconsin; who 
came to the State in 1889. He graduated from Lawrence Uni- 
versity, Appleton, Wisconsin, and received his medical edu- 


cation at St. Paul and Chicago. A. L. Cole of Walker, who 
represented the Fifty-second District, was afterwards Republican 
candidate for Governor in 1906. 

The House organized and elected L. V. Babcock, of Wadena, 
Speaker. The presiding officer was a native of New York State, 
a graduate from the University of Vermont in 1869. He set- 
tled in Minnesota in 1879, and was a member of the medical 
fraternity. He represented his district in the preceding Legisla- 

Governor Van Sant devoted the first part of his message to 
the financial status of the State, which showed an improved con- 
dition. He referred to the general efficiency of the Board of 
Control, created at the last session of the Legislature. The re- 
ports of the different State departments were reviewed and com- 
mented upon. The Vicksburg Commission, consisting of General J. 
B. Sanborn, General Lucius F. Hubbard, General C. C. Andrews 
and Captain Henry S. Hurter, created by the last Legislature, 
to co-operate with the National Park Commission, to determine 
the positions occupied by Minnesota organizations in the siege of 
Vicksburg, recommended an appropriation of $25,000 to be ex- 
pended in erecting a suitable monument in the Vicksburg Na- 
tional Military Park, also an additional appropriation of $15,000, 
to erect bronze tablets, one upon Baldwin's Ferry Road, where 
the officers and soldiers of the Fourth Minnesota Infantry fell; 
one on the graveyard road where the Fifth Minnesota Infantry 
assaulted the enemy's works and a third to designate the princi- 
pal position occupied by the Minnesota Battery. 

The Governor also reported the failure on the part of the 
people, to endorse by their vote the passage of the amendment 
to the constitution, increasing the gross earnings tax of the rail- 
roads, and the revised tax code. 

The Legislature adjourned April 21, 1903. Among the laws 
passed were the following: The appropriation for the exposi- 
tion at St. Louis was increased from $100,000 to $150,000. 
Saloons were required to be closed on primary election days. 
Vaccination was made compulsory only in cases of epidemics. 
Days of grace were abolished on negotiable paper. 


An act was passed creating a board of Game and Fish Com- 
missioners, to consist of five person appointed by the Governor 
for the preservation, propagation, protection and transportation 
of fish and game. 

Constitutional amendments increasing the tax on the gross 
earnings of railroad companies, from three to four per cent, and 
provding for the loan of the permanent school and university 
funds, by the purchase of bonds, of cities, villages, towns, coun- 
ties and school districts were adopted and sanctioned by the peo- 
ple at the next general election. 

Concurrent resolutions were passed advocating an amendment 
to the Federal Constitution, for the election of United States 
Senators, by a direct vote of the people. Congress was also 
asked to put coal and lumber on the free list. 

At an afternoon session of the House on April 4, Theodore 
Eoosevelt and the visiting Presidential party were the guests of 
a joint convention of the Legislature. 


The Republican campaign for the nominations of Governor 
and State officials in 1904 was commenced in the latter part 
of the preceding year. Early in November, 1903, Governor Van 
Sant in an interview in the newspapers stated that to continue 
the fight against the merger of the Northern Pacific and Great 
Northern railroads, it would be necessary for the Republicans 
to nominate a candidate that would serve the interests of the 
people, until the law had been vindicated and every interest thor- 
oughly safe-guarded. No man who was not in accord with the 
people, during the last State campaign should have the assur- 
ance to aspire to the Governorship. While this interview did not 
place Governor Van Sant in the position that he desired or 
would accept, a third term, he had inaugurated the anti-merger 
fight, and had been the prominent figure identified with it. 
Therefore he naturally thought he could continue the fight better 
than a new occupant of the Gubernatorial chair. 



Judge Loren S. Collins, however, who had aspired to the 
position of Governor, having twice before been a candidate in the 
Republican State Conventions, a few days after Governor Van 
Sant's interview was made public, announced he was a candidate 
for the nomination. He openly advocated that the position taken 
by Governor Van Sant in regard to the merger case should be 
sustained by the people of the State. 

The campaign was enlivened in January, 1904, by Robert 
C. Dunn of Princeton, announcing that he was a candidate for 
Governor. In his announcement, he endorsed the platform of 
the Republican State Convention of 1902, which had also re- 
ceived Judge Collins' endorsement, and which insisted on the 
merger fight being continued. Therefore both candidates were 
against the merger. Notwithstanding this appearance of har- 
mony one of the most bitter political and personal controversies 
in the history of the State followed. Before the assembling of 
the convention, the United States Supreme Court, the highest 
tribunal in the country, decided against the merger. The 
Dunn men then claimed that the question of the merger was by 
this decision, taken out of politics, while the Collins men as- 
serted that the contention regarding it had only just begun. 

The convention met in St. Paul June 30, 1904. There were 
1,175 delegates in the convention, and Senator Clapp had been 
requested by the central committee to preside. In respect to 
contesting delegations an arrangement was agreed to that a 
committee on credentials of fifteen members should be appointed, 
seven men to be selected by the Collins leaders, and seven by the 
Dunn leaders, while one was to be taken from the supporters of 
ex-Congressman Frank Eddy, who offered himself as a compro- 
mise candidate. 

The principal contesting delegations were from Ramsey and 
Hennepin Counties, and on the afternoon of July 1, the creden- 
tial committee, submitted a majority and minority report. The 
real fight now commenced, the Dunn contesting delegates from 
Ramsey County abandoned the fight and the committee unani- 
mously decided to admit the Collins delegates from that county. 
This was recognized as a just discision as the Dunn delegates in 


Ramsey County, by prematurely leaving the county convention 
in an early part of its proceedings, had seriously prejudiced their 

The situation in Hennepin County was different. The Dunn 
delegates had participated in the proceedings of the county con- 
vention therefore according to political rules had some basis for 
recognition. In urging the adoption of the majority report, 
which recommended the seating of the Collins delegates, the 
question arose whether the Collins' Hennepin County delegates, 
who were occupying seats in the convention, be allowed to vote, 
which was promptly decided by the presiding officer by his saying, 
"Certainly not/' The minority report was finally adopted, and 
the Hennepin Collins delegates retired from the hall, their 
places being taken by Dunn's followers. After the nominations 
of the Supreme Court Judges, Robert C. Dunn's name was 
presented by James A. Peterson, of Minneapolis, for Governor, 
and before the result of the vote could be announced, James A. 
Martin, Judge Collins's manager, moved to make the nomination 
by acclamation. Senator Reeves, of Glenwood, special repre- 
sentative of ex-Congressman Eddy, seconded the motion, which 
was carried with enthusiasm, and Robert C. Dunn became the 
Republican nominee for Governor. 

The Democrats were at their wits end to find a candidate for 
Governor to lead, as was thought, a forlorn hope. The leaders 
of the party, after interviewing several parties who negatived 
the proposition, finally turned their attention to the city of St. 
Peter. John A. Johnson, the Democratic Senator, who was 
elected from that district in 1898, had received a plurality of 
490, while the county had been carried by the Republicans for 
their State ticket by one hundred and twenty-seven plurality, and 
a Republican member of the House of Representatives had been 
elected by a plurality of 699. He had, however, been defeated for 
reelection in 1902 by eighty-eight votes, though the county was 
carried by the Republicans by a plurality of 493. Johnson dal- 
lied with the Democratic leaders somewhat before giving his con- 
sent. It was a Presidential year, and as the Republican nominee 
for President was expected to sweep the country like a whirl- 
wind the outlook did not seem to him inviting. 


In his legislative career the proposed standard bearer of De- 
mocracy, while he had performed his duties with credit to him- 
self and his constituency, had not by his oratory or personal mag- 
nitism placed himself conspicuously in advance of his compeers. 
Yielding at last to the wishes of the leaders of his party, he con- 
sented that his name might be submitted to the convention for 
their consideration. Whereupon at a Democratic State Conven- 
tion held at St. Paul, John A. Johnson was nominated for Gov- 

The Prohibition party nominated Charles W. Dorsett, the 
Public Ownership, J. E. Nash, and Social-Labor, A. M. M. 

In the National Presidential election the Eepublicans car? 
ried every county in the State; the vote was for Theodore Roose- 
velt, 216,651; Alton B. Parker, 55,187; Thomas Watson, People's 
Party candidate, 2,103; Eugene V. Debs, Public Ownership, 
11,692; Silas C. Swallow, Prohibition, 6,253; Charles H. Cor- 
rigan, Social-labor, 947. Roosevelt's plurality of 161,464, was 
only exceeded by Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan and 
New York. 

For Governor, Robert C. Dunn received 140,130 votes; 
John A. Johnson, 147,992; Charles W. Dorsett, 7,577; J. E. 
Nash, 5,810; A. M. M. Anderson, 2,293. Johnson's plurality 
7,862. The Republican State officers were elected by the fol- 
lowing pluralities: Ray W. Jones, Lieutenant Governor, 43,595; 
Peter E. Hanson, Secretary of State, 96,656; Julius H. Block, 
Treasurer, 102,782; Edward T. Young, Attorney General, 

In an analysis of the vote thirty-eight of the eighty-three 
counties were carried by the Democratic candidate for Governor, 
viz: Benton, Blue Earth, Brown, Chippewa, Clay, Cottonwood, 
Dakota, Douglas, Grant, Hennepin, Isanti, Kanabec, Kittson, 
Lac qui Parle, Le Sueur, McLeod, Marshall, Martin, Meeker, 
Morrison, Nicollet, Olmsted, Otter Tail, Polk, Pope, Ramsey, 
Red Lake, Renville, Rice, Rock, Scott, Sibley, Stearns, Steele, 
Swift, Wabasha, Waseca, and Windom. The new county of 
Clearwater gave Dunn 546, Johnson 481. 


The Republicans reelected all their candidates in the Con- 
gressional districts except in the fifth, where Loren Fletcher 
was elected to succeed John Lind, who had defeated him at the 
previous election on the Democratic ticket. 

In the spring of 1903, the citizens of the State were called 
upon to mourn the loss of their pioneer Governor. From the 
time that Alexander Ramsey stepped upon the steamboat land- 
ing of the primitive town of St. Paul, to the date of his death, 
April 22, 1903, over half a century, in all the developments, that 
characterized the transition of a poor frontier Territory to a 
populous opulent commonwealth, he bore a prominent part. The 
present generation, as well as posterity, will ever recognize the 
debt they owe his administrative ability, and his constant care 
of the welfare of his fellow citizens, the fruits of which they 
at present and hereafter will enjoy. 

Chapter XXII. 

THE inauguration of John A. Johnson on January 3, 
1905, as governor, marked an era in the history of the 
State. It placed in the executive chair a man who was to be- 
come a national character. Ever since the days of Sibley the 
Democrats of the "North Star State/' annually deposited their 
ballots and returned to their homes to read the monotonous story 
of their defeat. They had during that time elected by fusion 
one candidate to the Gubernatorial chair, but this was the 
first time since the election of Henry H. Sibley, a Governor of the 
State had been elected who represented pure Jeffersonian Demo- 
cracy. The event is more remarkable as it occurred at the 
time of a national election when the candidate of the Republican 
party for President carried every county in the State. The 
dissensions in the Republican convention and the consequent 
factional quarrels in the party was one of the chief causes of 
the defeat of the Republican candidate, the pluralities given 
Johnson in Hennepin and Stearns Counties, where Judge Collins 
was well known, was of itself large enough to turn the tide in 
the favor of the Democratic candidate. 

Governor Johnson took his seat with but little administra- 
tive experience, though he had represented Nicollet County in 
the Senate in the Thirty-first and Thirty-Second Legislatures, nor 
had his educational opportunities been such as to materially 
qualify him for a public career. He was strictly speaking not 
only a selfmade man but a selfmade boy. His parents were 
of Swedish birth; on the paternal side there was no example 



to encourage a youth in advancing his prospects ; on the maternal 
side however -there was devotion and sacrifice that gave in- 
spiration and encouragement to a son whose instincts were of a 
character to be steadily guided in the right path. That this 
faithful friend and mother should have been permitted to 
see her son exalted to the highest position in the gift of his 
fellow citizens, must amply recompense her for the period of 
trial spent in succoring and protecting his young life. 

The Governor was born in St. Peter, July 28, 1861, and was 
the first native Minnesotian to become the chief executive officer 
of the State. The common schools of his native city were at- 
tended at intervals until he reached the age of fourteen years. 
At this time when the more fortunate youths of the land were 
seeking the paths of higher education, he became employed in 
a drug store where he remained nearly ten years. He then became 
paymaster for a railway construction company, and in 1886 be- 
came one of the editors and publishers of the St. Peter Herald, 
a weekly Democratic newspaper, with which until about 1906 he 
was identified. 

There is a veritable romance in the Governor's career. Born 
not to the purple but to the hard and thorny side of life, with 
a youth saddened by early struggles in the combat of life, he 
has developed, as an orator of no mean pretensions, an accom- 
plished politician and an administrator who is recognized as the 
peer of his predecessors in the Gubernatorial office. 


The Thirty-fourth Legislature, the first to hold a session in 
the new Capitol, assembled January 3, 1905. There were no 
change in the membership of the Senate. 

The House consisted of one hundred eight Republicans and 
eleven Democrats. A majority of the members had been re- 
elected. Among the new members were William B. Anderson, an 
attorney of Winona, a graduate of the University of Michigan, 
he had been a member of the House of the Legislature of 1901, 
Edward Fanning of Stewartville, a native of Minnesota, had 


served as an officer of the House for several sessions. Burdett 
Thayer, of Spring Valley, a lawyer by profession, was a 
member of the Legislature of 1883. George W. W. Harden, an 
attorney of Le Eoy, was a member of the Legislature of 1901. 

Mark D. Flower was born in Chagrin Falls, Ohio, and set- 
tled in Minnesota in 1856. He was educated at the Aurora 
Institute. He enlisted and served over four years in the Civil 
War. In 1870 he was appointed Adjutant General of Minnesota 
which office he filled six years. He then became deputy collector 
of customs, and United States supervising inspector of steam 
vessels. Afterwards he was general claim agent for the Chicago 
Great Western Eailroad Company, and president and general 
manager of the St. Paul Union Stockyards Company. He was 
appointed by President Roosevelt postmaster of St. Paul, and 
died in that city in 1907. 

Charles N. Haugen, a merchant, of Pelican Rapids; T. T. 
Ofsthun, an attorney, of Glenwood; John R. Morley, a farmer, 
of Steele County; George W. Armstrong, an attorney, and 
Emmet Mark, of Princeton, and P. A. Gandrud, of Sundburg, 
were serving their third consecutive terms. The House organized 
and chose Frank Clague, of Lamberton, Speaker. The pre- 
siding officer was a native of Ohio and came to M.innesota 
when he was fifteen years of age. He received a common and 
Normal school education and studied law. He had been county 
attorney of Redwood County from 1895, to 1903, and was a mem- 
ber of the previous session. 

Governor Van Sant in his farewell address reviewed 
the financial condition and the progress made by the State, dur- 
ing the previous years of his administration. The different re- 
ports of the heads of the departments of the State government 
were considered and commented upon. He announced to the 
Legislature that the fight instituted against the consolidation 
of the Northern Pacific and Great Northern railroad companies 
had been practically terminated, the Supreme Court of the Uni- 
ted Stated having decreed a dissolution of the Northern Securi- 
ties Company. He stated that legislation was needed to secure 
jurisdiction over foreign corporations like the Northern Secur- 


ities Company, who were seeking to evade and violate the laws, 
by remaining outside the jurisdiction of the State, but ac- 
quiring the stock of domestic corporations and exercising all the 
powers of such ownership outside the borders of the common- 

Governor Johnson in his inaugural address advocated that 
the term of the Governor should be extended to four years, with 
no reelection, and suggested that the constitution be so amended, 
with the provision that the present Executive should not be eligi- 
ble for the new term. He urged the legislature to take some 
action on the taxation of inheritances, as all previous efforts in 
that line had been declared unconstitutional. He congratulated 
the Legislature that Minnesota's public school system easily 
ranked with the progressive States of the Union, such as New 
York, Massachusetts and others. He considered the greatest 
problem of the day was railway legislation, but declined to go 
into any rehearsal of recent legislation, simply stating that the 
United States Supreme Court had rendered a decree against the 
merging of parallel and competing railway lines. He stated that 
the Iowa Distance Tariff law would be of benefit to the citi- 
zens of the State as the rates were from twenty-five to forty per 
cent lower, than in Minnesota. He also favored a law abolish- 
ing free railroad passes, and the establishment of a bureau of 
immigration, to prosecute the work of urging settlers to locate 
within the boundaries of the State. 

The Legislature adjourned April 18, 1905. There were 
887 bills introduced into the House. Only about 200, however, 
reached the Governor for his signature; but a few important 
laws were passed. The enactment of the revised code was the 
most important piece of legislation of the session. It occupied 
the attention of the Legislature during a period of two months, 
more than one piece of needed legislation being made subordi- 
nate to its passage. 

Another important bill was the divorcing of the University 
and the Normal Schools from the government of the Board of 
Control. The Legislature was antagonistic to the passage of 
railway laws, though a large portion of the bills introduced rela- 


ted to their regulation. Increased power however was given to 
the Kailroad and Warehouse Commission. The Capitol Commis- 
sion's term of office was extended two years. The bill passed 
over the Governor's veto. Corporations were forbidden to con- 
tribute to candidates or committees for political purposes, 
breaches of the law were punishable with fines and imprison- 
ment. Bucket shops were declared illegal, and an antipass 
bill failed to become a law. The sum of $25,000 was appropria- 
ted for proper monuments and markers to be erected in the 
Vicksburg National Military Park, and the same was dedicated 
May 24, 1907. Minneopa State Park was established near Man- 
kato. The chief fire warden's salary was raised to $1,500. A 
bill was passed arranging for the expense of taking the State 
census in 1905. Under a penalty of a fine not less than $50, 
or more than $100, or imprisonment from thirty to ninety days, 
no person outside of a regular licensed doctor or dentist was 
permitted to give a prescription for cocaine, or a compound or 
preparation containing that drug. 

In joint convention January 18, 1905, Moses E. Clapp was 
duly declared elected United States Senator for the term end- 
ing March 4, 1911. The vote in the Senate was: Moses E. Clapp 
54; R. A. Smith, 6; in the House, Moses E. Clapp, 111; R. A. 
Smith 6, Frank Clague 1. 


The Republicans held their convention for the nomination 
of State officers at Duluth, June 12, 1906. W. W. Sivright was 
chosen to preside over the convention. On the following day 
on the third ballot A. L. Cole, of Walker, was nominated for 
Governor. The other prominent candidates were Jacob F. Jacob- 
son, Julius H. Block, and Samuel Lord. 

The Democratic convention was held at Minneapolis Sep- 
tember 4, 1906, and was a unit for the renomination of Gover- 
nor Johnson. The Prohibition party nominated Charles W. 
Dorsett and the Public Ownership 0. E. Lofthus for Governor. 


At the fall election in 1906 John A. Johnson received 168, 
840 votes; A. L. Cole, 96,162; Charles W. Dorsett, 7,223; and 
0. E. Lofthus, 4,646. Johnson's plurality was 72,678. The 
Republicans carried only five counties for their Gubernatorial 
candidate with the following pluralities; Cass, 225; Cook, 13; 
Faribault, 53; Houston, 125; Hubbard, 91. The Republi- 
can candidates for State officers were elected by the following 
pluralities: Adolph 0. Eberhart, Lieutenant Governor, 30,938; 
Julius A. Schmahl, Secretary of State, 40,959; Samuel G. Iver- 
son, Auditor, 81,089; Clarence C. Dinehart, Treasurer, 61,296; 
Edward T. Young, Attorney General, 84,754. 

An amendment to the constitution at the State election ex- 
punging the first four sections of Article 9 relating to taxation, 
and substituting the following, received 156,051 in the affirma- 
tive to 46,982 in the negative. 

Section 1. The power of taxation shall never be surrendered, sus- 
pended, or contracted away. Taxes shall be uniform upon the same 
class of subjects, and shall be levied and collected for public purposes, 
but public burying grounds, public school houses, public hospitals, acad- 
emies, colleges, universities, and all seminaries of learning, all churches, 
church property, and houses of worship, institutions of purely public 
charity, and public property used exclusively for any public purpose, shall 
be exempt from taxation, and there may be exempted from taxation 
personal property not exceeding in value $200, for each household, 
indivdual, or head of a family, as the Legislature may determine: Pro- 
vided, that the Legislature may authorize municipal corporations to 
levy and collect assessments for local improvements upon property 
benefited thereby without regard to a cash valaution, and, provided 
further, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to affect, 
modify, or repeal any existing law providing for the taxation of the 
gross earnings of railroads. 

Amendments to the constitution providing for the estab- 
lishment of a road and bridge fund, and authorizing the Legis- 
lature to levy an annual tax for the purpose of constructing and 
improving roads and bridges; and another giving any person the 
right to sell or peddle the products of the farm or garden occu- 
pied and cultivated by him without the obtaining of any license, 
adopted by the Legislature of 1905, was also sanctioned by the 


In the Congressional election the Eepublicans carried eight 
of the nine districts. James A. Tawney was reelected in the 
First District; Winfield S. Hammond, Democrat in the Second 
District; Charles R. Davis was reelected in the Third District; 
Frederick C. Stevens was reelected in the Fourth District; Frank 
M. Nye, Republican, elected in the Fifth District; Charles A. 
Lindbergh, Republican, in the Sixth District; Andrew J. Vol- 
stead reelected in the Seventh District; J. Adam Bede reelected 
in the Eighth District; and Halvor Steenerson reelected in the 
Ninth District. 

We append a short sketch of the three new members of 
Congress. Winfield S. Hammond was born in Southboro, Mas- 
sachusetts, November 17, 1863. His education was obtained at 
the public schools of his native town and in 1880 he entered 
Dartmouth College, graduating four years later. He came to 
Minnesota in 1884 and was employed as principal of the High 
School at Mankato, and for five years subsequently was Super- 
intendent of Schools in Madelia. In 1891 he was admitted to 
the bar and commenced the practice of his profession at Madelia, 
but removed to St. James in 1895, where he now resides. 

Frank M. Nye was born at Shirley, Maine, March 7, 1852. 
His parents settled in St. Croix County, Wisconsin, near River 
Falls, when he was only two years of age. His early boyhood 
was spent on a farm, receiving a common school and academic 
education, while thus employed he taught school, studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar at Hudson, Wisconsin. In the 
spring of 1878 he removed to Clearwater, Wisconsin, and in the 
fall of 1884, was elected to the Lower House of the Legislature. 
He came to Minneapolis in the spring of 1886, and was elected 
county attorney in 1892, filling the office four years. Since that 
time he has been engaged in general practice. 

Charles A. Lindbergh was born in Sweden, January 20, 
1859, and the following year came with his parents, who located 
on a farm near Melrose, Minnesota. He attended the public 
schools, also Grove Lake Academy, and the University of Michi- 
gan. He now resides at Little Falls, where he is engaged in 
the practice of law. 



The Thirty-fifth Legislature convened January 8, 1907. 
There were in the Senate forty-three Republicans, nineteen Dem- 
ocrats, and one People's party; twenty-three members had been 
reelected. Patrick Fitzpatrick, of Winona; F. E. Du Toit, of 
Chaska; Julius A. Coller, of Shakopee; J. T. McGowan, George 
P. Wilson and Edward E. Smith, all of Minneapolis, had served 
in the two previous Legislatures. Albert Schaller, of Hastings, 
had represented Dakota County since 1895. 

The members serving a second term were Lytle 0. Cook, of 
Kellogg; H. H. Witherstine, of Rochester; Alex S. Campbell, 
of Austin; Frank E. Putnam, of Blue Earth City; 0. G. Dale, 
of Madison; C. A. Johnson, of St. Peter, Ole K. Naeseth, of 
Goodhue County; Winslow W. Dunn and John C. Hardy, of 
St. Paul; J. F. Calhoun, of Minneapolis; T. M. Pugh and 
George R. Laybourn, of Duluth; L. 0. Thorpe, of Willmar; F. 
H. Peterson, of Moorhead; A. D. Stephens, of Crookston, and 
Bengt E. Sundberg, of Kennedy. 

The new members were Frank Clague of Redwood County, 
the Speaker of the preceding House of Representatives; Darwin 
S. Hall, of Buffalo Lake, ex-Member of Congress; S. A. Nelson, 
a banker, 6f Lanesboro, a member of the House of 1903, repre- 
sented Fillmore Ciunty. 

Thomas E. Cashman, a Democrat, and ex-mayor of Owa- 
tonna, president of the Clinton Falls Nursery, was the Senator 
from Steele County. Two members of the same political party 
were John Moonan, a lawyer and ex-mayor of Waseca, and 
Samuel D. Works, engaged in lumbering and other industries 
at Mankato. A Republican, William A. Hinton, a merchant., 
of Freeman, a member of the House during the sessions of 1903 
and 1905, represented Martin and Watonwan Counties. The 
mayor of Rushmore, S. B. Bedford, interested in banking, was 
the Senator from Nobles and Murray Counties; a native Min- 
nesotian, Henry E. Hanson of Windom, who had been register 
of deeds of Cottonwood County for 1 eighteen years, was the 
Senator from Jackson and Cottonwood Counties. 


E. H. Canfield, of Luverne, represented Kock and Pipestone 
Counties, and Virgil B. Seward of Marshall, another attorney, 
was Senator from Lincoln, Lyon and Yellow Medicine Counties. 
A Democrat, A. A. Poehler, ex-mayor of Henderson, engaged in 
merchandising, was the Senator from Sibley County. 

The agricultural interests of the State were represented by 
John Q. Briggs, a native of Illinois, who settled in Minnesota in 
1874 and represented Houston County; Bernhart N. Anderson, 
of Albert Lea, secretary of the Farmers' Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany, and Senator from Freeborn County; A. L. Hanson, of Ada, 
a retired banker, devoting the most of his time to farming, rep- 
resented Norman, Beltrami and Bed Lake Counties; James 
Johnston, of Bertha, the Senator from the district comprising 
Hubbard, Wadena and Todd Counties; Ole 0. Canestorp, of 
Elbow Lake, represented the district comprising Traverse, Grant 
and Stevens Counties; Lytle 0. Cook, Ole K. Naseth, Bengt. E. 
Sundberg and Ole 0. Sageng, the People's party representative 
and Senator from Otter Tail County. 

From Meeker County came J. W. Wright, a merchant, of 
Litchfield, a Southerner by birth, he had been a resident of Min- 
nesota since 1865. The Senator from McLeod County was C. 
R. Donaldson, a Democrat, a native of the State and a resident 
of Stewart. Another Democrat, Henry F. Weis, cashier of the 
First National Bank of Le Sueur, a native of West Virginia, 
was the Senator from Le Sueur County. From Rice County 
came Frank L. Glotzbach, a Democrat, and mayor of Faribault. 
Washington County was represented by George H. Sullivan, of 
Stillwater. The district comprising Chisago, Pine and Kanabec 
Counties sent Victor L. Johnson. 

The new members of the Ramsey County delegation were 
Henry McColl, a druggist, a member of the House of 1903-1905 ; 
Edmund S. Durment, an attorney, and Joseph M. Hackney, a 
native of Antrim, Minnesota, a graduate of Hamline University 
and the law department of the University of Minnesota, and 
engaged in the real estate and loan business in St. Paul. Hen- 
nepin County new members were James T. Elwell, Manley L. 
Fosseen and John W. Pauly, of Minneapolis. 


A native of Sweden, Charles J. Swanson, of Fridley rep- 
resented the Forty-fifth District. From Wright County came 
George C. Carpenter, a merchant, of Buffalo, and from the 
Forty-seventh District John E. C. Robinson, an attorney, from 
St. Cloud. . Solomon F. Alderman, a lawyer, of Brainerd, was 
the Senator from Morrison and Crow Wing Counties, and Pat- 
trick R. Vail, a merchant, of Ely, and a member of the House 
of 1897, was the new member from St. Louis County. D. M. 
Gunn, a hotel proprietor, of Grand Rapids, was the Senator 
from Carlton, Aitken, Itasca and Cass Counties. John J. Ah- 
mann, a merchant, of Torah, represented the Fifty-fourth Dis- 
trict. The district comprising Swift and Big Stone Counties 
sent as their Senator, Ray G. Farrington, an attorney, residing 
at Ortonville. Pope and Douglas Counties' Senator was Claus 
J. Gunderson, a native of Wisconsin and educated at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota and the literary and law department of the 
University of Michigan. He had practiced law at Alexandria, 
since 1886. Daniel E. White, a hardware merchant, of Clare- 
mont, was the Senator from Dodge County. 

The House of Representatives contained one hundred Re- 
publicans, sixteen Democrats and three Prohibitionists. Thirty- 
one members had been reelected. S. D. Peterson, J. H. Dorsey, 
Lawrence H. Johnson and Robert J. Wells were serving their 
fourth consecutive terms. Mr. Peterson was no tyro in legisla- 
tive affairs, he had served five terms in the House, and four 
years in the Senate. He was born in Norway and came to 
Minnesota in 1856, and was engaged in the farm implement 
business at New Ulm. Dr. Dorsey was a resident of Glencoe, a 
native of Pennsylvania and edited the first democratic paper in 
McLeod County. He was surgeon in the Fourteenth Minnesota 
during the Spanish-American War. Mr. Wells was a native of 
Wisconsin, came to Minnesota in 1878. He resided at Breck- 
enridge and combines the diversified occupations of farming and 
practicing law. The three termers were R. L. Mork, a farmer, 
residing at Bricelyn; W. H. Putnam and A. J. Rockne of Good- 
hue County. Mr. Putnam was a banker at Red Wing, a native 
of Massachusetts, who settled in Minnesota in 1867 and was an 


ex-mayor of his adopted city. Mr. Rockne was a lawyer; re- 
siding at Zumbrota. A native Minnesotian and a graduate of the 
law department of the University of Minnesota. James Handlan, 
of St. Paul; W. I. Nolan, a humoristic lecturer, a native of the 
State and a resident of Minneapolis. A. J. Wood, of Otsego; 
I. W. Bouck, of Royalton; Hans 0. Hanson, of Stephen; and 
N. F. Hugo, of Duluth. 

The Prohibitionist members of the House were Thomas E. 
Noble, of Albert Lea, a farmer, and dairyman; Engebert E. 
Lobeck, of Alexandria; and George W. Higgins, of Minneapolis, 
nominee for Governor of his party in 1898 ,and for mayor of 
Minneapolis in 1902. 

Henry G. Hicks, ex-District Judge, represented one of the 
Hennepin County districts, and Solon 0. Morse, a merchant, of 
Slayton, a member of the House in 1887, 1899 and 1905, also 
private secretary to William D. Washburn, during his six years 
in the United States Senate, was Representative from Nobles 
and Murray Counties. 

The House organized and elected Lawrence W. Johnson, of 
Minneapolis, Speaker. The presiding officer is a native of Ger- 
many and came to Minnesota in 1884. His business is that of 
bridge contractor and engineer. 

Governor Johnson in his biennial address advised economy 
in both the legislative and executive departments of the State 
government. The first part of his message was largely devoted 
to the subject of taxation. He stated that during the year 1905 
the total taxes levied in the State for all purposes amounted to 
$22,355,326.25. He appreciated the fact that there could be 
no great and sudden change from an unnatural and unjust taxa- 
tion, to a natural and just condition. The burden of taxation 
will continue to fall largely upon the tangible and visible property 
of the State. The subject of taxation of mortgages was dealt 
with, and he thought that under the latitude of the new con- 
stitutional amendment, the Legislature would be able to devise 
a registry and income tax, that would not be a hardship on 
either the leaner or borrower of money. He urgently recom- 
mended legislation providing for the establishment of a per- 



manent tax commission. The taxation of iron mines was duly 
considered. Prior to 1896, the owner of mines in Minnesota 
paid a nominal tax of one cent per ton, on ore mined and ship- 
ped, in lieu of all other taxes. During the five years ending with 
1895, this tonnage tax amounted to only $73,845. Beginning 
with 1896 mines have been assessed as other real property for 
direct taxation, and the State board of equalization in 1906 equal- 
ized the totals for St. Louis County at $70,000,00. This he con- 
tended was not in proportion to the value of the mines and the 
State thereby did not receive its just revenue, in comparison 
with other property in the State. 1 

He advised the amending of laws taxing sleeping car, tele- 
phone and express companies, as the corporations were seeking 
to evade the taxes rightly due the State, on business done within 
its boundaries, also suggested that the railroad taxes be paid in 
semi-annual payments, and that delinquents in corporate taxes 
be compelled to suffer the same penalties as the general taxpayer. 

He advocated the organization of a State department of 
mines, on account of the vast interests of the State in mine and 
mineral properties. Railroad legislation, reduction of freight 
rates, a two cents a mile passenger rate, and the abolition of rail- 
road passes, received the Governor's attention. 

There had been during the last biennial period, the greatest 
volume of growth in State banks, than during any other period 
in the State's history. The number of State banks increased 
from 325 to 427. The aggregate capital stock, surplus and un- 
diivded profits increased from $11,410,533.04 to $13,414,249.45. 
The gross deposits reached the sum of $64,392,858.79. The 
total banking resources of Minnesota exclusive of private bank- 
ing in July, 1906, amounted to $266,490,032.83. 

He called the attention of the Legislature to the fact 
that while there were State laws prohibiting trusts and com- 
binations, and though the statute had been in force several years, 

'Following this suggestion and based on the result of an exhaustive 
inquiry made by the Tax Commission, the State Board of Equaliza- 
tion at its session of 1907, increased the valuation of the iron prop- 
erties of Northern Minnesota to $191,000,000. 


there had been no prosecutions or punishments for the violation 
of the law, although it was generally understood that combina- 
tions had been effected to such extent, as to menace the public 
welfare. He cited the lumber, grain and livestock interests of 
the State as being manipulated by trusts or combinations, and 
recommended that the force in the Attorney General's office be 
increased, and also the appropriation of a contingent fund to en- 
able that department to cope with those infringements of the 

The modifications of the primary election law, labor legis- 
lation, good roads, drainage, forestry, uniform divorce law, and 
Indian War pensions, are embodied in his message. 

He advocated the submission to the people of a constitutional 
amendment, for a direct initiative and referendum, thereby giv- 
ing the people the opportunity of voting on the question, whe- 
ther or not they want the right to instruct their representatives, 
also the further right to pass on the laws enacted by their Legis- 

While not being an ardent advocate of public ownership, he 
thought if by a majority vote a city, town or village should 
decide to conduct its public uitlities, there should be no objec- 
tion to allowing a municipality to raise the money necessary to 
purchase and operate them in any way they saw fit. The raising 
of loans on these public utilities, pledging only the property 
operated, would be no injustice to owners of general property, 
thereby removing the objection urged against municipal owner- 
ship, that it injures the credit of a city or village, and it was not 
fair to tax non-users of these utilities for the benefit of the 
users. He quoted the Mueller law of Illinois, which had. been 
sustained by the courts and that applies to that State, to acquisi- 
tions by municipalities of street railway properties. 

In concluding his address, after paying his respects to the 
lobbyist as a menace to clean government he said: 

<r Bj the way of conclusion, permit me to add that I have 
every confidence that you will be guided and governed by a de- 
sire to do that which is best for the State. This commonwelath, 
with all of its moral, intellectual, and material advancement, is, 


I am sure, as dear to you as to me. We have been chosen by 
the same people; we serve the same cause; we may differ in 
our opinions, but if our differences are honest ones, they 
will find adjustment with little difficulty. Whatever our politi- 
cal convictions, our duty is the same. We may have our 
obligations to political parties, and these obligations it seems 
to me will be best met and redeemed in patriotic service re- 
gardless of the demands of partisan service; that we will serve 
our parties best by serving the State best. 

<f We live in a time when purely party considerations are 
being made to yield to the principles of good government, and 
in any conflict between the two our first duty is to the State 
and Nation, and allegiance to a party organization a secondary 
matter. Let us strive to attain the highest ideals and reward 
the people who have reposed special confidence in us by honest ef- 
fort which will make us worthy of the honors conferred upon us. 
In your every effort to bring about a healthier and better state 
of governmental affairs I pledge you the hearty co-operation of 
my office, and assure you, as well, that I will be glad to wel- 
come any suggestions calculated to promote the prosperity of 
our people and the general domestic welfare:" 

The Legislature adjourned April 24,1907. In the work of 
the session railroad matters predominated, the restless feeling 
of discontent respecting railroad domination over the past 
year, had become so apparent, that there seemed to be a demand 
that the Legislature should enact laws restraining these corpo- 
rations. Various bills affecting the passenger and freight rates 
were introduced in the early day of the session. The corpo- 
rations represented by their attorneys were determined to antag- 
onize such measures but they early realized despite their ef- 
forts that certain measures were sure to be enacted. Finally 
acts were passed prescribing the two cent maximum rate per mile, 
to be charged by railroad companies operating in the State for 
transportation of passengers, and a reduction of ten per cent 
in freight rates. These laws were to take effect May 1, 1907, 
and violators were subject to imprisonment and a fine not exceed- 
ing $5,000 for each and every offense. The tax on the gross 



earnings of sleeping cars was increased and private car compa- 
nies were also required to pay a tax of four per cent on their 
gross earnings Eailroad companies were obliged to maintain a 
depot at all towns of 400 or more inhabitants (it was formerly 
1,000) located on their lines. All cars were required to be equip- 
ped with automatic couplers, and have grab-irons or hand-holds 
on the ends and sides of each car. 

Insurance legislation was a prominent feature of the ses- 
sion. Foreign insurance companies before a license was granted 
to them were required to sign an agreement making the State 
Insurance Commissioner their lawful attorney in all legal pro- 
ceedings brought against them; also that they would not apply 
to the court to have an action started in the State courts removed 
to the Federal courts. An annual apportionment and accounting 
for the divisable surplus of life insurance companies to policy 
holders was provided for, also on policies heretofore issued an- 
other act prohibited the diversion of the funds of life insurance 
companies to aid in the nomination or election of any candidate 
of any political party. The status of persons soliciting insur- 
ance was defined to the effect that he was agent of the company 
and not of the assured. 

The great agrarian masses of the State were to be bene- 
fited by a law, authorizing the Board of Control to construct 
and operate a factory for binders and mowers in connection with 
the prison at Stillwater. 

The bank and banking laws were amended. Banks were 
allowed to loan on first mortgages, fifty per cent on the cash 
valuation of improved farms in the State, not to exceed twenty 
per cent of their capital stock and surplus. Stockholders 
were individually liable to an amount, equal to the amount of 
stock owned by them for all debts and transactions prior to a 
transfer of their stock. Another act 

Defines what is a "bank" and what is a "savings bank," and limits 
the right to use these words as a business name. A "bank" is declared 
to be an institution having a place of business in the State, where 
credits are opened by the deposit of money or currency, or the collec- 
tion of the same, subject to be paid or remitted on draft, check or 


order; and where money is loaned or advanced on stocks, bonds, bullion, 
bills of exchange or promissory notes, and where the same are received 
for discount or sale. A "savings bank" is a corporation managed by dis- 
interested trustees, solely authorized to receive and safely invest the 
savings of small depositors. These "banks" and "savings banks" are to 
come under the supervision of the Public Examiner and a refusal to 
allow him to inspect said business shall disqualify the corporation from 
using the word "bank" in its business. 

County commissioners were authorized to change the name 
of any town, upon receipt of a petition signed by fifty-five 
per cent of the legal voters at the last preceding election. 
Good Friday was made a legal holiday. A State Board of 
Immigration was created, and an appropriation of $30,000 was 
voted to carry out its work. State registration of nurses was re- 
quired, also the licensing of nurses. The killing of animals 
and birds upon the Minnesota State Forest reserve lands and 
parks was declared a misdemeanor punishable by a fine from 
$50 to $100, and imprisonment from thirty to ninety days. 
Itasca State Park was placed under the management of the 
State Forestry Board. 

Acts were passed establishing a State hospital for crip- 
pled and deformed children, also an industrial- school for girls 
on the cottage plan. By another act a hospital for inebriates 
was established and provision made for the erection of a 
building, by a tax of two per cent on all moneys received from 
license fees to sell liquor. 

The election laws were so amended as to reduce the filing 
fees of candidates for the Legislature from $20 to $10 for candid- 
ates for county commissioner, where the salary was less than $300 
a year the fees were reduced from $10 to $5. Polling places in 
cities of less than 20,000 inhabitants could be located on the 
second floor (formerly they were required to be on the ground 
floor). The civil rights of persons convicted of felony and sen- 
tenced to jail or to pay a fine, and who had served such sen- 
tence or paid such fine, were restored. 

There was a complete concurrence of opinion between th 
Governor and the Republican Legislature on the question of 
taxation and that question early received the attention of the 


Legislature. To overcome the inequalities of taxation, a Tax 
Commission was created, to consist of three persons appointed 
by the Governor, at a salary of $4,500. They were to place upon 
the assessment rolls the vast amount of property which hereto- 
fore had escaped taxation. The Governor appointed on the 
board: Samuel Lord, of Kasson; 0. M. Hall, of Eed Wing; and 
Frank L. McVey, of the University of Minnesota. 

The act relating to the conveyances of real estate by husband 
and wife was amended; giving a married woman with the 
exception of the homestead (which is subject to the dower 
rights of the husband) the right to make a separate conveyance. 

The salaries of the Justices of the Supreme Court were in- 
creased from $5,000 to $7,000 a year; that of the stenographers 
of the Supreme Court to $900. The office of assistant State 
Librarian was created with a salary of $1,500. The salary of 
the chief chemist in the State Dairy and Food Department was 
raised from $1,500 to $2,400. The Governor's salary was in- 
creased from $5,000 to $7,000 a year and last, but not least, the 
members of the Legislature were to receive $500 a year instead 
of $250. 

The Nineteenth Judicial District was established to consist 
of the counties of Kanabec, Chisago and Washington, which here- 
tofore had been a part of the First Judicial District. 

A commission was appointed to select a design for a suitable 
monument, to be erected on the battle field of Shiloh, to com- 
memorate the services of the First Minnesota Battery, an appro- 
priation of $5,000 having been passed by the previous Legisla- 
ture for that purpose. The sum of $10,000 was appropriated 
for the erection in the capitol building, of an heroic bronze figure 
of Colonel William Colvill who led the First Minnesota In- 
fantry in their memorable charge at the Battle of Gettysburg. 
Also a replica was to be erected at the place of Colonel Col- 
vill's burial in Cannon Falls. The sum of $500 was appro- 
priated to be expended in locating and surveying all or part of 
the battlefield of Wood Lake, in Yellow Medicine County. The 
Governor was empowered to appoint a commission for the pur- 
pose of acquiring land for the extension of the present grounds 
of the Capitol. 


From the northern part of Itasca was formed Koochiching 
County, the seat of government' being fixed at International 
Falls; and from the eastern part of Norman was formed Mah- 
nomen County, the county seat being Mahnomen. 

During the session of the Legislature, Knute Nelson was 
elected United States Senator for the term ending March 4, 

Chapter XXIII. 



THE first important road lying partly within the State of 
Minnesota was built by the Hudson's Bay Company in 
the last years of the Eighteenth Century; it was thirty- 
five miles in length and connected Fort William, built on the 
Kaministiquia River, with another fort located at the southern 
terminus of the Grand Portage. This road was bridged with 
cedar logs, some of which are yet to be seen. The locality 
called the Grand Portage was the site of a once celebrated trad- 
ing post fort on the south end of a portage of that name, and 
is on a small crescent shaped bay, which has an island at its 
entrance, 146 miles from Duluth, and about ten miles west of 
the extreme eastern point of Cook County. 

After the occupation of Fort Snelling, the mail and sup- 
plies for the garrison were carried by soldiers from Fort Craw- 
ford (Prairie du Chien,) in the summer by keel boats or canoes 
on the .river. In winter the distance was traversed on the ice 
in a sort of sledge drawn by dogs or a Canadian pony and called 
a train du glace. There was no human habitation between these 
two forts excepting an encampment or two of Indians, and the 
mail carriers and their animals had to subsist the best they could. 
This winter system of transportation was kept up as late as 

In the fall of 1832, after the close of the Black Hawk War, 
the first mail route, for the transmission of news to and from 



Fort Snelling, was inaugurated. It was not, however, under 
the auspices of the Post Office Department at Washington. Col- 
onel Zachary Taylor, afterward President, then in command at 
Fort Crawford, inaugurated the service. He established, a reg- 
ular, or nearly regular, communication between Prairie du Chien 
and the river St. Peter's, and the arrangement was continued 
for several years. 

James Halpin, an Irish-American, soldier of the Fort Craw- 
ford garrison, was the first dispatcher, bearer and mail mes- 
senger. He traveled the greater part of the time on foot and 
continued in the service for a year. As his route ran, the dis- 
tance between the two forts was about 210 miles, and he was re- 
quired to make the round trip of 420 miles in fourteen days, at 
the rate of thirty miles a day. Setting out from Prairie du 
Chien he crossed the Mississippi and traveled the entire route on 
the west side of the river. He did not follow the river closely, 
thus avoiding its circuitous course, except in winter; he crossed 
the Upper Iowa River in a canoe; he swam or waded the other 
streams. His mail sack was a beaver skin made water-proof, 
and its contents never weighed more than twenty pounds. There 
was not a cabin or other human habitation on his route between 
the Upper Iowa and the St. Peter's, although he sometimes came 
upon an Indian camp, where he was always well received; but 
he seldom found the camp in the same place on his return. He 
carried a blanket, a canteen and a haversack, with seven days 
rations of hard bread and salt; his rifle procured his meat ra- 
tions en route. At night he kindled a fire with flint and steel, 
slept on the ground, and somehow contrived to endure the sever- 
est weather without serious injury, preserving his health and 
never missing a trip. Mr. Halpin lived to become a respected 
citizen of Madison, .Wisconsin, and was a resident of that city 
in 1854. 

The early missionaries in their pilgrimages used the means 
of transportation of their savage brethren, the canoes made from 
the bark of the white birch and the wood of the white cedar. 
The latter forming the ribs and the bark coming in contact with 
the water. They were made from ten to twenty feet in length, 


capable of carrying two or three tons of lading, but were of 
light weight so that they could be carried by a very few men. 
They were propelled with a paddle and often accomplished 
eighty to one hundred miles in a day. The batteaux rowed by 
six or seven men were also used, they were light made boats us- 
ually about forty feet in length, from ten to twelve feet wide, 
and could carry five tons. Journeys on land were accomplished 
in summer by following the paths of the savage and in winter 
snow shoes were utilized. 

In the year the Territory was organized, Henry M. Eice 
dispatched a boat laden with Indian goods from the St. An- 
thony Falls to Crow Wing; which was towed by horses after the 
manner of a canal boat. 

There were at this time but a few roads in the Territory, 
one had been built from St. Paul to Mendota crossing the 
ferry at Fort Snelling, another to the St. Anthony Falls. 

A blazed and marked road was laid out in the winter of 
1849 by Captain Wiram Knowlton, from Hudson, Wisconsin via 
Black Eiver Falls to Prairie du Chien. It was about 223 
miles in length, some of the streams were bridged and a span 
of horses could haul 1,800 or 2,000 pounds through the whole 
distance. This road was used as the winter route east by St. 
Paul travelers for several years. It was also the mail route. At 
this time there were only sixteen post offices in what is now 
Minnesota. The only mail routes besides the one mentioned 
was from St. Paul to Fort Snelling and back, weekly; from 
St. Paul to St. Croix Falls via Stillwater and Marine Mills, and 
back, weekly; with one additional trip to Stillwater and back. 

The First Territorial Legislature incorporated the St. Paul 
and St. Anthony Plank Road Company; also passed a bill for 
laying out Territorial roads. In his message to the Legislature 
in 1851, Governor Eamsey informs them that Congress had ap- 
propriated $40,000 for the construction of certain roads in the 
Territory, and recommends the memorializing of that body for 
a grant of township lands the proceeds to be expended in build- 
ing a telegraph line from St. Paul to the nearest connection 
which was then 200 miles away. 


A Government survey was commenced in the southeastern 
part of Minnesota in 1853. In the autumn of 1854, Major Reno 
completed the survey of a military road from Sioux City to 
Fort Snelling. In 1854 Congress appropriated money to con- 
struct a proposed road from the Falls of St. Croix to Lake 

The Minneapolis Bridge Company. was organized in 1854, to 
construct a suspension bridge across the Mississippi River above 
St. Anthony Falls. The bridge was completed in 1855 and re- 
mained in control of the Company fifteen years; when it was 
purchased by Hennepin County and became a free thoroughfare. 
The next year a company was formed to build a bridge connect- 
ing Ramsey and Dakota Counties. It was to be a toll bridge 
for thirty-five years, then to become free and be the joint property 
of the two counties. The incorporators failed to accomplish 
the building of the bridge and the city of St. Paul which had 
voted $80,000 towards the enterprise, foreclosed its mortgage 
and the property rights were vested in the city. The St. Croix 
Bridge Company in 1856, built a bridge of 150 span across the 
St. Croix River between Taylor's Falls and St. Croix Falls. 


The first pioneer of inland transportation in Minnesota was 
Norman W. Kittson, who in 1843 established a trading post at 
Pembina in connection with the outfit of the American Fur 
Company at Mendota. Heretofore the importing of goods, and 
exporting of furs to and from the Red River country were 
through the circuitous, difficult and dangerous Hudson's Bay 
route, which was navigable only two months in the year. In 
1844 wishing to transport his purchases of fur to Mendota, Mr. 
Kittson constructed what afterwards became known as the Red 
River or Pembina cart. This curious vehicle was two wheeled, 
constructed of wood and leather of rude workmanship and would 
carry 600 or 700 pounds. They generally cost about $15. To 
this cart was fastened an ox, or pong geared with broad bands 
of buffalo hide. Several carts were managed by one driver by 


lying each one to the tail of the preceding cart and guiding the 
head ox or pony. When traveling a caravan could be heard for 
miles, the axles being innocent of grease produced a horrid creak- 
ing. The drivers were Bois Brules, dressed in civilized garments, 
adorned with brass buttons and barbaric ornaments. The first 
year there were six carts engaged in trade, the number increased 
each year until in 1851, when William H. Forbes b'ecame a part- 
ner of Mr. Kittson, and what was known as the "St. Paul Out- 
fit" was organized to carry on the supply business. The distance 
from St. Paul to.Pembina was 448 miles; the route generally 
traveled, was via Otter Tail and Sauk Rapids; though earlier 
trips were made via Big Stone Lake and Traverse de Sioux. A 
down trip would generally consume from thirty to forty days. 
The number of carts arriving in 1851 was 102, in 1857 about 
500 came to St. Paul. In 1858, 600. The number decreased 
the three following years owing to the establishment of steamers 
on the Eed River of the North. In 1863 owing to Indian trou- 
bles only 275 carts came through. It was not, however, until 
1867 that they ceased their annual trips to St. Paul. In that 
year the St. Paul and Pacific railroad was running to St. Cloud 
and for a year or two that city became the terminus. The com- 
pletion of the Northern Pacific railroad to the Red River of the 
North drove these primitive prairie carts out of existence. 

The first stage ever run in Minnesota Territory was by 
Amherst Willoughby and Simon Powers. Mr. Willoughby was a 
Vermonter by birth, an old stage driver who had been connected 
with staging in Chicago for twenty years. In the fall of 1848 
he came to St. Paul prospecting and returned the following year 
with his partner. They commenced running daily, sometimes 
making two trips from St. Paul to St. Anthony, utilizing a 
two-seated open wagon drawn by a span of horses. The fol- 
lowing September to supply their trade, they put on a four horse 
open spring wagon, that could carry fourteen passengers. This 
they continued until the winter season set in, when they ran a 
line to Prairie du Chien by the Knowlton road before men- 


In the spring the four-horse wagon stage was resumed to 
St. Anthony, and Robert Kennedy ran a line from St. Paul to 
Stillwater; afterwards Willoughby and Powers put a line on this 
route. In the summer of 1851 these same parties brought to St. 
Paul the first Concord coach ever ran in Minnesota. The fol- 
lowing spring Lyman L. Benson and Mr. Pattison came from 
Kalamazoo, Michigan, they established an opposition line to St. 
Anthony which was called the "Yellow Line," the old line being 
generally termed the "Red Line." This opposition brought on 
the first cut rate war in Minnesota, the price hitherto charged 
was seventy-five cents, it was reduced to twenty-five cents and 
then to ten cents, and the "Yellow Line" also put on an opposi- 
tion coach to Stillwater. In the same year Colonel Alvaren 
Allen ran a hack line from St. Anthony to Monticello; this was 
soon afterwards extended to St. Cloud. 

The rivalry between the competing lines to St. Anthony 
continued two seasons or more. Willoughby and Powers in- 
creased their rolling stock to eight Concord coaches and carried 
on an extensive livery business in St. Paul. In 1854, a 
compromise was effected with Pattison and Benson, who became 
owners of the St. Anthony line, Willoughby and Powers operat- 
ing a line from St. Paul to Shakopee, and other points, and 
also ran the Stillwater branch. The winter route on the east 
side of the Mississippi, from Stillwater to Prairie du Chien, was 
run until 1853 by Willoughby and Powers, but in that year M. 
0. Walker and Company obtained the winter mail contract and 
a line of stages was run by them from Stillwater through Min- 
nesota and Iowa to Dubuque, Iowa, and thence to Galena, Illi- 
nois, the nearest point where an eastern bound traveler could 
strike a railroad. This trip was advertised to take only four 
days, but frequently took six. The stages were incommodious, 
the horses generally spavined, this with surly drivers and occasion- 
ally snowbound at a frontiersman's cabin did not tend to make 
the journey a pleasure trip. In the winter of 1855, J. J. 
Brackett ran an opposition line from St. Paul to Dubuque via 
Lakeville, Owatonna and Austin. In 1854-1855 William Nettle- 
ton established a line of stages from St. Paul to Superior, Wis- 


consin, which had been laid out in 1853 by St. Paul parties 
though there was not even a wagon road to the town. 

An important factor at this time in promoting stage enter-, 
prises was Colonel Alvaxen Allen, already mentioned, in 1854 
he had a four-horse Concord coach line from St. Paul to 
Crow Wing, which was afterwards pushed as far west as Brecken- 
ridge, and south to Mankato. At this time eight coaches left 
St. Paul daily, three for Minneapolis, one for Crow Wing, 
one for Mankato, one for New Ulm, Faribault and Owatonna, 
one for Hudson, Wisconsin, and one for Stillwater. Every 
other day a coach left for Superior City, Wisconsin. Besides 
this there were from six to eight coaches making regular trips 
daily between St. Paul and Minneapolis. On the long distance 
lines more attention was paid to freight than passengers. Every 
available place was used for the former and the latter were 
compelled to hold on the best they could. The passengers over 
the western and southwestern routes from St. Paul, were aroused 
at four o'clock in the morning, and generally took breakfast at 
seven o'clock at St. Anthony. 

In the summer of 1850 James C. Burbank, who had come 
from Vermont to St. Paul in that year, commenced an express 
business from St. Paul to Galena in connection with the Ameri- 
can Express Company, which was running to the latter point as 
its western terminus. The trips during the summer were made 
weekly on the steamer Nominee, and in winter the Knowlton 
road was followed to Prairie du Chien, thence to Galena. The 
express business was light and much of Mr. Burbank's business 
consisted of filling orders at Galena for St. Paul merchants. 
He formed various partnerships, but in 1853 Charles T. Whitney 
became interested with him, and the forwarding business was 

The following year the express business had reached such, 
dimensions regular messengers were employed, offices were located 
at the principal towns and the Northwestern Express Company 
was organized. In 1856, Mr. Whitney disposed of his interests 
to Captain Eussell Blakeley, previous to this the express matter 
had been conveyed in winter by the Walker's stage line. The 


express company becoming disgusted with the wretched service, 
in January, 1857, put on a line of stages between St. Paul and 
Dubuque, the railroad having reached the latter point. Although 
they originally intended to carry only express matter, they soon 
put on passenger coaches which ultimately pushed Walker's slow 
coaches out of business. 

The down river mail contract was secured in the spring of 
1858. In the fall of that year on a route to La Crosse, the 
nearest railroad terminus, the company stocked up jointly with 
Allen and Chase, who had purchased the business of Pattison, 
Benson and Ward, which they run in connection with their lines 
to the Upper Mississippi, having secured several mail contracts. 
The La Crosse stages was a winter line, and in order to make 
rapid transit the company built a road at the expense of $30,000 
between St. Paul and Winona, The sides of the river's bluffs 
were cut out, also the streams bridged. The distance of one 
hundred and five miles was made in twenty-four hours, horses 
being changed every fifteen to eighteen miles. 

In the spring of 1859 the business of these two stage com- 
panies, Allen and Chase and the Burbank and Blakeley Com- 
pany, were consolidated and the Minnesota Stage Company was 
formed. The Stillwater and the Superior routes also became 
centralized in this company. At the next Government letting of 
mail contracts, the Minnesota Stage Company secured the carry- 
ing of the United States mail for all the stage routes in Min- 
nesota, aggregating about 1,300 miles, besides some 300 miles 
of pony routes. In the spring of 1860 John L. Merriam, by the 
purchase of Chase's interests in the stage company, became a 
joint partner with Messrs. Burbank and Blakeley. 

The stage business had grown to such proportions, that the 
express business became a minor consideration, and in 1863 the 
company sold to the American Express Company all express ter- 
ritory south of St. Paul. The magnitude to which the staging 
business had grown; may be inferred by the fact that in the win- 
ter of 1865, the company worked 700 horses and employed 200 


The J. C. and H. C. Burbank and Company, which carried 
on a very heavy forwarding business, was in the winter of 1858- 
1859, appointed by the Hudson's Bay Company transportation 
agents to arrange for shipment of their merchandise to New 
York or Montreal, by way of Minnesota. This made St. Paul 
the Company's headquarters, instead of York Factory on Hud- 
son's Bay. This contract covered a yearly tonnage of four to 
six hundred tons and was continued by this firm five years. 
They bought the steamboat, Anson Northup, afterward named 
it the Pioneer. In 1861 they built the International, she was 
one hundred and thirty-seven feet, twenty-six feet beam and 
was rated at one hundred and thirty-three tons. 

In 1864, it became apparent to J. C. and H. C. Burbank 
and Company that the interest of the Hudson's Bay Company, and 
their own interest were not identical. They wanted immigration 
and trade, but the Hudson's Bay Company did not want mails, 
emigrants, or anybody to trade in the Territory but themselves. 
The Burbanks, therefore took the shortest way to get out, they 
sold their interest in the steamboat business to Norman W. Kitt- 
son for the Hudson's Bay Company. 

The Selkirk, built by James J. Hill and Alexander Griggs, 
in the spring of 1871, was the next boat to appear in the Eed 
Eiver of the North trade. At the opening of navigation in 
1872, the fact was disclosed that all boats were under the man- 
agement of Norman W. Kittson and were called the Kittson 
Line. In 1874, the steamboat monopoly was charging such out- 
rageous prices for transportation, that the merchants of Winni- 
peg induced parties to organize a new company to be called the 
"Merchants' Line." The following year two new boats the Min- 
nesota and the Manitoba, belonging to this line appeared on 
the river. On June eleventh of that year, the Manitoba and 
International had a collision, and the former was sunk, she was, 
however, raised but soon afterwards with the Manitoba was 
seized for debt. The business of the company being in bad 
shape, Mr. Kittson in 1876 bought out the control of the boats 
and they were run in connection with his line, which had been 
reorganized and was called the Eed Elver Transportation Com- 

IV M9 


pany. The principal boats of this line were the International, 
Minnesota, Manitoba, Dakota, Selkirk and Alpha. The extend- 
ing of the St. Paul and Pacific railroad, (Pembina to Crook- 
ston) in the summer of 1876, materially diminished the distance 
though it increased the volume of the steamboat freight and passen- 
ger business. The following summer the railroad was extended 
to Fisher's Landing and on December 28, 1878, the track layers 
joined the rails of the St. Paul and Pacific to the Northern 
Pacific, at the international boundary line, and the days of steam- 
boat transportation on the Bed Kiver of the North were over. 

Chapter XXIV. 

THE arrival of the first steamboat at Fort Snelling, was 
the leading incident of Minnesota history, during the 
year 1823. On the tenth of May the steamer Virginia, eight 
days from St. Louis, landed at what is now Mendota. This event 
opened a new era of commercial development in this quarter, 
and the Sioux Indians never forgot it. Often, for years after- 
ward, they related the incident. They said that the night before 
the great "fire canoe" came, some of their medicine men dreamed 
of seeing the strange monster on the river, and the dream 
frightened them very much. 

The Virginia was a stern-wheel boat 118 feet in length, 
twenty-two feet in width, and drew six feet of water. The boat 
left St. Louis, May 2, with a cargo of Government stores for 
the Fort Snelling garrison. There were on board a number 
of passengers, among them were Major Taliaferro, the Indian 
Agent, Count Beltrami, Major Biddle and Lieutenant Eussell. 
When the boat left St. Louis it carried Big Eagle, a Sac chief, 
who was returning to his village from conference with Governor 
William Clark, and a Kentucky family, "with their children, 
guns, chests, cats, dogs, and chickens," immigrating to Galena, 
which was then the extreme northern frontier of settlement. The 
captain of the Virginia, according to some authorities, 1 was 
Captain Crawford. Count Beltrami, however, says it was Cap- 
tain Perston, probably a misprint for Preston. 2 

*See Neill in Minnesota Historical Society Ooll. 

^The name of Captain Perston deserves to be proclaimed by one 
of the hundred mouths of Fame. He is justly entitled to the admiration 
of mankind, to the gratitude of his fellow-citizens, and of his govern- 
ment." Beltrami's "Pilgrimage." Vol. 11. (London ed. 1821) p. 128. 



The voyage of the steamer was without special incident, 
although it was toilsome. The fuel used in producing steam was 
wood, and frequent landings had to be made to procure it from 
the forests, where it was chopped into proper lengths by the 
crew. One night, just after the boat had passed the mouth of 
the Upper Iowa Eiver, near the present southern boundary of 
Minnesota, a grand and great illumination greeted the boat and 
its passengers. County Beltrami 1 thus describes it: 

It was perfectly dark when we saw at a distance all the combined 
images of the infernal regions in full perfection. I was on the point of 
exclaiming with Michael Angelo: "How terrible, but yet how beauti- 
ful." The venerable trees of these eternal forests were on fire which had 
communicated to the grass and brushwood, and had been borne by a 
violent northwest wind to the adjacent plains and valleys. The flames 
towering above the tops of the hills, where the wind raged with most 
violence, gave them the appearance of volcanoes, and the fire winding 
in its descent through places covered with grass exhibited an exact 
resemblance to the undulating lava of Etna and Vesuvius. Showers of 
large sparks which fell upon us excited terror in some and laughter in 
others. A good old woman believed that the Day of Judgment was 
come. * * * We traveled almost all night by this superb torch, 
and the steamboat was tired and ran aground the next morning upon 
a sand-bank, by way of resting herself. The place is called L' Embarras, 
from a river of that name (now the Zumbro) which runs toward the 
west (sic). 

As the Virginia neared the shore at Fort Snelling, the 
Sioux, men, women and children, including the medicine men, 
who had been "warned in a dream," thronged the shore. They 
looked upon the strange craft in astonishment but in silence, as 
is the Indian manner. When it landed their fear prevailed and 
they retired from the bank. But when with an unearthly noise, 
the engineer began to "blow off" steam, they were completely 
unnerved and overcome. The most comical and ludicrous scenes 
ensued. Women abandoned their children and ran screaming 
away in search of hiding places. The boldest warrior ran wildly 
off, and even Chief Black Dog and Penichon scrambled for the 
woods in frantic stampede. Mrs. Snelling says of the incident: 
"The first steamboat made its appearance at the fort much to the 

'Ibid, pp. 176, et seq. 


astonishment of the savages, who placed their hands over their 
mouths, their usual way of expressing astonishment. They called 
it a 'fire boat.' A salutation was fired from the fort, as it was 
expected that the Inspector General was on board, and it was 
returned from the boat. The Indians knew not what to make of 
this and were greatly alarmed until all was explained. Addi- 
tions were made to the society of the garrison. Several officers, 
who had been absent, returned to the regiment, bringing wives 
and sisters, so that at one time the company numbered ten ladies. 
There were six companies in the garrison which, if they had been 
fully officered, would have given eighteen or twenty officers, but 
there were seldom, or never, that number present at one time." 

After the Virginia the next steamboat to visit Fort Snelling 
was the Neville, or Neiville. There is no present obtainable 
record of this boat and her voyage, beyond the fact that it came 
some time during the year 1824. 

April 2, 1825, came the Eufus Putnam, from St. Louis and 
Galena with a cargo of Government and sutler's stores and 
traders' goods. David G. Bates was captain of the Putnam on 
her first trip to Minnesota. About the first of May the Putnam 
made another trip to Fort Snelling. On this occasion the boat 
was laden with traders' goods for the Columbia Fur Company's 
post at "Land's End," on the Minnesota, a mile or more above 
the mouth of the river. The same season came the Mandan and 
the Indiana. 

May 2, 1826, the Lawrence, Captain Eeeder commanding, 
arrived, to the great relief of the whites in the country, who had 
been without ocmmunication with the outer world for three 

Captain Eeeder proposed a pleasure trip on his boat to St. 
Anthony Falls, and a number of the officers and their wives were 
taken on board for the excursion. After proceeding within about 
three and a half miles from the Falls, the current became so 
strong that the trip had to be abandoned. This was the first 
pleasure excursion by steamboat from the fort. 

Up to May 26, of this year, the steamboats that had arrived 
in Minnesota after the Eufus Putnam (including those men- 


tioned) were Scioto, Eclipse, Josephine, Fulton, Red Rover, 
Black Rover, Warrior, Enterprise, and Volant. No records of 
the voyages of these vessels can be obtained. The foregoing list 
is derived from Taliaferro's manuscript journal. 

From this time to 1839 the records of steamboat arrivals 
are fragmentary and are mostly from papers of Major Taliaferro, 
who resigned his office in 1840. On June 24, 1835, the Warrior, 
built and commanded by Captain Joseph Throckmorton, arrived 
at Fort Snelling with supplies; and had on board as passengers 
the first pleasure party to visit the Northwest. In the party were 
George Catlin, the famous painter of North American Indians, 
accompanied by his wife, and General George W. Jones of 

On June 1, 1836, the steamboat Palmyra, Captain Cole, 
arrived with another pleasure party, consisting of thirty ladies 
and gentlemen; and on July 2 of the same year the St. Peters, 
Captain J. Throckmorton, brought besides several ladies from 
St. Louis on a pleasure trip, the noted engineer Joseph N. 
Nicollet, to begin his surveys and explorations of the North- 
west. The steamer Rolla on November 10, 1837, arrived with 
the Sioux delegation, on their return trip irom Washing- 
ton, where they had made a treaty by which the Valley of 
the St. Croix was opened to white immigration. The Bur- 
lington, commanded by Captain Joseph Throckmorton, made 
three trips in 1838, bringing on the last trip 146 troops to 
Fort Snelling. The news of the ratification of the Sioux treaty 
was brought July 15, 1838, to Fort Snelling by the steamer 
Palmyra, commanded by Captain Middleton; she also had on 
board machinery for the St. Croix mill, and Calvin A. Tuttle, the 
millwright, with assistants, to place it in position for operation. 

Of the different steamboats arriving during the season of 
1839, the Ariel, Captain Lyon, made five trips; the Glaucus, 
Captain John Atchison, two trips; the Pike, two trips. From 
1840 to 1847 the accounts are meagre, there being no records 
except the Galena newspapers of these years. A record kept at 
Fort Snelling states that in 1844, forty-one boats arrived ; in 
1845, forty-eight; and in 1846, twenty-four. 




The first steamboat to navigate the waters of Lake St. Croix 
and river was the Palmyra. This boat arrived at Taylor's Falls 
in July, 1838. In November of the same year the Gypsy arrived 
at Stillwater, with supplies and money to pay the Chippewa 
Indians, pursuant to the treaty made July 29, 1837, between the 
Indians and the United States Government. The Fayette ar- 
rived in the early summer of 1839, with supplies and saw mill 
machinery for the Marine Lumber Company, located at Marine. 
From this time to 1847, there were, at intermittent periods during 
the seasons, steamboats arriving at Stillwater on the average of 
about five a year, though some of them made more than one trip. 

As early as 1843, the Otter, commanded by Captain R. S. 
Harris, made regular trips from Galena to the Upper Mississippi 
Eiver points. The trips were once or twice every two or three 
weeks during the season, the boat frequently having to wait in 
port two or three weeks for freight and passengers enough to pay 
the expenses. The Lynx, Captain W. H. Hooper, made a trip in 
1844, and two in 1845. 

An important event in the history of transportation took 
place in 1847. Messrs. Campbell and Smith of Galena; Brisbois 
and Eice, and H. L. Dousman of Prairie du Chien; H. H. 
Sibley, of Mendota; and M. W. Lodiwick, of Galena, purchased 
the steamboat Argo, with the intention of organizing the next 
spring the Galena Packet Company. The steamboat was to 
make regular trips from Galena to Fort Snelling, and Stillwater; 
and was to leave each terminus of her route on specified time 
and date, heretofore only stray boats had made trips to this 
region whenever they could get loads that would pay. In Octo- 
ber of that year the Argo unfortunately struck a snag in the 
river, near the present site of Wabasha and sunk. The proprie- 
tors of the Packet Company, not disheartened by the loss of the 
Argo, sent Captain Lodiwick and his former clerk of the unfortu- 
nate steamer, Russell Blakeley, to Cincinnati, Ohio, where they 
purchased the Dr. Franklin, which was put in commission in 
1848. The name of the company was changed to the Galena 
and Minnesota Packet Company; and Henry Corwith and Russell 
Blakeley became stockholders. 


The season of 1848 opened with rivalry in the river traffic. 
D. S. and R. S. Harris, of Galena, had been interested in steam- 
boating on the Mississippi since 1829, and had built and owned 
a number of boats. They felt in 1848, as if they were being 
driven off the river by a powerful combination. In that year, 
they bought the Senator to run between St. Louis and St. Paul, 
expecting to have the finest boat on the river. The purchase by 
the Galena and Minnesota Packet Company of the Dr. Franklin 
disappointed these expectations, and rivalry running high they 
sold the Senator to the Packet Company, agreeing that they 
would go out of the steamboat trade. 

The next year the Territory of Minnesota was organized, 
and the prospect of the increase of the steamboat trade in the 
Upper Mississippi was too tempting for the Harrises. They went 
to Cincinnati and bought a steamboat which they named the Dr. 
Franklin No. 2, a much finer boat than its predecessor of that 
name. The Galena and Minnesota Packet Company advertised 
a& regular packets this year the Dr. Franklin and Senator, while 
the opposition line ran the Dr. Franklin No. 2 for the St. Louis 
and St. Paul trade, and the Highland Mary, and later in the 
season the Yankee, from Galena to the Upper Mississippi ports. 

On April 19, 1850, the Highland Mary and the Nominee 
arrived in St. Paul opening up the navigation for that year. 
The latter boat was new and had been added by the Packet 
Company to their fleet, and was to compete with the Dr. Franklin 
No. 2 for the St. Louis trade. In the spring and summer there 
was a great freshet caused by extreme heavy snows and long 
continued warm rains. The Mississippi commenced rising about 
April 1 and continued most of the month. The water subsided 
somewhat, but when the regular "June freshet" came on it again 
carried it up and remained high for several weeks. The Dr. 
Franklin No. 2, the Anthony Wayne, and the Lamartine went 
up near St. Anthony Falls during the flood season. During the 
pummer of 1850, the Governor Ramsey commenced regular trips, 
above the Falls on the Mississippi from St. Anthony to St. 
Cloud. This steamboat was built at St. Anthony the previous 
spring by Captain John Rollins. Her machinery came from 


Bangor, Maine, to the Territory by the way of New Orleans. 
She was the first steamboat to navigate the water of the Missis- 
sippi above St. Anthony Falls. 

The year 1850 noted the advent of steamboats on the Min- 
nesota river; no large vessels had yet disturbed the waters of 
this stream except in 1842, when a steamboat had made a pleas- 
ure excursion to an Indian village, near what is now the site of 
Shakopee. This excepts the steamboats engaged in the Missis- 
sippi River trade, which entered the Minnesota as far as "Land's 
End/' three miles from its mouth. On June 28, 1850, the 
Anthony Wayne, which had just arrived at St. Paul with a 
pleasure party from St. Louis, agreed to take all passengers for 
$225 as far up the Minnesota as navigation was possible. They 
reached the foot of the rapids near Carver, the captain decided 
not to continue the passage, turned the steamboat homeward. 
Emulous of the Wayne's achievement, the Nominee, a rival boat, 
arranged another excursion July 12, ascended the Minnesota, 
passing the formidable rapids, placing her shingle three miles 
higher up the river. The Wayne, not to be outdone, on July 18, 
with a third excursion party, ascended the river two or three miles 
below the present city of Mankato. The success of these boats 
incited the Harris' line to advertise a big excursion on the Yan- 
kee, and that steamer reached a point on the Minnesota River, 
a little above the present village of Judson in Blue Earth County. 

In 1851, the steamboat arrivals at Stillwater were generally 
during the season two each week, as the large immigration and 
the importation of lumber supplies made it an important ship- 
ping point. The following year a line of steamboats between 
St. Louis and Stillwater and St. Paul was established, touching 
at the intermediate points. This temporary organization was 
supplemented by the formation of the Northern Line Packet 
Company, dwning boats of large tonnage and superior passenger 
accommodations. The opposition Galena lines each purchased a 
new steamboat, the Galena and Minnesota securing the Ben 
Campbell; and the Harrises the St. Paul; both of these proved 
failures in wresting the speed championship from the Nominee. 
The Harris' line then purchased the West Newton, but she could 


not compete successfully with her opponent. Two regular trips 
were made every week during the season. 

The year 1852 opened with a new rival in the field, Captain 
Louis Robert, with the steamboats Black Hawk and the Greek 
Slave, became a competitor for the river traffic. Competition 
became so active that everybody on the river, from Galena to 
St. Paul, took sides. Tri-weekly trips commenced. At the close 
of navigation, it became evident that to end the rate war, the 
fight must be compromised and the rival interests joined in a 
new organization. This was done in the winter of 1852-1853, 
when the Galena and Minnesota Packet Company was reor- 
ganized with Captain Orren Smith as president, and J. R. Jones 
as secretary. 

In the winter of 1852-1853, the United States Senate ap- 
proved the Sioux Treaty of 1851. This increased immigration 
to Minnesota, and the river towns made earnest appeals to the 
Packet Company to give their localities friendly and considerate 
attention. The Nominee headed the list for the number of ar- 
rivals at St. Paul this year, having 29 to her credit; Dr. 
Franklin No. 2 had 28; West Newton, 27; Greek Slave, 18; 
Black Hawk, 10. 

The Packet Company, in 1854, placed two new boats on the 
river; the Galena and the Royal Arch. During the year Burris 
and Hartzell, of Point Douglas, shipped 2,000 bushels of wheat. 
This is the first recorded shipment of this cereal from Minne- 
sota. To celebrate the completion of the Chicago and Rock 
Island Railroad, Sheffield and Farnham, contractors for the 
construction, invited 1,200 guests to assemble at Chicago, pro- 
ceed from that city by rail to Rock Island, there to take steam- 
boats for St. Paul. The steamboats, Golden Era, G. W. Spar- 
hawk, and Lady Franklin, of the Galena and St. Louis Packet 
Company, and the War Eagle and Galena, of the Galena and 
Minnesota Packet Company, were detailed to convey the excur- 
sionists up the river to St. Paul. They arrived at that city on 
the morning of June 8, 1854. Among the members of the excur- 
sion were Millard Fillmore, ex-President of the United States; 
John A. Dix, afterwards Governor of New York, also a promi- 


nent Union General; George Bancroft, the historian; Edward 
Bates, President Lincoln's attorney general; Benjamin Silliman, 
the noted scientist; John P. Jervis, the engineer of the Erie 
Canal; Samuel J. Tilden, afterwards Governor of New York and 
Presidential candidate; Moses Kimball, the Boston capitalist; 
Nathan K. Hall, Postmaster General in President Fillmore's 
Cabinet; Charles Dana, representing the New York Tribune; 
Samuel Bowles, of the Springfield Republican; Alexander 
Bullock, of the Worcester Aegis, afterwards Governor of Massa- 
chusetts; Epes Sargent, the author; Amos P. Cummings, repre- 
senting the New York Observer, afterwards Member of Congress; 
Ellis H. Eoberts, of the Utica Herald, afterwards United States 
Treasurer for a number of years; and Catherine M. Sedgwick, 
the authoress; besides many other wealthy and learned person- 
ages of the East. It was a gala day for St. Paul, and the 
guests by horse, mule and every kind of vehicle that could be 
utilized, were taken to view the beauties of St. Anthony Falls. 

The St. Paul Democrat, under date of October 22, 1854, 
states that "Six steamboats arrived yesterday and landed 600 

The year 1855 was very prosperous for steamboat enter- 
prises. Navigation opened by the arrival on April 17 of the 
War Eagle, belonging to the Galena and Minnesota Packet Com- 
pany. The other boats of the Packet Company in commission 
this year were the Galena, Golden Era, Lady Franklin, Greek 
Slave, City Belle, Boyal Arch, and Alhambra. Dividends were 
declared by the Company amounting to $100,000. The War 
Eagle, which cost $20,000, cleared $44,000 alone, and the City 
Belle, costing $11,000, cleared $30,000. In this year boat com- 
menced running from Dubuque to St. Paul, owing to the com- 
pletion of the Illinois Central Eailroad to Dunleith, which was 
opposite Dubuque on the Mississippi Eiver. The first steamboat 
on this line was the Fanny Harris, commanded by Captain Jones 
Worden. This led to the organization of the Dubuque and St. 
Paul Packet Company. The Falls City also made her appearance 
on the river, this boat, which was twenty-seven feet beam, was 
built by several citizens of St. Anthony Falls, to demonstrate 


that that point was the head of navigation of the Mississippi. 
It was a very low water season for most of the year and immi- 
gration being in full tide, nearly every light draft and stern 
wheel boat on the Ohio and Mississippi Eivers came to St. Paul. 
The number of arrivals from Galena was 300; from St. Louis 
and the Ohio 120; and from the Minnesota Eiver 143. 

The latter river, owing to the great rush of settlers, into 
the Minnesota Valley, had developed considerable transportation. 
The steamer Excelsior, in the summer of 1851, had conveyed the 
treaty commissioners, their attendants and supplies to Traverse 
des Sioux, and later the Benjamin Franklin, No. 1, ascended 
the river with a load of St. Paul's excursionists to witness the 
progress of the famous treaty. In the fall the Uncle Toby con- 
veyed to Traverse des Sioux, the first load of Indian goods under 
the new treaty. 

The springing up of embryo towns in the Minnesota Valley 
stimulated steamboat transportation, and during the early season 
of 1852, the steamboat Tiger made three trips to Mankato. The 
midsummer rains having restored the navigable condition of the 
river, the Black Hawk was chartered in July for three trips to 
Mankato. She also made during the season two trips to Bab- 
cock's Landing, opposite the present site of St. Peter, and one 
to Traverse des Sioux. The Jenny Lind and Enterprise were 
also engaged in the traffic. 

Navigation was opened on the Minnesota in 1853 by the 
new boat, the Greek Slave; the Clarion, also new, entered the 
trade this year. The Minnesota Eiver trade was increased by 
the establishing on its upper waters, of the Sioux Indian 
Agencies at Yellow Medicine and Eedwood, and also by the erec- 
tion of Fort Eidgely. The troops and supplies for the Fort 
were transported by the West Newton, Tiger and Clarion. The 
river remained navigable all summer and there were forty-nine 
arrivals at St. Paul. 

The winter of 1853-1854 was mild and open; the river 
broke up early without the usual freshet. Owing to the success 
of the prior season, the boatmen had great expectations. They 
were, however, doomed to disappointment. Captain Samuel 


Humbertson, who owned the stern wheel steamboat Clarion, had 
sold it and purchased a fine new boat, 170 feet long with thirty- 
eight staterooms, which he called the Minnesota Belle. May 3, 
with a large load of immigrants and freight, he started up the 
Minnesota. His new boat failed to climb the Little Rapids, near 
Carver, and he had to abandon the trip. A rainfall a few days 
later swelled the river, and enabled the Black Hawk to reach 
Traverse des Sioux. The lola and Montello, during the sum- 
mer, ran fairly regular trips between Little Eapids and Traverse 
des Sioux supplementing the Black Hawk, Humbolt and other 
boats plying below the rapids. In 1853 barges, propelled by a 
crew of men with poles, first became common on the river. 

The snowfall in the winter of 1854-1855 was again light 
consequently the Minnesota continued low during the following 
spring. The Globe, a new boat belonging to Louis Eobert, was 
the first steamer this season to leave St. Paul for Minnesota 
Eiver points. She made a trip in October loaded with the Sioux 
annuities consisting of goods and $90,000 in gold. She struck 
on a rock within two miles of her landing, and the merchandise 
being placed on the banks of the river, the dry grass was care- 
lessly ignited by the Indians and the merchandise with fifty 
kegs of powder, destroyed. 

In 1856, the St. Croix lake and river passenger and freight 
traffic was inaugurated by the advent of the complete little 
steamer Eolian, the first regular boat to enter the trade between 
Prescott, Stillwater and Taylor's Falls. The H. S. Allen, En- 
terprise, The Pioneer, Wyman X and others afterwards engaged 
in this trade. On the opening of this packet line most of the 
larger boats, plying between St. Louis and St. Paul reshipped 
their passengers and freight at Prescott for the St. Croix Valley. 
Several down river boats and two packets for the St. Croix left 
Stillwater daily. 

In the season of 1856 the Northern Belle was added to the 
Galena, Dunleith and Minnesota Packet Company's fleet. She 
was 226 feet in length and twenty-nine feet beam, beautifully 
furnished, and of light draught. The Dubuque and St. Paul 
Packet Company had the following steamboats in commission, 


viz.: Fanny Harris, Excelsior, Kate Cassel, Flora and Wyan- 

Owing to a good fall of snow in the winter of 1855-1856, 
there was an abundant supply of water in the Minnesota the 
next spring. The navigation season opened April 10, the stern 
wheel packet, Kenville, leaving St. Paul on that date. Eegular 
trips were made this year by several boats to Fort Kidgely and 
the Lower Sioux Agency and some ascended to the Upper Sioux 
Agency, at the mouth of the Yellow Medicine River. The 
Time and Tide was a new boat on the river this year, commanded 
by Captain Louis Robert. On a time table issued the distance 
from St. Paul to Yellow Medicine, is shown to be 446 miles. 
Often the sonorous voice of the captain of this steamboat would 
be heard, when ready to leave a landing, saying "All aboard 1 
Time and Tide waits for no man" then with a sly twinkle in hi& 
eye resume "And only a few moments for a woman." 

The total trips recorded in 1856 on the Minnesota River 
is 207; and the number of arrivals at St. Paul from all points 
everywhere was 759. 

In 1857 navigation opened May 1, the latest date ever 
known up to this time. The first arrival from the down river 
ports was the Galena, on May 4, however, there were eighteen 
steamboats at St. Paul, and a few days afterwards twenty-four, 
the largest number ever seen at one time at the levee. There 
was great activity in steamboating, and the Galena, Dunleith and 
Minnesota Packet Company, realizing that more new boats would 
be necessary to control the trade, had contracted, in the fall of 
1856, for the building of the Grey Eagle, Milwaukee, and North- 
ern Light. The Dubuque and Minnesota Packet Company built 
the Itasca and Key City. These boats averaged about 240 feet 
long with a thirty-five foot beam, and a tonnage measurement of 
350 to 400 tons. No better boats were ever built for the Upper 
Mississippi trade. The appearance of these five new steamboats 
on the river (each company having supposed that it was the only 
one that would have new boats) put a damper on the outlook for 
the coming season's business; which resulted in consolidation of 
the two companies and a re-organization of the Galena Company 


under the name of the Galena, Dubuque, Dunleith and Minne- 
sota Packet Company. 

On the completion of the Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien 
railroad to Prairie du Chien, two lines of steamboats were es- 
tablished, one to connect with the railroad for >St. Paul. To 
this line the packets Milwaukee, Itasca and Ocean Wave were 
assigned; the Grey Eagle, Northern Light, Key City, War Eagle, 
Galena, City Belle, Granite State, Golden Era, Golden State,. 
Fanny Harris and the Alhambra were engaged in the Galena, 
Dubuque and Dunleith line. These boats made a double daily 
line from Galena, etc., some of them being special passenger 
and mail packets and others for freight. 

The St. Louis and St. Paul steamboat men decided to divide 
the time, with the Galena, Dubuque, Dunleith and Minnesota 
Packet Company, so as to establish a regular line to St. Paul. 
Prominent in this line were the following steamboats: Canada, 
W. L. Ewing, Denmark, Metropolitan, Minnesota Belle, Pembina, 
Northerner, Lucy May and Aunt Letty. 

The Minnesota River trade was unusually brisk this season, 
owing to a good stage of water. Two new boats entered this 
year, the Frank Steele, a side wheel packet, owned by Captain 
W. F. Davidson, and the Jeannette Robert, a large stern wheel 
packet, owned by Captain Louis Robert. The total trips made 
during the season was 292, of which the Antelope made 105. 
There were more boats on the Mississippi River above St. Louis, 
plying to and from St. Paul during this season, than any time 
before or since. Navigation closed November 14; the number 
of days was 198, the number of boats recorded for the year, 99; 
and the number of arrivals, 965. 

Navigation opened earlier in 1858 than any former season 
March 25. The whole number of boats .engaged in the trade 
was sixty-two and number of arrivals 1,090. The last boat ar- 
rived November 16, the number of days of navigation having 
been 236. 

The winter of 1857-1858 proved very mild, and the Min- 
ensota River broke up unusually early and was kept in good 
navigable condition during the season. The Freighter was the 


only new boat to engage in the trade this year. There were 
179 arrivals at Mankato from points above as well as below, the 
former, though, did not exceed twenty-five or thirty. The total 
number of trips was 394, the Antelope again heading the list 
with 201 to her credit. 

The year 1859 opened with three railroads to the Mis- 
sissippi: The Illinois Central, Milwaukee and Prairie du Chien, 
and the Milwaukee and La Crosse. The Galena, Dubuque, Dun- 
leith and Minnesota Packet Company ran a line of boats from 
the terminus of each railroad to St. Paul. The Northern Line 
Packet Company operated their line of boats from St. Louis to 
St. Paul. There was only one new boat that entered the Min- 
nesota trade this year, the Favorite, a side wheel packet of good 
size, built by Captain W. F. Davidson expressly for the trade. 

The important event in river navigation in 1859 was the at- 
tempt of Captain John B. Davis to cross his boat, the Freighter, 
from the Minnesota to Big Stone Lake and thence to the Red 
River of the North. This feat he attempted in the latter part of 
June, but found too little water on the divide and left his 
steamboat in drydock near the Dakota line, himself and crew 
returning home in a canoe. The Freighter was a small, flat- 
bottomed, square-bowed boat. The Indians pillaged her of 
everything but her hull; which for twenty or thirty years re- 
mained visible half buried in the sand of the prairie about eight 
miles below Big Stone Lake. 

In the summer of the same year, Anson Northup promoted 
by an offer of the Chamber of Commerce of St. Paul of $1,000, 
to have a boat ready to navigate the waters of the Red River of 
the North the following spring ascended the Mississippi River 
from St. Cloud to within three miles of Pokegama Falls. The 
boat selected for the enterprise was the North Star of 100 feet 
length, twenty wide and of light draught. In the fall of the 
year it was laid up at the mouth of the Crow Wing River. The 
boat was then taken to pieces and removed by thirty-four teams 
and sixty men overland to Lafayette on the Red River of the 
North, a distance of 156 miles, where it was reconstructed and 
launched and taken to Fort Garry, now Winnipeg, Manitoba, and 


sold to J. C. Burbank. Its name was changed to the Anson 
Northup; it was the first steamer to navigate the waters of 
the Red River of the North. It was commanded that year by 
Captain Edwin Bell. His description in Vol. X of the Min- 
nesota Historical Socety Collections, of the first steamboat trip 
on the Red River of the North is graphic and entertaining. It 
had on board two families, the first pioneer families coming 
through the United States to Fort Garry, all others had prev- 
iously come by way of Hudson's Bay. Boulders in the river had 
to be removed, also a dam was built on account of low water, 
and the crew and passengers were threatened with starvation, 
owing to the length of time consumed in the passage which 
caused a scarcity of provisions. The boat finally reached Fort 
Garry, which at this time consisted of only three houses, and was 
laid up for the winter. Captain Bell and the crew returned by 
ox train to St. Paul. 

In the year 1860 commenced the decline of steamboat 
traffic on the Mississippi. The Milwaukee and La Crosse rail- 
road had passed into the hands of a receiver, and those in con- 
trol having been refused an interest in the Galena, Dubuque, 
Dunleith and Minnesota Packet Company, with which line the 
railroad company had a contract for passengers and freight for 
the Upper Mississippi ports, overtures were made to Captain 
W. F. Davidson, who organized the La Crosse and Minnesota 
Packet Company with five steamboats in commission and the 
passengers and freight were transferred to this line. This led 
to bringing an action in the courts by the Galena, Dubuque, Dun- 
leith and Minnesota Packet Company for the restoration of the 
contract/ and a rate war resulted. Passage from points above 
La Crosse to Milwaukee and Chicago was reduced to $3.50 and 
the rate for grain to four cents a bushel, while all freight from 
Milwaukee and Chicago to points above La Crosse was carried 
free on the Packet Company's boats. The fare was soon made 
one dollar. This made the stockholders and bondholders call 
upon the court to inquire into the management of the road, 
with the result that the business was restored to the Packet Com- 


..' s. 

.A i 


The Hawkeye State and the Sucker State were new boats 
this season in the Northern Line Company's steamers from St. 
Louis to St. Paul, and though they were the best class of steam- 
boats ever ran in the trade of the upper river, yet owing to the 
demoralization caused by the men in charge of the Milwaukee 
and La Crosse railroad, the season was unprofitable. 

The navigation on the Minnesota in 1860, owing to the 
low water, was mostly confined to the little Antelope, in her trips 
to Shakopee and Chaska. Of 250 arrivals at St. Paul she had 
to her credit 198. The new boat Albany, of very light draught, 
also the Eolian, which had been raised from the bottom of Lake 
Pepin, where she had lain since the spring of 1858, and the 
Little Dorrit were put into the trade instead of the Frank Steele, 
the Time and Tide and the Favorite, which came up as far as 
St. Peter for a trip or two. The Jeannette Robert managed to 
get up as far as Mankato a few times, and during a small 
freshet in July, made one trip to the Sioux Agency. 

The years 1861-1862 saw many changes in the personnel of 
the old Galena and Minnesota Packet Company. Captain D. S. 
Harrisj having sunk the Grey Eagle at the Rock Island Bridge, 
on May 9, 1861, the steamer and cargo being a total loss, dis- 
posed of his stock. J. R. Jones and Henry - Corwith removed 
to Chicago and Captain Russell Blakeley, having become interested 
in Red River of the North transportation, removed to St. Paul, 
this found in the spring of 1862 B. M. Campbell and Nathan 
Corwith as the principal owners of the company. They, in 
coalition with Captain W. F. Davidson, organized a new com- 
pany in which the Galena and Minnesota Packet Company owned 
one half of the stock. They forthwith disposed of the stock 
and Captain Davidson became the owner of all the steamboats of 
the old line. This led, owing to the construction of ralroads, to 
a consolidation, in 1864, of the La Crosse and Minnesota Packet 
Company by which name the new company was known, with the 
Northern Line and the St. Louis and Keokuk Packet under the 
name of the Northwestern Union Packet Company. This gave 
Captain Davidson the controlling interest in all the business on 
the river above St. Louis, and this line controlled the general 


trade until 1874. Then a large number of the stockholders of 
the Northwestern Union Packet Company becoming dissatis- 
fied with the management, applied to the courts for a receiver. 
This compelled Captain Davidson to fight for his property. This 
took so long that the boats and barges were worn out before he 
again got possession. This, with the cost of litigation, ruined 
the business. Captain Davidson's health was broken, and the 
remnants of what had been a grand industry, building up the 
commerce of the Northwest, was destroyed. 

The remnants of the Northwestern Union Packet Company, 
familiarly known as the "White Collar Line" from the white 
band painted around the upper part of the smokestacks, and 
the Keokuk Packet Company, which continued until 1882, when 
the St. Louis and St. Paul Packet Company was organized. This 
Company was in successful operation in 1888 employing three 
steamboats. Their only competitor was the Diamond Jo line 
established in 1867, under the supervision of Jo Reynolds whose 
fleet of six steamboats had been reduced to three. There are 
now but few transient boats on the river. At the present day 
(1907) the steamboat whistle is only heard at St. Paul, to an- 
nounce the arrival or departure of a moonlight excursion, or a 
steamer that plies between St. Paul and nearby river points; and 
the Diamond Jo line running a weekly boat between St. Paul 
and St. Louis. 

The steamboat traffic on the Minnesota opened in 1861 with 
a big flood. The river was the highest it had been since 1821. 
In April, the Jeannette Robert ascended farther up the river by 
two miles, than any steamboat had ever done before, and might 
have easily accomplished what the Freighter attempted and failed 
to do in 1859. The Minnesota Packet Company put two first 
class boats, the City Belle and Fanny Harris, into the river to 
compete with the Davidson and Robert lines. From this time 
there was a gradual reduction in river traffic. In 1866 the St. 
Paul and Sioux City railroad reached Belle Plaine, and connec- 
tions were there made with boats for points higher up the river. 
In October, 1868, Mankato was reached, and in 1871 the North- 
western railway reached New Ulm, which practically ended the 
navigation of the Minnesota river. 


The Osceola, a small boat, ascended the Minnesota as far as 
Redwood once in 1872, twice in 1873 and once in 1874, the water 
having been low and navigation difficult. In 1876, owing to 
high water in the spring, the Ida Fulton, and Wyman X came 
up the river; and ten years later one trip was made by the Al- 
vira. For another ten years no steamboat was seen on the Min- 
nesota, until taking advantage of a freshet in April, 1897, Cap- 
tain E. W. Durant of Stillwater ran his boat, the Henrietta, a 
stern-wheel vessel 170 feet long with forty state-rooms, on an 
excursion to Henderson, St. Peter and Mankato. 


The earliest sailing vessel on Lake Superior of which there 
is any record, was the schooner Algonquin, which became known 
to the people at the head of the lake about 1855, having been 
brought from the lower lakes across the portage at Sault Ste. 
Marie. She sailed on Lake Superior for a number of years and 
was destroyed by a fire at Superior in the fall of 1858. The 
next boat owned at the head of the lake, was a small propeller, 
the Seneca, that ran across the bays between Buluth and Super- 
ior, and to Fond du Lac as late as 1861. These were followed 
by other schooners, excursion and ferry boats. The early steam- 
boats plying on Lake Superior, as far as the head of the lake, 
before the completion of the Sault Ste. Marie canal, were the 
side- wheel steamers Indiapoline, Sam Weed and Baltimore, later 
the schooner-rigged propeller Independence, the propellers Na- 
poleon and Manhattan. Then after the Sault canal was opened, 
regular trips from Chicago and other lower lake ports to Super- 
ior were made during seasons of navigation. Contrast this with 
1896, when the official total of vessels passing through the "Soo" 
canal was 18,615 with a registered tonnage of 17,000,000. More 
than 8,820 of these vessels were for Minnesota ports. Every year 
the trade expands. In July, 1888, appeared the first of that 
remarkable class of vessels known as the "whalebacks." In 1893 
appeared the enormous steel steamship, the "Northwest," which 
with her sister ship, the "Northland," launched the following 


year, run during the season regular trips between Buffalo and 
Duluth in competition with the Eed Anchor line, established over 
thirty years, owned by the Pennsylvania Eailroad System, whose 
new boats, the Tienestia and the Juniata are models of elegance 
and appointments. 

The growth of the lake trade is simply unparalled in the his- 
tory of transportation. The big "400 footers" can carry the pro- 
ducts of a hundred farms. The steam monsters of the Bessemer 
Steamship Company have a capacity of 7,000 gross or long tons. 
The head of inland navigation starts with Minnesota. Among 
the components of its volume, ore stands first, grain second, lum- 
ber third, and then comes general merchandise. 

In the seven months season of 1907, Duluth led all lake 
ports in tonnage of freight in incoming vessels. In the bureau 
of statistics reports, Duluth is credited with total arrivals of 
1,503 vessels, representing a tonnage of 3,856,004. The port 
next in order was Chicago with 3,721 vessels and a tonnage of 
3,675,853. Milwaukee reported 2,763 vessels of 3,642,328 tons. 
The fourth in order was Buffalo with 1,143 vessels, representing 
a tonnage of 2,914,007. Superior with 1,179 vessels of 2,903,- 
188 tons; and Cleveland with 1,800 vessels of 2,882,581 tons are 
the only other ports, whose arrivals aggregate more than 2,000,000 
tons during the season stated. 

There has been, at different times, agitation to connect the 
waters of Lake Superior with the Mississippi Eiver by construct- 
ing a canal from Taylor's Falls to Duluth, using the Upper St. 
Croix and the St. Louis Eivers as far as the same can be made 
navigable. Congress has been memorialized, the States of the 
Northwest have been importuned to unite and build at their own 
expense, this canal free from tolls or charges, and to remain a 
public highway connecting the waters of Lake Superior with the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

Governor L. P. Hubbard, in 1885, called a Waterways Con- 
vention to meet at St. Paul. This convention was attended by 
a thousand delegates, principally from States bordering on the 
Mississippi Eiver, Florida, Kansas, Nebraska and" the Territories 
of Dakota and Montana. Various schemes of internal improve- 


merits were introduced, but each was in the interests of the particu- 
lar section the delegate represented. Though resolutions were 
adopted asking Congress to lend aid and assistance to these va- 
rious projects but little was ever accomplished. 

Chapter XXV. 

THE advent of railways is one of the heralds of advancing 
civilization. Speedy transit, bringing the utmost limits 
in touch with the common center, tends to the concen- 
tration of thought which develops commerce, wealth and intel- 
ligence to their highest excellence. At the time of the organiza- 
tion of Minnesota as a Territory; there were over 7,000 miles 
of railroads in operation in the United States. It was not, how- 
ever, until three years later that there was a continuous rail 
route connecting Chicago with the markets of the East. 

It is a difficult matter to establish, the date of the first 
agitation of the subject of railroad building within the boundar- 
ies of the State. In 1847, according to General James H. Baker's 
''History of Transportation in Minnesota," Historical Collec- 
tions Volume IX, p. 24, Professor Increase A. Lapham, then 
a noted Wisconsin civil engineer, outlined a plan of two rail- 
roads, one from Lake Superior, the other from St. Paul, which 
were to meet on the Eed River of the North, below where Fergus 
Falls, now is; he made a map and carefully studied the coun- 
try. James M. Goodhue, the first editor in the Territory in 1850, 
in an editorial entitled "A short Route to Oregon and Califor- 
nia," gave a prophetic vision of the Northern Pacific Railway. 

There were many railroad companies chartered by the 
Territorial Legislature. The first bill, however, to incorporate 
a railroad corporation was introduced by J. W. Selby, then a farmer, 
residing in St. Paul, and afterwards prominent in that city's in- 
terests and affairs. In the Legislature of 1852 (of which he was 



a member) Mr. Selby introduced a bill to incorporate the Lake 
Superior and Mississippi River Railroad Company. This bill pas- 
sed the House, but was defeated in the Council. The Legisla- 
ture, however, memorialized Congress to provide for a survey 
and location of a line of railroad from St. Paul to Milwaukee, 
asking that a liberal donation of public lands be granted the 
corporation undertaking the project. 

Governor Ramsey, in his message to the Legislature in 
1853, states that a railroad of 100 miles, of easy and cheap con- 
struction would connect the navigable waters of the Mississippi 
River, with the Red River of the North, and another 100 miles 
connect the Mississippi with Lake Superior. He further said 
that a railroad, the Louisiana and Minnesota was already in con- 
templation, which would unite the waters of the Gulf of Mexico 
and the Atlantic Ocean with Minnesota; and that a railroad was 
also projected from St. Paul to Green Bay, Wisconsin, which 
would bring Minnesota within ten hours travel of Lake Michigan. 
He advocated that Government help should be extended to those 
projected roads, especially to the Louisiana and Minnesota rail- 

A bill, for the incorporation of the Mississippi and Lake 
Superior Railroad Company, was presented in the Council of 1853 
by George W. Farrington, of St. Paul. The road was to run 
from some convenient point in the town of St. Paul, to some con- 
venient point at or near the Falls of the St. Louis River. The 
capital stock was $3,000,000, and could be increased to $5,000,000. 
The bill was approved by the Governor, March 5, 1853. 

This was essentially a wild cat Legislature. Every promi- 
nent citizen of the Territory appears as an incorporator in some 
corporation. It was a self-evident fact that the day would 
come when Minnesota would be traversed by railroad lines, and 
the disposition of her citizens seemed to be to secure a fran- 
chise that some time in the future would be worth a mone- 
tary consideration to capitalists, who would have financial ability 
to carry the project to a successful termination. 

The most ambitious effort of the Legislature of 1853, was 
the incorporation of the Lake Superior, Puget Sound and Paci- 


fie Eailroad Company with a capital of $50,000,000. Its 
starting point was to be at the head of Lake Superior and its 
terminus some point on the Pacific Ocean, that the corporation 
should find most available. Amongst its incorporators are the 
names of Abbot Lawrence, of Boston; Moses H. Grinnell and 
Simeon Draper, of New York; Julius White of Chicago; Charles 

C. Trowbridge, of Detroit; Levi Blossom of Milwaukee; James 

D. Doty of Menasha, and others. 

The Minnesota and Western Eailroad Company, another 
ambitious project, was also incorporated; it also had franchises 
from Illinois and Wisconsin, and its plan was to build a road 
from Chicago to the Pacific by way of Janesville and St. Paul 
to the Columbia Eiver. The incorporators claimed, in 1853 
to have the road under contract for building to Janesville, and 
it was soon to be surveyed to St. Paul. Its capitalization was 
$2,000,000 and according to its incorporation act in Minnesota; 
it was run from some point on Lake St. Croix or the St. Croix 
Eiver to the towns of St. Paul and St. Anthony, thence across 
the Mississippi Eiver, by the most feasible route to the western 
boundary of the Territory, with a branch to a point to be se- 
lected on the Eed Eiver of the North, and another to the St. 
Louis Eiver. This company was to have six years in which 
to complete the line from St. Croix Lake or St. Croix Eiver 
to St. Paul. The act was amended by several Legislatures, un- 
til 1871 when the name was changed to the Minneapolis and 
St. Louis. 

The Louisiana and Minnesota Eailroad Company was also 
incorporated with a capital stock of $4,000,000, with the privilege 
of increasing to $5,000*,000. The starting point was the town 
of St. Paul, and the line was then to proceed to the northern 
boundary line of Iowa, there to connect with projected roads 
in that State. The St. Paul and St. Anthony Company, with a 
capital of $400,000, was to construct a road from St. Paul to 
St. Anthony. It is needless to say, that there was not a foot of 
rail laid by any of these ambitious projects. 

In the Legislature of 1854, the indefatigable Joseph E. 
Brown introduced a bill to incorporate, the Minnesota and 


Northwestern Railroad Company. It was passed at midnight on 
the last day of the session, and contrary to expectation Governor 
Gorman signed it. The route designated was from some point 
on Lake Superior, by way of St. Paul to the Iowa line in the 
direction of Dubuque. 

June 29, 1854, Congress passed an act to aid the Territory 
of Minnesota in the construction of a railroad, from the 
southern line of said Territory commencing at a point between 
townships range 9 and 17 ; thence by the way of St. Paul, by the 
most practical route to the eastern line of said Territory in the 
direction of Lake Superior. The act granted every alternate 
section of land six sections in width designated by odd num- 
bers on both sides of said road. 

As will be seen, the proposed route of the Minnesota 
and Northwestern Railroad Company was identical with that 
mentioned in the land grant. It was well known to several mem- 
bers of the National House of Representatives, that extraordi- 
nary privileges had been granted to that company by the Ter- 
ritorial Legislature, and to avoid the grant inuring to any 
special company the following proviso was inserted: 

"And be it further enacted; That the said lands hereby 
granted to the said Territory, shall be subject to the disposal of 

any future Legislature, thereof for the purposes aforesaid and 
no other. Nor shall they inure to the benefit of any company 
hereafter to be instituted or organized." 

It was on July 24, 1854, that Elihu B. Washburne, of Il- 
linois rose to a question of privilege. He said the House on 
June 29, had passed a bill granting lands to Minnesota to 
aid in the construction of a railroad ; ' that a material altera- 
tion had been made in that bill since its engrossment. Min- 
nesota had chartered a company with most extraordinary powers, 

granting it all the lands which had been or should thereafter be 
granted by Congress, to aid that Territory in the construction 

of a railroad. 

The House, to avoid the unfair provision of the Territorial 

charter in giving all the lands for a particular road, had added 

a proviso; that said lands shall be subject to a disposition of any 


future legislation, for the purpose aforesaid and had added this 
provision with regard to their disposition. "Nor shall they in- 
ure to the benefit of any company hereafter to be constituted 
or organized." 

This was the framing of the bill, so as to prevent the company 
then incorporated from receiving the benefit of the grant. The 
first alteration was striking out the word "future" in regard to the 
disposition of the lands by a Legislature, which change he be- 
lieved was made by the committee. The second alteration was 
made, he charged, after the bill was engrossed, the word "and" 
was substituted for "or" so that the restriction read "constituted 
and organized company." This company, he claimed, being 
constituted "and" organized expected to hold these lands under 
the bill and hence the object of the change. 

Eepresentative Stevens, of Michigan, a member of the Com- 
mittee on Public Lands, arose and made a personal statement. 
The Minnesota Land Bill, when it was sent to the committee, 
was referred to him for his individual action. The word "future" 
had been struck out while in his hands and the alteration of the 
word "or" to "and," he thought proper should be made and he 
supposed it had been made. The bill passed the House, and 
while in the Senate his attention was called to the fact, that the 
alteration had not been made and on consultation with John W. 
Forney, then clerk of the House of Eepresentatives, and Senator 
Patton, who had charge of the bill in the Senate, the alteration 
was made. The bill was, however, repealed and a resolution 
was offered expelling Colonel Forney, was lost by a large 

The Minnesota and Northwestern Bailroad Company con- 
tended, they had complied with the provisions of the Congres- 
sional act and Congress had no right to repeal the bill. To 
make a test case, suit was brought by the United States Govern- 
ment in the United States District Court against the Eailroad 
Company, for the value of five hundred trees that had been cut 
by them from the grant. The case was decided in favor of the 


The act provided that any lands granted to aid in the con- 
struction of a railroad between the points named, should be and 
thereby granted to said company in fee simple, without further 
act or deed. The Governor of the Territory was directed to 
execute and deliver conveyances of land granted, whenever the 
railroad' company certified to the construction of twenty miles 
of road. No such provision ever appeared in later grants. 

An appeal was taken to the United States Supreme Court, 
and in December, 1861, the action of Congress was sustained 
upon the ground; that the granting act provided that no title 
to granted lands should vest in the Territory, until the continu- 
ous length of twenty miles of road had been completed, and as 
no title had passed to the Territory nor any road been built at 
the time of the forfeiture, Congress was competent to repeal 
the act. 

Governor Gorman in his message in 1855 stated, that there 
was opposition to the act of the preceding Legislature endowing 
the Minnesota and Northwestern Railroad Company; "with pow- 
ers most extraordinary and dangerous to the future welfare and 
security of the people." The charter requirements to deposit 
$150,000 in the Territorial treasury, as evidences of good faith 
had not been complied with by the incorporatofs. In fact the 
opposition to the company even extended to Congress. The 
House of Representatives, by a resolution declared the charter 
of the company null and void; but the Senate failed to approve 
of this action. The failure to annul the charter was the cause 
of great rejoicings by the friends of the railroad company at St. 
Paul. An act to amend the incorporation of the Minnesota and 
Northwestern Railroad Company having passed the Legislature 
was vetoed by Governor Gorman, but was re-passed by a two- 
thirds vote, thereby becoming a law. 

At the next session of the Legislature in 1856, the momen- 
tous question was still the Minnesota and Northwestern Railroad 
Company, which came before that body with a petition for an 
extension of time to complete their contracts. On the last night 
of the session the request was granted, and much to the surprise 
of the public was approved by the Governor. In his message an- 


nouncing his approval he said that though the bill was satis- 
factory as far as the resulting interest was concerned, yet there 
were not such guards as in his judgment should be thrown 
around so important an interest as was involved in the com- 
pany's charter. He stated that in conjunction with others, he 
had succeeded in procuring a tax of two per cent upon the gross 
proceeds, receipts, and income of the road, which, if the road 
was ever built, would be an important event to tax payers. If, 
on the other hand, the company did not construct the road, 
nothing can be -lost to the people. He confessed he has no con- 
fidence in the incorporates' assurances that they will build the 
road, nor did the ends resorted to by them meet with his ap- 

The Legislature of 1855, incorporated the Minneapolis ano? 
St. Cloud Kailroad Company, to build & railroad from Minne- 
apolis to St. Cloud, also a main line by the way of Mille Lacs 
from St. Paul in the direction of Lake Superior. It is upon 
this charter, which has been kept alive by various Territorial and 
State Legislative acts, that the Great Northern now operates in 

There were not less than twenty-seven railroad companies 
authorized and chartered by the Legislature from 1853 to 1857, 
but there was no life in any of them. On March 3, 1857, Con- 
gress granted to the Territory, lands amounting to 4,500,000 
acres for the construction of a system of railways. This Gov- 
ernment grant only stimulated the promoters and speculators of 
visionary lines of railway. Minnesota was at this time, like her 
sister States that had preceded her to pass through, in the de- 
velopment of her internal improvements, a chaos of broken prom- 
ises, contracts and pledges. 

The rumors and news of railroad building in the East fre- 
quently appeared in the public press. The Mirmesotian, in De- 
cember, 1853, had just heard of "sleeping cars in which one may 
rest as comfortably as anywhere," and still there was not a yard 
of railroad within two hundred miles of Minnesota. The Chi- 
cago and Rock Island railroad was finished to the Mississippi 
Eiver in the spring of 1854. In the fall of 1857 the Milwaukee 


and Prairie du Chien railroad was completed, and in the spring 
of the following year the La Crosse and Milwaukee reached La 

This advance of the iron horse, naturally stimulated the de- 
sire on the part of the Legislature, to advance railroad building 
within the Territorial boundaries. The magnificent grant of 
Congressional lands caused the Governor in 1857, to call an 
extra session of the Legislature, as many railroads corporations 
had been organized to build roads and desired large grants of 
land to help in their construction. . 

An act was approved May 22, 1857, creating four railroad 
corporations, and granting to them alternate sections designated 
by odd numbers, six miles in width on each side of the roads and 
their branches. 

These four railroad corporations, viz. The Minnesota and 
Pacific, the Transit, the Eoot Valley and Southern Minnesota 
and the Minneapolis and Cedar Valley, became known as the 
Land Grant Railroad Companies. They were to pay three per 
cent of their gross earnings in lieu of all taxes and assess- 
ments, and the lands granted by Congress were to be exempt 
from all taxation until sold and conveyanced by, the companies. 
The corporations were generally given ten years to construct their 
respective roads. 

The Transit Railroad Company had been first chartered 
March 3, 1855, with a capital of $5,000,000, and the route 
designated for it by the act of May 22, 1857, was from Winona 
via St. Peter to a feasible point on the Big Sioux River, south 
of the forty-fifth parallel of north latitude, also from this 
terminus to any point on the Missouri River south of the same 
parallel of latitude. 

The Root River Valley and Southern Minnesota Railroad 
Company was originally chartered March 2, 1855, with a capi- 
tal stock of $5,000,000. By the original act, it was to be con- 
structed from the village of Hokah westward by the most feasi- 
ble route to some point between the southern line of the 
Territory, and a point between township line 110 and 111, 
crossing the Minnesota River: Thence westward to the most fea- 


Bible route to the Great Bend of the Missouri River. With 
privileges of branches from Hokah, via Target Lake to Eagle 
Bluff; alo another from Hokah to Brownsville and a third from 
some point on the main line east of range twelve west of 
Mower, Freeborn, and Faribault to the west line of the Terri- 
tory. Under the new act the starting point was made La 
Crescent instead of Hokah, thence by Target Lake up the valley 
of the Boot River to Rochester to a point of junction with the 
Transit Railroad. It was also authorized to construct a railroad 
from St. Paul and St. Anthony, via Minneapolis to Shakopee, 
thence via Belle Plain, Le Sueur, Traverse des Sioux, St. Pe- 
ter, Kasota, Mankato, and South Bend, to the southern boundary 
of the Territory in the direction of the Big Sioux River; also 
build its Brownsville branch from Hokah. By an act of the 
Legislature in 1857, the name of this road was changed to the 
Southern Minnesota Railroad Company. 

The Minneapolis and Cedar Valley Railroad Company was 
incorporated March 1, 1856, with a capital stock of $3,000,000, to 
construct a railroad from Minneapolis, to a point of junction 
with the Root River Valley and Southern Minnesota Railroad 
in Dakota County, from one to six miles from Mendota, and 
thence in a southerly direction via Faribault, through the valley 
of the Straight River to the southern boundary line of the Ter- 
ritory. They were also to have the right to build at any time 
a line from the Mendota Junction to St. Paul; also a like 
road to Hastings. 

The Minnesota and Pacific Railroad Company was to con- 
struct a railroad from Stillwater by the way of St. Paul, St. 
Anthony and Minneapolis, to the town of Breckenridge, on the 
Sioux Wood River; with a branch from St. Anthony to St. 
Cloud, via Crow Wing, to St. Vincent, near the mouth of the 
Pembina River. 

This company was also empowered to locate, construct and 
operate a railroad from Winona up the valley of the Mississippi 
to St. Paul, and to extend its line of railroad from its terminal 
point between Big Stone Lake and the mouth of the Sioux Wood 
River, to any point on the Missouri River north of the fifty-fifth 



parallel of north latitude. The company was organized under 
special act of the Legislature, approved May 22, 1857. Its 
capital stock was fixed at $5,000,000; but it had the power to 
increase it, to cover the full cost of its extension; it was not, 
however, to consolidate with any railroad company owned or 
operated outside of the State, without the consent of the Leg- 

The financial embarrassments of 1857 retarded the progress 
of railroad building; and it also became evident that the parties 
who had obtained the railway charters mentioned, had neither 
the money or credit to complete these great highways of internal 
improvements. The Legislature, in the winter of 1858, listening 
to the demands of necessity and the siren voices of the railroad 
corporations, submitted an amendment of the Constitution to 
the people providing that the public credit be granted to the 
railroad companies to the amount of $5,000,000. This occas- 
ioned much uneasiness among the most prudent of the citizens 
of the State; and though public meetings were held denouncing 
the measure, it was, however, on the appointed day of a special 
election, April 15, 1858, carried by a large majority, there being 
25,023 in favor, to- 6,733 against the amendment. The measure 
afterward became known as the Five Million Loan Bill. 

The State bonds were of $1,000 denomination, had twenty- 
five years to run with interest at seven per cent, the railroad com- 
panies to pay the interest, and were to be delivered to the in- 
corporators of the companies, when ten miles of the road was 
graded and ready for the superstructure. Governor Sibley being 
called upon by the incorporates for the issuance of the State 
bonds, refused to issue and deliver them unless the companies 
would give first mortgage bonds, with priority of lien upon 
their lands, roads, and franchises in favor of the State. 

The Minnesota and Pacific Railroad Company thereupon ap- 
plied to the Supreme Court, for a mandamus to compel the Gov- 
ernor to issue the State's bonds. A majority of the court de- 
cided the Governor's ruling was erroneous, and that the State had 
placed herself by her own act, on a footing with the other holders 
of first mortgage bonds and could claim no exclusive priority. 


The majority of the Court held to this opinion, but Judge 
Mandrau, vigorously dissented. The Governor, though he 
doubted the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in the case, issued 
the State bonds to the railroad corporations. The Governor was 
then, and subsequently severely criticized for yielding the execu- 
tive authority to another branch of the State Government. 

The promoters and contractors having received money help 
in addition to their land grants, began throwing dirt, completing 
the superstructure; but not an effort was made to lay a foot of 
iron rail or bridge any of the watercourses; consequently, in a 
very short space of time, there were hillocks of dirt scattered 
along the line of the railways, not, however, being always con- 
tinuous, tod the people waited in vain for the solution of the 
rapid transit queston. 

There were issued of these State bonds to the Minnesota and 
Pacific Eailroad Company $600,000, to the Minneapolis and 
Cedar Valley Eailroad Company $600,000, to the Transit Kail- 
road Company $500,000, and to the Southern Eailroad Company 
$575,000; a total of $2,275,000. The Minnesota and Pacific 
Kailroad Company graded ready for superstructure, 62 miles, 
3,213 feet of roadbed; the Transit Kailroad Company 50 miles; 
the Minneapolis and Cedar Valley Company 69^ miles; the 
Southern Minnesota on it main line up the Minnesota Eiver 37% 
miles on its Eoot Eiver branch 20 miles and 1,004 feet. 

On account of the financial depression of the times which 
made it impossible for the incorporators to dispose of these bonds 
to good advantage, also the general financial distress and depre- 
ciation of commerce and business, and the scant and widely 
scattered population of the State, which would materially lessen 
the traffic revenues of the railroads, the companies failed to 
pay the interest on the bonds and work upon all lines was sus- 
pended. The incorporators were not wholly to blame for this 
turn of affairs. The issuance of the bonds had led to a political 
controversy, which in turn led to violent agitation. Public meet- 
ings were held denouncing the bonds, and newspapers insisting 
they should not be paid were mailed to the financial centers of 
the country. 



The disagreement between the Executive of the State and 
the railroad incorporators in regard to the issuance of the State 
bonds, was the first blow to their market value. The State bonds, 
under the original construction, were eagerly sought for at par; 
after the decision of the Supreme Court, they were regarded with 
suspicion. Governor Sibley, to aid the railroad companies to 
negotiate the bonds, personally visited New York City, spend- 
ing several weeks, but owing partially to the mischevious efforts, 
as he stated, of a portion of the citizens of the State, through 
the instrumentality of the press and private letters, every at- 
tempt to negotiate the bonds was defeated. 

The consequence was that the railroad incorporators, who 
had exhausted their individual means, were unable to find a 
market for the. bonds. The act of the Legislature granting the 
financial aid to the railroad companies was also loosely drawn, 
and the interests of the people were not sufficiently protected. 
The issuance of the bonds instead of being made on the con- 
struction of the superstructure, should have been made on the 
completion and operation of certain miles of the road. The 
people were eager for the railroads, therefore the conditions pre- 
scribed by the Legislature were lenient and liberal, in order to 
comply with the popular clamor and demands/ 

On the assembling of the Legislature of 1860, the inter- 
est on the State bonds having been defaulted, an amendment 
to the constitution was adopted and submitted to the people ex- 
punging the section sanctioned and approved by them, April, 
15, 1858, reserving only the State's rights. The electors of the 
State, at the general election on November 6, 1860, with unani- 
mity by a vote of 27,023 to 733 approved of the amendment. 
The first era in the history of railroad building in Minnesota 
was closed by the State's enforcing its liens and becoming the 
owner of all franchises lands and roadbeds of the defunct com- 
panies. Railroad matters lay dormant for nearly two years when 
the second advent of internal improvements commenced by 
the State making new grants of the old franchises and lands to 
other corporations. 

Chapter XXVI. 



THE first company to get the benefit of the new enact- 
ment were parties who had been interested in the Min- 
nesota and Pacific Railroad Company, which re-appeared 
tinder the name of the St. Paul and Pacific Eailroad Company. 
Among the incorporators were Edmund Rice, E. R. Nelson, E. 
A. C. Hatch, J. E. Thompson, and William Lee. In the act 
incorporating the company, there was a proviso made by the 
State, that certain portions of the road should be completed by 
specified dates. 

The incorporators, on March 11, 1862, entered into a con- 
tract with Elias F. Drake, Valentine Winters and another gentle- 
man, citizens of Ohio, to construct the first section of the road 
from St. Paul to St. Anthony. This contract which amounted 
to $120,000 in gold bonds, bearing eight percent interest, and 
titles to land aggregating 76,800 acres, under its provision, in- 
cluded not only the completing of the grade, the laying of the 
track, but the equipment which was to consist of two locomotives, 
several freight and passengers cars. 

It was on June 22, 1862, that the first locomotive in Min- 
nesota with a train of cars left St. Paul for St. Anthony. The 
locomotives were of twenty-five tons, wood burners, and named 
William Crooks in honor of the first chief engineer of the road, 
and Edmund Rice the first president. In the summer of 1862, 



Mr. Rice visited London, England, for the purpose of negotiat- 
ing bonds for the new railroad corporation. His visit to the 
money mart of the world was at a most inopportune time. Ameri- 
can securities were a drug in the market, the Nation was in the 
throes of a Civil War, and there were many pronounced enemies 
of the North in England at this time. With the zeal and 
courage of a Northwestern pioneer, these difficulties were over- 
come by Mr. Rice; he returned to Minnesota with English 
gold and credit to prosecute the railroad building of his adopted 

Slowly but steadily the St. Paul and Pacific Company laid 
its rails to the Red River of the North. In 1864 the road was 
completed to Elk River, thirty-four miles from St. Paul. In 
that year the railroad corporation was divided into two com- 
panies. The line from St. Paul to Breckenridge called the 
"First Division" was under the presidency of George L. Becker, 
the other portions of the road, which included the proposed 
lines from St. Cloud to St. Vincent and from St. Paul to Wi- 
nona, remained under the presidency of Edmund Rice. In 
1866 a branch line was completed to St. Cloud seventy-four 
miles from St. Paul. On the main line in 1867 the road was 
completed, to Wayzota, twenty-five miles, in 1869 to Will- 
mar, one hundred four miles; in 1870 to Benson one hundred 
thirty-four miles; and in October, 1871, to Breckenridge on the 
Red River of the North, two hundred seventeen miles from 
St. Paul. 

In the meantime, the original charter of the Minnesota and 
Pacific Railroad Company authorized a line from St. Paul to 
Winona. On March 6, 1863, a grant of swamp lands was made 
to it by the State. The city of St. Paul, subsequently gave a 
bonus of $50,000, the first in the State. Active operations were 
commenced to build the road in 1864, Edmund Rice again visit- 
ing London for English capital, also Washington for enlarge- 
ment of the land grants, and was successful in both under- 

In 1867, the directors of the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad 
Company resolved to call the road from St. Paul to Winona, the 


St. Paul and Chicago Eailroad Company. It construction pro- 
gressed steadily until in 1872, when it was completed to La Cres- 
cent; and through eastern trains commenced running to Winona 
in September of that year. Thus, we see that the Eed Eiver of 
the North, was at last in direct communication by a continuous 
rail route with Chicago, and the Eastern marts of trade; the 
markets of the world were open to the Garden of Minnesota. 

After the formation of the First Division Company, the 
St. Paul and Pacific Eailway suspended any extension of its lines 
until 1869, when it resumed the work of location. In 1872, the lines 
from Sauk Eapids to Brainerd and from St. Cloud and St. 
Vincent were put under construction, the latter being completed 
from St. Cloud to Melrose, thirty-five and from Crookston to 
Glyndon, eighty-four miles. The St. Cloud and St. Vincent branch 
was leased to the First Division for ninety-nine years, and thus 
virtually again became one organization. 

At the time of this prosperity occurred the financial panic 
of 1873, and the St. Paul and Pacific Eailroad Company be- 
came involved in a difficulty with its bondholders. The court 
appointed Jessie P. Farley, of Dubuque, Iowa, receiver for its 
unfinished lines. This receivership continued six years, when, 
by a change of scene, there was to appear a figure that has had 
more influence with the railroad transportation of the State 
than any other person. Away back when Minnesota was a 
Territory, sometime during the year 1856, there came, from a 
hamlet in Canada, to St. Paul a young man seeking his for- 
tune. He was at this time about eighteen years of age, he had 
left his Canadian home for the reason that agricultural affairs 
were at a low ebb, and he saw in the future no chance for an 
advancement of his prospects. He was naturally attracted to 
Minnesota on account of the similarity of its climate to his 
birthplace; therefore did not fear the rigors of its winters, or 
the prospect of privations to be met and overcome. This was 
the entrance, one bright day in the summer of 1856, of James 
J. Hill into the history of Minnesota. It is not within the 
scope of this work to detail the early struggles of the future 
railroad king of the Northwest; he simply met them with the 


firmness of purpose and determination to win success, which was 
and always has been a predominate trait in his character. His 
connection with the St. Paul and Pacific Railway commenced in 
1865, when he was employed as local agent at St. Paul. After 
the road became bankrupt, he attempted for several years to or- 
ganize a company to take it out of the hands of the receiver. 
But to his optimistic views of the Northwest kis St. Paul friends 
would not listen; finally he turned his attention to his native 
land, and whether he was endowed with Aladdin's wonderful 
lamp, or whether it was his personal magnetism, he succeeded 
in 1879 in forming a syndicate consisting of himself, George 
Stephens, (afterwards Lord Mount Stephens) Donald Smith 
(afterwards Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal) and his old as- 
sociate in the Red River Transportation Company, Norman W. 

The bonds outstanding of the two divisions of the St. 
Paul and Pacific Railway amounted to over $25,000,000. These 
bonds were largely held in Holland, and the syndicate in the 
early part of 1879 had acquired by purchase all the bonds and 
stock, the former depreciating to about four cents on the 
dollar. The syndicate built a piece of railroad from Brecken- 
ridge, the western terminus of the main line, to Barnesville, the 
southern terminus of the completed portion of the St. Paul and 
Pacific line, which gave a much shorter and direct route to 
Fisher's Landing, the receiver having in 1873 taken several 
miles of track north of Crookston and built to that point. 

Foreclosure decrees were entered against the company in 
June, 1879, and the St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba Rail- 
way Company formed with a capital stock of $15,000,000, and 
$16,000,000 of first mortgage bonds were issued, there being at 
this time 675 miles of completed railroad. 

The next two years the system was extended by the build- 
ing of 334. 51 miles, and in 1881 James J. Hill, who had been 
general manager of the company, became its vice-president. In 
1883, extensions were built amounting to 318.11 miles, and 
George Stephens resigning as president, Mr. Hill was elected to 
fill the vacancy. From 1883 to 1889, the mileage was extended 


1,448.95 miles, the equipment of the road being increased in 
accordance with the demand occasioned by these extensions. The 
lines of the company were leased on February 1, 1890, for 999 
years to the Great Northern Eailway Company. The terms of 
rental were the payment of all interests on the company's bond, 
all taxes and assessments and one and half per cent quarterly 
dividend on its capital stock. 


The Minnesota Valley Eailroad Company was organized un- 
der an act of the Legislature approved March 4, 1864, which 
granted to that Company all the lands, interests, rights, powers 
and privileges granted to the Southern Minnesota Eailroad Com- 
pany by the Land Grand Act of Congress. 

The said act granted to the State six sections of land per 
mile of the railroad as a bonus, and this with an additional act 
of Congress granting four additional sections per mile, were by 
an act of Legislature approved March 2, 1865, transferred to the 
Minnesota Valley Eailroad Company. The authorized capital 
stock was $500,000 of which $473,000 was at once subscribed 
and paid in. 

The first board of directors and principal stockholders were: 
H. H. Sibley, Eussell Blakeley, E. H. Hawthorne, George Cul- 
Ter, W. F. Davidson, E. F. Drake, H. M. Eice, J. L. Merriam, 
Horace Thompson, Franklin Steele, J. E. Thompson, J. C. 
Burbank, T. A. Harrison, John Farrington, W. D. Washburn, 
and C. H. Bigelow. 

In 1865, the road was located and construction commenced 
between Mendota and Shakopee, some work was done on the 
roadbed by the Southern Minnesota Eailroad Company in 1858. 
The road was open for traffic between Mendota and Shakopee 
November 16, 1865, and the following year six miles was built 
eastward from Mendota to West St. Paul. Belle Plaine was 
reached November 19, 1866, Lake Crystal in 1869 and St. James, 
122 miles from St. Paul, in 1870. 


In 1865, the Sioux City and St. Paul Railroad Company 
had been organized in Iowa, at the instance of the incorporators 
of the Minnesota Valley Railroad Company, to construct a rail- 
road from Sioux City to the south line of Minnesota, between the 
Big Sioux River and the West Forks of the Des Moines River. On 
April 7, 1869, the name of the Minnesota Valley Railroad Com- 
pany was changed to the St. Paul and Sioux City Railroad 
Company, the latter Company having a capital stock of $2,- 
400,000. In 1871, a contract was made with the Sioux City and 
St. Paul Railroad Company to complete the following year, the 
road from St. James to LeMars, Iowa, where connection was 
made with the Iowa Falls and Sioux City railroad for Sioux 

Meantime, in 1869, the St. Paul and Sioux City Railroad 
Company and the Minnesota Central Railroad Company, (since 
absorbed by the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad Com- 
pany) joined in the construction of a bridge over the Mississippi 
River. The line was from Pickerel Lake (two miles east of 
Mendota) to and over said bridge, to the site of the present 
Union Depot in St. Paul. 

To meet the West Wisconsin Railroad, which completed in 
1871 a line to Hudson, Wisconsin, the St. Paul, Stillwater and 
Taylor's Falls Railroad Company was organized, the incorpora- 
tors being mainly parties interested in the St. Paul and Sioux 
City Railroad Company, to construct a road from St. Paul to 
Stillwater thence to Hudson. 

The financial troubles from 1873 to 1875; also unfriendly 
legislation, apparently growing out of the Granger movement, re- 
tarded railway extension, so that not a mile of railroad was built 
in Minnesota during those three years. 

In 1876, the Worthington and Sioux Falls Railroad Com- 
pany was organized by the St. Paul and Sioux City people, 
and was built from Sioux Falls Junction to Luverne in that 
year. It was extended to Beaver Creek in 1877 and to Sioux 
Falls, Dakota, in 1878, being the first railroad to reach that 
point. In 1879, a branch road was built from Luverne to 
Doon, Iowa; the Pipestone branch was built from Heron Lake 


to Woodstock, later extended to Pipestone; a branch was built 
from Lake Crystal to Blue Earth City and the following year 
continued to Elmore. These branches with the main line and 
extensions made in 1880, gave the St. Paul and Sioux City 
Railroad Company nearly 700 miles of connected railroads. 

In 1879, a reorganization took place and the Company's 
shops were removed from Shakopee to St. Paul. It becoming 
apparent that closer and permanent connection via St. Paul, 
with Milwaukee and Chicago and with Lake Superior was nec- 
essary. Suggestions were made and considered for the purchase of, 
or merging with the properties of the West Wisconsin and North 
Wisconsin railroads. What was finally done was to sell a ma- 
jority of the St. Paul and Sioux City stock to a syndicate headed 
by H. H. Porter, of Chicago, and composed of the principal 
owners of the Wisconsin properties. This was followed, May 25, 
1880, by a general re-organization and consolidation of all pro- 
perties under the name of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis 
and Omaha Railway Company. 

In December, 1882, the management of the company was 
placed under the control of the Chicago and Northwestern Rail- 
way Company. It operates 436.08 miles of road in the State, 
and has a total mileage of 1,697.57 miles. 


In the spring of 1857, Lyman Dayton, Henry A. Swift and 
other citizens of Minnesota, New York City and Detroit, Michi- 
gan, incorporated the Nebraska and Lake Superior Railroad Com- 
pany. The line was to run from some point near Lake Superior, 
to a point somewhere near Nebraska; also to extend to a point 
somewhere near the Pacific Ocean. The panic of 1857 killed all 
budding hopes for the railroad; but in 1861, James Smith, Jr., 
a St. Paul attorney, then a member of the State Senate, suc- 
ceeded in having the Legislature pass an act amending the orig- 
inal act and changing the name of the railroad to the Lake 
Superior and Mississippi Railroad Company, also granting the 
new company 693,000 acres of swamp lands to aid in the con- 


struction of the road. The city of St. Paul voted the new 
company $250,000, and St. Louis County afterwards gave $150,- 
000. The corporation was organized in 1863 and Lyman Day- 
ton was elected president. The next year, Mr. Smith and Wil- 
liam L. Banning went to Washington and succeeded in obtaining 
a Government grant of 990,000 acres. The death of President 
Dayton occurred in 1865 and William L. Banning became his 

Even with the valuable land grants obtained, estimated to be 
worth $8,000,000, Eastern capitalists refused to invest in the 
stock or bonds of the corporation, and stipulated that before so 
doing the St. Paul parties should, at their own expense, grade 
thirty miles of the road. To accomplish this undertaking James 
Smith, Jr., William L. Banning, Eobert A. Smith, Parker Paine, 
and William Branch advanced the needed capital and the road was 
graded to Wyoming. This was completed August 27, 1867, and 
in the summer of the following year, a party of Philadelphia 
capitalists having viewed the road expressed a willingness 
to invest their capital. Stock amounting to $5,000,000, and 
bonds aggregating $4,500,000 were issued and disposed of. Be- 
fore the close of 1868, the thirty miles of graded- road was ironed 
and the first locomotive, W. L. Banning, was purchased. In 
1869, the road was extended seventy-seven miles and on August 
10, 1870, Duluth was reached. The first cost of building the 
road being $7,700,000. 

Soon after the Lake Superior and Mississippi reached its 
terminus a half interest in the line from Thomson Junction 
(North Pacific Junction) to Duluth was granted to the Northern 
Pacific Railroad Company. The Stillwater and St. Paul rail- 
road was completed December 9, 1870, extending from White 
Bear to Stillwater. It was leased to the Lake Superior and 
Mississippi Railroad Company, for ninety-nine years at an annual 
rental of $20,000. 

The Minneapolis and Duluth railroad was opened April, 
1871, from White Bear to East Minneapolis and was also leased 
to the Lake Superior and Mississippi road. In May, 1872, the 
Northern Pacific Railroad Company, by a ninety-nine year lease, 


acquired control of the Lake Superior and Mississippi road. 
This lease was terminated in 1874 when the Northern Pacific 
Eailroad Company failed to perform its conditions. The Lake 
Superior and Mississippi Eailroad Company, itself, in 1875, de- 
faulted the interest on its bonds and May 1, 1877, the property 
was foreclosed. It was bid in for the benefit of the bondholders 
and a reorganization was consummated June 27, 1877, under the 
name of the St. Paul and Duluth Eailroad Company. 

In 1874, the branch from White Bear to Minneapolis was 
acquired by the Minneapolis and Duluth Eailroad Company. 
In 1880, in connection with that company, the St. Paul and 
Duluth built jointly a branch from Wyoming to Taylor's Falls, 
known as the Taylor's Falls and Lake Superior Eailroad. In 
1881, the St. Paul and Duluth leased the Minneapolis and 
Duluth, and in 1883 acquired full control of the Taylor's Falls 
and Lake Superior railroad. In 1886, a cut-off with much better 
grades and more favorable roadbed was secured, by the construc- 
tion of the Duluth Short Line from Thomson Junction (North- 
ern Pacific Junction) to West Superior. The main road and its 
branches, aggregating about 250 miles, was acquired by pur- 
chase May 31, 1900, by the Northern Pacific Eailway Company, 



In the Territorial days, the Minneapolis and Valley Eail- 
road Company had graded for a superstructure from Mendota 
towards Faribault. In 1864, Mendota again became, as soon as 
navigation opened, an active railroad center. The Minnesota 
Central Eailroad Company was incorporated by the Legislature 
in 1864, to follow the same route of construction as originally 
laid out for the Minnesota and Cedar Valley Eailroad. In 1865, 
Faribault was reached and while the Minnesota Central was 
building towards the southern boundary line of the State, the 
McGregor and Western Eailroad Company was constructing a 
line through Iowa towards the northern boundary line of that 
State. In August, 1864, the first locomotive arrived at Mendota, 


it was of the old hook pattern and was named the Washington; 
it was subsequently changed to the link motor type and re- 
christened James Waters in honor of the master mechanic of 
the road. The road was extended around Fort Snelling to Min- 
neapolis in 1865. 

In the meantime a railroad had been opened from Mil- 
waukee to Waukesha, Wisconsin, February 25, 1851, twenty 
miles in length, and was known by the name of the Milwaukee 
and Mississippi railroad. It was the first link, in the present 
great railway system of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul 
Railway Company from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River. 
The original corporation was absorbed by the Milwaukee and 
St. Paul Railroad Company and on February 7, 1874, the com- 
pany^ present title was adopted. The road reached Prairie du 
Chien on the Mississippi River in 1857, from there a line was 
opened to McGregor, and thence absorbing the McGregor and 
Western railroad and the Minnesota Central to Owatonna, Fari- 
bault and St. Paul. Work was commenced simultaneously in 
1867, at McGregor and Minneapolis and both branches were 
united at Rose Creek, near Austin. This was the first railroad 
to connect St. Paul and the East. The river division of the 
St. Paul and Chicago Railroad was also acquired in 1872 by 
this corporation, and in 1874 a branch was completed from Man- 
kato to Wells, thirty-eight miles long. Control of the Hastings 
and Dakota and the Southern Minnesota was also obtained. 
This railroad system of twenty miles, in 1851, had expanded 
to a total mileage, in 1906, of 7,043.54 miles, of which 1,205.63 
was located in Minnesota. 


The Winona and St. Peter Railroad Company, an outgrowth 
of the Transit Line, was organized March 10, 1862, and com- 
pleted its road from Winona to Rochester in 1864. Waconia was 
reached in 1867; Janesville in 1870; St. Peter in 1871; New 
Ulm in 1872; and the western boundary of the state in 1874. 
The Winona, Mankato and New Ulm Railroad Company was 


organized in 1870 and a railroad was built from New Ulm to 
Mankato, and afterwards acquired by the Winona and St. Peter. 
In 1867, the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company 
became interested in th'e Winona and St. Peter and in 1870, the 
Mississippi River was bridged at Winona. The earliest part of 
the Chicago and Northwestern system was known as the Galena 
and Chicago Union Railroad Company, incorporated under the 
laws of Illinois January 16, 1836. The real beginning of the 
Northwestern under its present name was when the Legislature 
of Wisconsin, on April 10, 1861, authorized it to construct a 
railroad from Fond du Lac to the Menominee River. In Octo- 
ber, 1864, the Peninsular Railroad was acquired, thus securing 
the trade of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Its early inter- 
est in Minnesota railroad properties has already been stated. It 
acquired by purchase under date of June 7, 1900, the Winona 
and St. Peter; on June 8, 1900, the Minnesota and Iowa; and on 
July 16, 1902, the Minnesota Western Railway Companies. The 
system operates a total mileage of 7,452.58 miles of which 
650.30 are located in Minnesota. This does not include the 
mileage of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Rail- 
way Company, which is under its management. 


The original Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway Company 
was created March 3, 1853, by an act of Legislature and named 
the Minnesota Western Railroad Company. By authority of the 
Legislature in 1870, if changed its name to the Minneapolis and 
St. Louis Railway Company. The next year, the Minneapolis 
and Duluth Railroad Company was organized by certain stock- 
holders of the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroad Company. 

The Minnesota and Iowa Southern, and the Fort Dodge and 
Fort Ridgely Railroad Companies were incorporated under the 
general laws of Iowa, and these companies, April 20, 1881, were 
consolidated with the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway Com- 
pany, and the Minneapolis and Duluth Railway Company into 
one company by the name of the Minneapolis and St. Louis 


Railway Company. The latter company, on June 25, 1888, went 
into the hands of a receiver. Its property was sold tinder a de- 
cree of foreclosure, and on October 11, 1894, the Minneapolis 
and St. Louis Railroad Company was organized, which consisted 
of the Minnesota lines. In order to preserve the corporate rights 
in the several States, the Iowa lines were conveyed to a commit- 
tee, who, on January 18, 1895, organized a corporation, known 
as the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroad and Telegraph Com- 
pany of Iowa, which was formally consolidated with the Minne- 
apolis and St. Louis Railroad Company, February 1, 1895. The 
total miles operated by the road by leases and trackage rights is 
799.27. Of this there is located in Minnesota 379.47 miles, be- 
ing their main line from Minneapolis to the Iowa boundary line ; also 
branches from Hopkins to the South Dakota State line, from 
Manitou Junction to Tonka Bay, and from Winthrop to the Iowa 
northern boundary line. It also operates under trackage rights 
the Northern Pacific line from St. Paul to Minneapolis. 


From the first introduction of railroads into the United 
States, visionary dreams were indulged in of the building of 
trans-continental lines from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. 
As early as 1834, one Dr. S. B. Barlow, of Granville, Massachu- 
setts, commenced writing articles to the papers on the subject. 
Ten years later, Asa Whitney by addresses to State Legislatures, 
public meetings and memorializing Congress, constantly kept the 
subject before the public. The discovery of gold in California, 
the rapid increase of population and wealth west of the Rocky 
Mountains, also the desire of the older States to establish closer 
connections, during the Civil War, with these outlying communi- 
ties, caused Congress in 1862, to authorize the construction of a 
railroad to the Pacific Ocean. 

Previous to this a trans-continental route was strongly 
advocated by Senator Breese, of Illinois, also by men of distinc- 
tion in both in and out of Congress; but the plan first took 
tangible shape in a bill introduced, by Senator Benton of Mis- 


souri, February 7, 1849. In March, 17, 1853, an act was passed 
providing for surveys, by a corps of topographical engineers, of 
the proposed routes particularly of a northern, southern and mid- 
dle one, with a view to determining which offered the most ad- 
vantageous route for the construction of a railroad. These sur- 
veys resulted in the decision, that the enterprise could be carried 
through upon either one of the routes adopted; but owing to the 
rivalry existing at that time between the Northern and Southern 
States, nothing further was done by Congress until the war had 
removed this obstacle. 

Isaac N. Stevens, the first Territorial Governor of Wash- 
ington, made an exploration of a northern route and in 1857 the 
Legislature of that Territory incorporated the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company. In 1862, when a bill was pending in Con- 
gress giving subsidies to the Central Pacific and Union Pacific 
Railroad Companies, Senator Wilkinson, of Minnesota, tacked on 
a few millions by giving $25,000,000 to the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company, with six sections of land in Minnesota and 
ten sections beyond the boundaries of the State; also naming 
parties to form a company. All these preliminary matters came 
to naught. 

There was, however, in Massachusetts, a citizen named 
Josiah Perham, an enthusiastic believer in the welding of the 
two sections of the country together with iron rails. He was 
wedded to a middle route, but being discarded by the promoters 
of that line, turned his attention to the Northern Pacific route. 
He obtained a charter in Maine for the incorporation of the Peo- 
ple's Pacific Railroad Company, with a capital stock of $100,- 
000,000 divided into shares of $100 each, to be paid for by $10 
down, the balance in installments. The people, however, failed 
to subscribe and when Congress, in 1864, chartered and sub- 
sidized the Northern Pacific Railroad Company to construct a 
railroad from Lake Superior to Puget Sound, with a branch via 
the Columbia River, to Portland, Oregon, though there were at- 
tempts at Boston to organize a company every effort to secure 
means to promote the work failed. The land grant bill sub- 
sidizing the Northern Pacific railroad contained a provision that 


the stock could be subscribed for, but no bonds could be issued; 
this latter clause was afterwards abrogated. 

It was not until the spring of 1870, when a charter having 
been obtained from the Legislature of Wisconsin, under the name 
of the Superior and St. Croix Railroad Company, that explor- 
ing and surveying companies were sent out and work actually 
commenced. Jay Cooke & Co., Philadelphia bankers, who had 
successfully floated the Government funds during the Civil 
War, became the fiscal agents for the company. Work was com- 
menced on February 15, 1870, near Thomson Junction (now 
Northern Pacific Junction) and on September 2, 1871, the road 
was completed to Moorhead on the Red River of the North, a 
distance of two hundred and thirty miles from Duluth. 

Then came the panic of 1873, the failure of Jay Cooke & 
Co. retarding any further progress, the road having been extended 
to Bismarck, Dakota Territory, four hundred and twenty-five 
miles from Duluth, and at its western terminus had been com- 
pleted from Klamath to Tacoma, a distance of one hundred and 
five miles. 

The road finally, in 1877, went into the hands of a receiver, 
but in 1881 a syndicate, headed by Henry Villard, was organized 
and acquired control of the Northern Pacific Railroad in order 
to connect that line with the roads of the Oregon Railway and 
Navigation Company, and prevent its extension into Washington 
and Oregon as a competing line. Owing to this combination the 
western treminus, Puget Sound, to avoid the difficult section, 
across the Cascade Range was changed; the Pacific section fol- 
lowing the Columbia River down to Portland, Oregon. 

September 23, 1883, the last spike was driven, in the valley 
of the Hellgate River, near the summit of the Rockies, and the 
first northern continental highway was completed. The financial 
reverses of 1883 frustrated Mr. Villard's schemes for consolidat- 
ing the Northern Pacific and Oregon lines, and he lost for a time 
the control of all these interests. Notwithstanding the failure 
of the consolidation plans the road prospered continuously. In 
May, 1889, the company made an important operating contract 
with the Wisconsin Central Railway, giving it a route to Mil- 


waukee and Chicago, also the magnificent terminals of that road 
in Chicago. In 1900 the St. Paul and Duluth was acquired by 

As early as 1877, the branch line from Brainerd was ex- 
tended towards Sauk Rapids and was finally completed to St. 
Paul, and from Little Falls to Staples. Also branches were built 
from Little Falls to Morris, from Wadena Junction to North 
Dakota State line, from Winnipeg Junction to North Dakota 
State line, from Fertile to Carthage, besides shorter branches 
and spur lines. The total mileage operated as main line, under 
leases, or contracts, branches, spurs, and trackage rights, aggre- 
gated in 1906, 5,793.59 of which 1,047.34 miles are located in 


There were in 1880, 3,099.32 miles of constructed railroads 
in Minnesota, of these the St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba 
controlled the former St. Paul and Pacific branch line of 75.75 
miles; the former St. Paul and Pacific line of 254.60 miles; the 
former St. Vincent extension of 319.62 miles; the Crookston and 
Grand Forks branch of 24.56 miles, the Breckenridge and Barnes- 
ville branch of 54.24 miles, making a total of 726.77 miles. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul controlled the Iowa 
and Minnesota Division, 147.52 miles; the Southern Minnesota, 
297.25 miles; Hastings and Dakota, 202.44 miles; the River 
Division, 140.77 miles; Chicago, Clinton, Dubuque and Minne- 
apolis, 25 miles; Central of Minnesota, 40 miles; Minnesota 
Midland, 59 miles; Caledonia, Mississippi and Western, 58.71 
miles, a total of 970.69 miles. 

The Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha controlled 
the St. Paul, St. James, etc., 164.77 miles; St. James and Sioux 
City, 66.25 miles; St. Paul, Stillwater and Taylor's Falls, 26.03 
miles; Worthington, Sioux Falls, etc., 52.53 miles; Minnesota 
and Black Hills, 44 miles, a total of 353.58 miles. 

The Winona and St. Peter controlled its main line of 288.50 
miles; a branch to Plainview of 15.01 miles; a branch to Chat- 



field of 11.46 miles; Minnesota Valley of 24.40 miles; Rochester 
and Northern Minnesota of 24.48 miles; Chicago and Dakota, 
46.38 miles; the Winona, Mankato and New trim of 3.75 miles, 
a total of 413.98 miles. 

The St. Paul and Duluth had in operation 162 miles; the 
Stillwater and Duluth 13 miles; the Northern Pacific on its 
main line 229.50 miles and its Brainerd branch 60.50 miles, a 
total of 290 miles; the Minneapolis and Duluth 15 miles; the 
Minneapolis and St. Louis, 121.50 miles; Taylor's Falls and Lake 
Superior, 20.30 miles, and the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and 
Northern, 12.50 miles. 

Thus after a lapse of not quite a score of years since the 
first locomotive wheel was turned, Minnesota had a railway 
traversing her area that compared favorably with some of the 
systems of the older States. This had been accomplished not 
only by the generous aid extended the railroad corporations by 
bonuses and subsidies furnished by counties, cities and towns 
along their various routes, but by liberal land grants from the 
Federal and State governments. 

On December 31, 1877, the railroad corporations had certi- 
fied to the receipt of the following acres: The First Division 
of the St. Paul and Pacific 1,134,938.37 acres of a possible grant 
of 1,313,960.96; the branch line of the St. Paul and Pacific, 
408,03.0.65 acres from a possible grant of 425,756 acres; the 
"St. Vincent branch of the same railroad, 753,347.62 acres from 
a possible grant of 780.347.62 acres. 

The Minnesota Central had received its full grant of 
173,546.11 acres; so had the Winona and St. Peter grant of 
1,678,804.47 acres been fully certified to as being received by 
that company. 

The St. Paul and Sioux City Railroad Company had re- 
ceived 1,088,815.32 acres of their grants amounting to 1,158,- 
350.41 acres; the St. Paul and Duluth of the 1,686,400 acres 
granted to them had certified to the receipt of 827,918.89 
acres, besides they had received additional State aid of 694,400 
acres of which 593,704.26 acres had been transferred to the 
company. Of the Southern Minnesota grants of 551,988.10 from 


the Federal Government the company had received 338,358.59 
acres also the State aid of 35,042.29 acres of swamp land had 
come into their possession. 

Of the Hastings and Dakota grant of 169,790.81 acres but 
24,958.94 acres nad been certified as being received by the com- 
pany. The Northern Pacific Eailroad Company of their grant 
of 2,918,400 acres, had received 1,083,052.85 acres; the 
St. Paul, Stillwater and Taylor's Falls Kailroad Company had 
received their entire grant of 44,246.27 acres; the Duluth 
and Iron Erange Eailroad had acquired their State aid of 
422,400 acres of swamp land. 

Of the Stillwater and St. Paul grant of 80,938.82 the com- 
pany had received 65,113.64 acres; the St. Paul and Chi- 
cago had received 398,986.55 acres of their State grant of 
swamp lands of 461,440 acres. The total amount received by 
the different railroad corporations was 9,071,264.82 acres, 
the aggregate possibility of the land grants was 12,595,755.99 


Of the present system of railroads the most important as a 
Minnesota corporation is the Great Northern Eailway Company. 
The first record of this corporation, appears on the journal of the 
directors' meeting of the Minneapolis and St. Cloud Eailroad 
Company on September 16, 1889, when it was voted to change 
the name to the Great Northern Eailway Company, and two days 
later a copy of this resolution was filed in the office of the 
Secretary of State. In addition to its own line, this company 
has promoted the construction of extensions through the agency 
of subsidiary railway companies. 

The Eastern Eailway Company was organized August 13, 
1887, having for its foundation the incorporating act of the 
Minneapolis and St. Cloud Eailroad Company granted by the 
Legislature of 1856 and by subsequent acts and amendments 
which gave it the right to connect with the Lake Superior and 
Mississippi, the Winona and St. Peter, or any other railroad in 


Southern Minnesota. In 1888, the Eastern Railway Company 
consolidated with the Lake Superior and South Western Railway 
Company, a Wisconsin corporation, and extended the road from 
Deer River to Fosston and by connection with the Great Northern 
brought Lake Superior and the Red River Valley in closer rail- 
road connection. The Eastern Railway Company purchased in 
1899, the Duluth, Mississippi and Northern railroad of fifty 
miles, and built the "Coon Creek Cut-Off" of fifty-six and 
one-half miles, which shortened the distance from St. Paul to 
Duluth twenty-five miles. In 1898, it built a new road of twenty- 
eight miles from Nemadji Junction, Wisconsin, to Cloquet. It 
also controls the Duluth Terminal Railway Company. The St. 
Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba Railway Company own the en- 
tire stock of the corporation. Its total mileage is 501.46 miles 
of which 469.05 are located in Minnesota. The road is operated 
under a ninety-nine year lease, dated May 1, 1902, by the Great 
Northern Railway Company, which agrees to pay the interest on its 
$9^00,000 funded debt, six per cent annually on its $16,000,000 
capital stock, also all taxes and assessments upon property. The 
total number of stockholders is stated to be six. 

The Willmar and Sioux Falls Railway Company was or- 
ganized March 5, 1886, to construct a railroad from Willmar to 
Sioux Falls, Dakota Territory (now South Dakota). It operates 
436.73 miles by its main line, branches, leased lines, etc., of 
which 133.91 are located in Minnesota. The entire stock of 
the company is owned by the Great Northern Railway Company. 

When the Great Northern Railway Company took control of 
the properties of the St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba Rail- 
way Company, the eastern terminus of the road was Duluth and 
Superior on Lake Superior and St. Paul and Minneapolis on the 
Mississippi River, its western terminus was Butte, Montana, 
branches were operated through Southwestern Minnesota and 
Eastern South Dakota and Northern Minnesota. The road oc- 
cupied the fertile Red River Valley and stretched its way to 
the international boundary line at a half dozen points. Soon 
after the leasing of the properties of the St. Paul, Minneapo- 
lis and Manitoba Railway Company to the Great Northern, Rail- 


way Company, work was undertaken to extend the system 
through to the Pacific Coast. The building of this railway, 
through long stretches of uninhabitable plains interspersed with 
lofty mountains and wide rivers, was accomplished without the 
help of the Government land grants. In 1893, the waters of the 
Pacific, in Puget Sound, were reached and another trans-conti- 
nental route was established. From this point palatial steam- 
ships transport the passengers and freight to the Oriental mar- 
kets, returning with products of that land. 

The Park Rapids and Leech Lake Eailway Company was or- 
ganized October 5, 1897, with a capital of $500,000 to construct 
a railroad from Park Rapids to Cass Lake, 49.04 miles in length; 
it was leased May, 1899, to the Great Northern Railway Com- 

The Minnesota and Great Northern Railway Company was 
organized April 1, 1904, to build a railroad from Thief River 
Falls to Greenbush, having a total mileage of 41.09 miles. Un- 
der a contract taking effect November 28, 1904, it is operated by 
the Great Northern Railway Company. The total mileage 
operated by the Great Northern system is 5,183.11 miles of which 
1,902.09 miles are located in Minnesota. 


The Canadian Northern Railway Company operates 43.70 
miles of road in the State, from the international boundary line 
west of The Lake of the Woods. This is operated under a 
ninety-nine year lease at a rental of $26,460, given to the Min- 
nesota and Manitoba Railroad Company, which was organized 
under the laws of Minnesota March 1, 1899, with an authorized 
capital of $1,000,000 of which $400,000 is issued and outstand- 

The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company 
reached St. Paul in 1882. It operates by branches and track- 
age rights in Minnesota 38.45 miles. 

The Chicago, Great Western Railway Company, known as 
the Maple Leaf Route, was organized under the general laws of 


Illinois, January 5, 1892, to effect the re-organization of the 
Chicago, St. Paul and Kansas City Railway Company, which was 
an Iowa corporation and had absorbed the Minnesota and North- 
western. The early construction of this route was commenced in 
1884, when one hundred and ten miles were built from Minne- 
apolis to the Iowa State line, connecting at Lyle in that State 
with the Illinois Central railroad. The next year, a junction was 
made with the Iowa Central railroad at Manley Junction, Iowa. 
In 1887, the lines from Hayfield to Dubuque, Iowa, and from 
Chicago to South Freeport, Illinois, were completed. The next 
year the missing link between Dubuque and South Freeport was 
finished, thus completing the line from Minneapolis and St. Paul 
to Chicago. On August 1, 1887, the first passenger train made 
the run between Chicago and St. Paul in thirteen and one half 
hours. This was the inauguration of fast passenger train ser- 
vice in the West. 

The Chicago, Great Western Railway Company of its total 
mileage of 818.36 miles, operated as a main line, branches, track- 
age rights, etc; the main line from Minneapolis to the Iowa 
State line and a branch from Eden to Mantorville. 

Under an agreement with the Wisconsin, Minnesota and Pa- 
cific Railway Company it operates their lines of 271 miles, from 
Mankato to Red Wing, another from Red Wing to Osage, Iowa, 
and branches from Winona to Simpson and Claybank Junction 
to Claybank. The Wisconsin, Minnesota and Pacific Railway 
Company is a re-organized company incorporated under the laws 
of Minnesota in April, 1894. It was an outgrowth of the Min- 
nesota Central Railroad Company, originally organized under an 
act of the Minnesota Legislature, approved May 23, 1857. 

Also under another agreement the lines of Mason City and 
Fort Dodge Railroad Company organized under the Code of Iowa, 
May 23, 1881. This company owns a total mileage of 27.33 
miles in Minnesota from Hayfield to the Iowa State line at 

The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Company or- 
ganized under the laws of Illinois and Iowa, dates its origin from 
a special charter granted by the State of Illinois, February 27, 


1847, to the Kock Island and La Salle Railroad Company. By 
purchase this corporation acquired June 15, 1903, the Burling- 
ton, Cedar Rapids and Northern Railway Company, operating 
lines in Southern Minnesota. 

The South St. Paul Belt Railway Company was incorporated 
October 15, 1889, and in June 11, 1903, all its properties were 
transferred to the Minneapolis and St. Paul Terminal Railway 
Company, which was organized May 20, 1902, under the name of 
the St. Paul Terminal and Transfer Company, and by an amend- 
ment to its articles of incorporation was allowed to change its 
name to its new title. The road, property and franchises of the 
Minneapolis and St. Paul Terminal Railway Company were 
sold to the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Company 
on March 25, 1904. This system reaches St. Paul by the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee and St. Paul tracks from Comas Junction to 
Rosemount, and Minneapolis by the same corporation line from 
Newport. Of its total mileage 6,926.25 miles only 281.95 are 
operated in Minnesota. These include a main line south of Gor- 
don ville to Comas Junction; Rosemount to Newport; Inver 
Grove to West St. Paul; from Iowa State line east of Ellsworth 
to the South Dakota line east of Ward; branches from Iowa 
State line south of Bricelyn to Albert Lea; from Iowa State line 
east of Round Lake to Hardwick; Trosky to Jasper; also trackage 
rights from Comas Junction to Rosemount and Newport to 

The Dubuque and Sioux City Railroad which is operated by 
the Illinois Central Railroad Company, is a re-organized com- 
pany holding its franchises by charter granted by the State of 
Iowa ; with the exception of the Albert Lea and Southern Railroad 
Company, incorporated September 20, 1899, under the general 
laws of Minnesota. This road, which extended from the Iowa 
State line to Glenville Junction 19.58 miles, was consolidated 
with the Dubuque and Sioux City Railroad Company, July 1, 
1902. The total mileage of the road is 759.88 miles, of which 
29.99 are in Minnesota; besides that mentioned above the com- 
pany operates in the State 11.40 miles from the Iowa State line 
at Steen to the South Dakota State line. 


The Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railway, 
commonly known as the "Soo Line," dates its organization from 
June 11, 1888. It was a consolidation of the Minneapolis and 
Pacific Railway Company, organized under the general laws of 
Minnesota in 1884, the Minneapolis and St. Croix Railway Com- 
pany organized in 1885 under the Minnesota general incorpora- 
tion laws, the Aberdeen, Bismarck and Northwestern Railroad 
Company organized under the general laws of the Territory of 
Dakota, the Menominee and Sault Ste. Marie Railway Company 
organized under the laws of Michigan, and the Minneapolis, Sault 
Ste. Marie and Atlantic Railway Company organized under the 
laws of Wisconsin. The last two companies being consolidated 
in 1886. 

The Minneapolis, Sault Ste. Marie and Atlantic Railway 
Company organized September 12, 1883, with a capital stock of 
$12,000,000 under the laws of Wisconsin, was large financiered 
by William D. Washburn, and other capitalists, of Minneapolis. 
The road was completed from Minneapolis to Sault Ste. Marie, 
about 225 miles, in December, 1887, where connections were 
made with the Canadian Pacific Railroad, thus bringing Liver- 
pool, England, 626 miles nearer St. Paul than ~any other eastern 
route. The company's total mileage is 2,153.25 miles, of which 
558.23 miles are located in Minnesota. The main line from St. 
Croix River to North Dakota State line represents 225 miles; 
a branch from Glenwood to Emerson 265.05 miles; a branch 
from Thief River Falls to Red River 45.58 miles; also a branch 
from Cardigan Junction to St. Paul 5.34 miles and operating 
under trackage rights 17.26. 

The Iowa Central Railway Company organized under the 
laws of the State of Illinois, of its total mileage of 558.43 miles, 
owns and operates 12.36 miles in Minnesota, from the State line 
of Iowa north of Northwood in that State to Albert Lea. The 
Green Bay and Western Railroad Company, a Wisconsin cor- 
poration, enters the State from the east side of the Mississippi 
River to Winona by the Winona Bridge Railway Company. 

The Wisconsin Central Railway Company, of its total mile- 
age of 977.04 miles operates only 41.97 miles including trackage 


and leased lines in the State. It was incorporated in 1887, under 
the laws of Wisconsin as the Wisconsin Central Company to 
gather into a single corporation the Wisconsin Central Associated 
Lines. These lines originally extended west and northwest of 
Milwaukee, but did not reach either Chicago or St. Paul as a ter- 
minal. Lines were soon built to those points, and in 1884, by way 
of Chippewa Falls and New Richmond, St. Paul was given a 
new route to Chicago. 

In 1890, the road was leased by the Northern Pacific Rail- 
way Company but in 1893 went into the hands of a receiver. 
A new organization was affected December 30, 1907, under its 
present title. 

Owing to the developments of the mining and lumbering in- 
terests, railroad construction has been largely, for the past 
twenty years, confined to the northern portion of the State. The 
Duluth and Iron Range Railroad Company was organized under 
the general laws of Minnesota, December 21, 1874. Its mileage 
is confined to the State and aggregates 212.48 miles; the roads 
operated being from Duluth to Ely; from Tower Junction to 
Tower; from Allan Junction to Virginia; from McKinley to 
Eveleth; from Waldo to Drummond; besides numerous branches 
and spurs. The Duluth, Missabe and Northern Railway Company 
was organized February 11, 1891. Its main line is from Stony 
Brook to Mountain Iron, a distance of 48.62 miles, it, however, 
operates a large number of branches and spurs, that brings its 
total mileage to 187.71 miles. The Duluth and Northern Min- 
nesota Railway Company was organized under the general laws 
of Minnesota, May 31, 1898, and its 57.18 miles are operated for 
logging purposes. The Duluth and Northeastern Railroad Com- 
pany dates its organization under the laws of Minnesota from 
September 10, 1898. Its main line is from Cloquet to Horn, a 
distance of fifty-seven miles; its branches and spurs are generally 
temporary and used for logging purposes only. The Duluth, 
South Shore and Atlantic Railway Company organized under the 
general railway laws of the States of Michigan and Wisconsin, 
only operates tracking rights in Minnesota. The Duluth, Rainy 
Lake and Winnepeg Railway Company is in 1906 under con- 


Btruction having only 27.70 miles in operation from Rainy June- 
ton to Ashawa. The Duluth Belt Line Railway Company, or- 
ganized December 14, 1888, as the Duluth Incline Railway Com- 
pany, and the articles of incorporation were amended January 
16, 1890 when the present name was adopted; it is a terminal 
and transfer railway two miles in length. 

The Minneapolis and Rainy River Company, organized July 
24, 1904, under Minnesota laws, with a capital stock of $400,000 
for the purpose of purchasing the Itasca Railroad. Its mileage 
of 41.72 miles is divided between lines from the Mssissippi River 
to Turtle Lake, from Jessie Junction to Bass Lake and from 
Whitefish Junction to Whitefish Lake. 

The Minneapolis, Red Lake and Manitoba Railway Company 
dates its organization, under the laws of Minnesota, from June 
15, 1904, and operates a railroad from Bemidji to Redby, a dis- 
tance of 33.50 miles. 

The Minnesota and International Railway Company or- 
ganized under the general laws of Minnesota, July 16, 1900, pur- 
chased all the stock and properties of the Brainerd and Northern 
Minnesota Railway Company, July 1, 1901. The road operates 
a main line from East Brainerd to Northome, with branches from 
Funkley to Kelliher and from South Bemidji to Bemidji. Under 
proprietary rights, owning the entire capital stock, it operates the 
Big Fork and Northern Railroad from Northome to Big Falls. 
The mileage operated, including trackage rights and spur 
branches, is 192.96 miles and is controlled by the Northern Pa- 
cific Railway Company through ownership of seventy per cent of 
the capital stock. 

The Minneapolis and Eastern Ralway Company organized 
under general statutes of Minnesota, June 18, 1878, is a switch- 
ing line in the city of Minneapolis. The Minneapolis and 
Western Ralway Company, organized November 1, 1884, under 
the laws of Minnesota, is also a switching line in the city from 
which it derives its name. The Railway Transfer Company of 
Minneapolis organized under Minnesota laws March 13, 1883, 
operates 8.80 miles of road located in the city of Minneapolis 
and is owned by the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway Company 



and does a switching business with all railroads entering Min- 
neapolis also with the flour mills and other industries. 

The Minnesota Transfer Railroad Company was organized 
under the general statutes of Minnesota, March 10, 1883. It 
operates a line from the Minnesota Transfer to Fridley Junc- 
tion, 13.54 miles in length besides having yard tracks and sidings 
amounting to 50.28 miles. 

The Winona Bridge Railway Company was organized under 
the general laws of Minneosta, July 10, 1890, with a capital 
stock of $400,000 for the purpose of constructing and putting 
in operation a line of railway 1.03 miles in length extendng from 
the city of Winona in an easterly direction to the town of Buffalo 
in the State of Wisconsin. A part of this line is a steel rail- 
way bridge across the Mississippi Rver. 

The table below shows the yearly increase in mileage of rail- 
roads since 1862 in Minnesota: 


Miles. Year. 


1862 10.00 

1863 57.00 

1864 100.00 

1865 210.00 

1866 315.00 

1867 429.00 

1868 560.00 

1869 766.00 

1870 1,092.50 

1871 1,500.25 

1872 1,900.00 

1873 1,907.25 

1874 1,947.25 

1875 1,957.25 

1876 1,986.75 

1877 2,198.50 

1878 2,549.28 

1879 2,941.33 

1880 3,099.32 

1881 3,217.26 

1882 3,332.93 

1883 3,767.95 

1884 3,908.98 

1885 4,226.42 

1886 4,368.36 

1887 4,871.04 

1888 5,042.74 

1889 5,303.07 

1890 5,409.11 

1891 5,527.55 

1892 5,615.77 

1893 5,863.89 

1894 5,912.43 

1895 ' 5,990.78 

1896 5,991.31 

1897 6,086.35 

1898 6,062.69 

1899 6,338.37 

1900 6,794.68 

1901 6,993.63 

1902 7,165.93 

1903 7,250.01 

1904 -. 7,467.21 

1905 7,791.85 

1906 7,937.12 

Chapter XXVII. 


THE meteoric entrance of Minnesota into the field of the 
iron industry in America was one of the great commer- 
cial events of the great nineteenth century. Beginning 
in 1884 with a shipment of 62,124 tons from a single mine 
(Minnesota), the shipments for 1895 were 225,484 tons derived 
from the same mine. The following table shows the rapid 
growth of this product from its commencement to and includ- 
ing 1907: 

1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 
Vermilion range 62,124 225,484 304,396 394,252 511,953 844,682 

1890 1891 1892 J893 1894 1895 

Vermilion range 890,014 894,6181,167,650 820,621 948,513 1,077,838 

Mesabi range 4,245 613,6201,793,0532,781,587 

1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 

Vermilion range 1,088,090 1,278,481 1,265,142 1,643,984 1,675,949 

Mesabi range 2,882,079 4,275,809 4,613,766 6,626,384 7,809,535 

1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 

Vermilion range 1,805,996 2,057,532 1,918,584 1,056,430 1,578,626 

Mesabi range 9,004,89013,329,953 13,452,812 11,672,405 20,156,566 

1906 1907 

Vermilion range 1,685,267 1,792,355 

Mesabi range 27,492,949 23,792,553 

On the Mesabi range Ihe Mountain Iron mine was, in 1907, the greatest 
producer, having shipped 2,563,111 tons; on the Vermilion range the leading 
producer in 1907 was the Pioneer, at 766,853 tons. 



There never was an instance in the history of iron mining 
of such rapid increase, and so large an output in so short a 
time, as that exhibited by the development of the Mesabi range. 


The Vermilion range is so called because its chief develop- 
ment took place near Vermilion Lake, from which the outlet, 
known to the early French explorers and traders as Vermilion 
River, flows northward to the waters of the international bound- 
ary. It is a French word, and its origin may reasonably be refer- 
red to the occurrence of conspicuous knobs of red jasper and 
iron ore which existed on the south shore of the lake and must 
have been known to the early travelers. There is no other 
known natural object from which the name could have orginated. 

Samples of high grade ore were sent in 1866 to the Smith- 
sonian Institution, probably by H. H. Eames or George R. 
Stuntz, but they served only as museum samples, and seem to 
have been on exhibition at the Paris Exposition in 1867. The 
State Geologist, August H. Hanchett, having heard of the Ver- 
milion Lake deposit, had made an effort in 1864 to reach the 
locality, but without success, the country then being a trackless 
wilderness known only to the Indians and a few coureurs des 
bois.. In 1865 the State Geologist, H. H. Eames, in making an 
exploration of Vermilion Lake for gold, incidentally examined 
the iron range, and collected samples which showed the ore to 
be of excellent quality. His brief description is in the following 

"The iron range of Vermilion Lake is in the east end, on 
the stream known as Two River, which is about sixty feet wide. 
There are two parallel ridges, forming the boundary of this 
stream, and at the mouth on each side are extensive tamarack 
swamps. This range is about one mile in length, it then ceases, 
and after passing through a swamp another uplift is reached, 
from two hundred and fifty to three hundred feet high. The 
iron is exposed at two or three points, between fifty and sixty 
feet in thickness, at these points it presents quite a mural face, 


but below it is covered by detritus of the over-capping rock. On 
this account its exact thickness could not be correctly ascer- 
tained. The ore is of the variety known as hematite and white 
steely iron, and is associated with quartzose jasperoids and sep- 
pentine rocks. It generally has a caprock of from three to 
twenty feet thick. A little to the north of this is an exposure 
of magnetic iron of very good quality, forming a hill parallel 
to the one described. 

"The hematite iron has a reddish appearance from exposure 
to atmospheric influences; its fracture is massive and granular, 
color a dark steel gray. The magnetic iron ore is strongly at- 
tracted by the magnet, and has polarity, is granularly massive, 
color iron black." 

Assays of this hematite, as reported by Mr. Eames, afforded 
from sixty-five to eighty per cent of iron. He, however, was 
chiefly interested in the search for gold and apparently made 
no effort to call the attention of capitalists to this important 
deposit. If he had concentrated his labor on iron instead of 
gold, even at that early date, he mgiht have been the chief 
agent in bringing this great wealth to light. The next published 
account of an examination of the Vermilion range was made by 
the State Geologist, in 1878, although the Vermilion ridges 
had been visited in 1875 by a party sent out by Professor A. H. 
Chester, and some drilling and blasting had been done in order 
to procure some samples. Professor Chester was examining 
the Mesabi range for private parties and he despatched George 
E. Stuntz and John Mallmann, at the instance of Mr. Stuntz, 
to Vermilion Lake in order to make this preliminary examina- 
tion. His report ,was not published till 1884. 

The State Geologist in 1878 examined the eastern of the 
two main ridges, and did not encounter any traces of the work- 
ing of Stuntz and Mallmann, which had been done on the 
western (or Lee) ridge. 1 Although in the annual reports of the 

^Accompanied by Mr. Mallmann the writer subsequently visited 
the spot at which the first actual drilling and blasting was done on 
the Vermilion range, and took a photograph of the small opening that 
was made. This is reproduced in "Iron Ores of Minnesota," Bulletin 6, 
plate XX, of the Minnesota survey, 1891. 


State Geological Survey, after that of 1878, more or less men- 
tion is made of the iron ores of the State, nothing systematic 
was attempted until, through the representations of George C. 
Stone, of Duluth, Charlemagne Tower, of Pennsylvania, wab 
induced to undertake their exploitation. In 1880 Professor 
A. H. Chester made a personal examination for Messrs. Tower 
and Stone of the Vermilion iron range and the report which he 
rendered was very favorable and encouraging. He found large 
deposits of hematite iron ore mingled with jasperoid rock in 
regular but tortuous alternating bands, the iron content of which 
was from fifty-five per cent, to sixty-seven per cent. He consid- 
ered it, "safe to predict the development there of an iron dis- 
trict of immense value and importance." 

Mr. Stone was elected to the Minnesota Legislature from 
Duluth, and it was wholly through his activity that a law was 
passed "to encourage mining in this state by providing a uni- 
form rate for the taxing of mining properties and products/' 1 
This law provides that "in lieu of all taxes or assessments upon 
the capital stock, personal property, income and real estate of 
such corporation in or upon which real estate such business of 
mining may be carried on, or which real estate is connected 
therewith and set apart for such business/' each mining com- 
pany may pay the following amounts annually into the State 
treasury, one-half of these payments to be accredited to the 
general fund of the State and the other half to the county or 
counties in which such mines are located, viz: "For each ton of 
copper fifty (50) cents; on and for each ton of iron ore mined 
and shipped or disposed of, one cent for each ton; and for each 
ton of coal mined the sum of one cent per ton; each ton to be 
estimated as containing two thousands, two hundred and forty 
(2,240) pounds." 

Under the terms of this law the Minnesota Iron Company 
was organized; 2 a railroad was built from Agate Bay (now Two 

'General Laws of 1881. 

This company was chartered November 14, 1882, the charter mem- 
bers being C. Tower, E. Breitung, G. C. Stone, C. Tower, Jr., and R. H. 


Harbors) to Vermilion Lake and Captain Elisha Morcom com- 
menced actual mining at Soudan. The Duluth and Iron Range 
Railroad Company was granted, by the same Legislature, a 
liberal amount of land per mile for the construction of the road. 
In 1886 the management of the Minnesota Iron Company 
passed from George C. Stone to D. A. Bacon. 

Meantime, in the years following the first shipment from 
the Vermilion range at Soudan, discoveries of similar ore were 
made further east by James Sheridan and others and through 
the agency of Joseph Sellwood the Chandler mine was opened at 
Ely. In the years 1888 and 1889 this mine shipped 56,712 and 
306,000 tons respectively, and the Pioneer, in 1889 produced 
3,100 tons. At the location of these new mines the city of Ely 
was established. At the same place the Zenith mine began pro- 
ducing ore in 1892. The Sibley and Savoy were begun later. 
All the mines at Ely were consolidated in 1890 with those at 
Soudan and were operated under the direction of the Minnesota 
Iron Company. 

About three miles east of Ely is a large display of ore 
and jasper, forming a hill or ridge running east and west, sim- 
ilar to the ridges containing the ore at Soudan. This is situated 
on section 30, township 63, range 11. W. It early attracted the 
notice of explorers and was pre-empted by Messrs. Eaton and 
Merritt. Through a series of transfers more or less irregular by 
which the ownership was involved, a long litigation followed and 
finally the case reached the United States Supreme Court. It 
became celebrated at the "Section 30" case. On final settlement 
the land was adjudged in 1904 to belong to Leondas Merritt, of 
Duluth, although he had not been in late years an active parti- 
cipant in the litigation. Some exploration by diamond drill has 
been carried on since, but, so far as known, no great body of 
iron has been found. 

At many places, both east and west from Vermilion Lake, 
extending from Hunter's Island, on the international boundary, 
to the upper waters of the Little Fork and the Bowstring Rivers, 
in Itasca County, have been found indications of iron ore be- 



longing to the Vermilion range, but no important discoveries 

have been made. 

At the present time the active mines on the Vermilion 
range are all owned, at least controlled, by the United States 
Steel Corporation, whose local representative is W. J. Olcott, 

in Duluth. 


The Cuyuna range, which lies in Crow Wing and Aitkin 
Counties, though not known to be continuously connected with 
the Vermilion range, is the most important of the later devel- 
opments in the rocks of about the same age as the Vermilion 
ores. It has not yet reached the stage of active production, but 
considerable quantities of ore of low grade have been discovered. 
Much of the ore here is magnetite, and it was through the mag- 
netic disturbance of the compass that this ore was discovered, as 
no rock is exposed at the surface. M. Cuyler Adams, of Deer- 
wood, has been mainly instrumental in bringing this iron ore to 

The geological age of the rocks that carry the Vermilion 
ores is Archean, being the oldest of all known rocks. The ore is 
intimately associated with red jaspers, and its chief impurity is- 
quartz. The ore and the jasper are one in origin and in date, 
and they are embraced in a great greenstone terrane which ex- 
tends northeastwardly to Hunter's Island, and also southwest- 
wardly at least to the headwaters of Bowstring River, and spreads 

If the reader is desirous of knowing the later developments 
of the ores of the Vermilion range, with the particulars of 
their geological and mineralogical relations, he should consult the 
following works : 

Bulletin No. 6, Minnesota Geological and Natural Histor3 r 
Survey. The Iron Ores of Minnesota, N. H. and H. V. Winchell, 

Vol. IV, Final Report, Geological and Natural History Sur- 
vey of Minnesota, Minnesota Iron Mining Statistically and Econ- 
omically Considered, Horace V. Winchell, 1899. 


Memoirs, U .S. Geological Survey, Vol. XLV, The Vermil- 
ion Iron Bearing District of Minnesota, J. Morgan Clements, 

Mineral Resources of the United States, annual reports, 
David T. Day, to 1907, United States Geological Survey. 


The first notice of the ore of the Mesabi range was made by 
Dr. J. G. Norwood, in 1850, when connected with the Geological 
Survey of D. D. Owen. It was at the extreme eastern end of 
the range at Gunflint Lake, and the ore was only casually 
noted by Norwood in passing. At the western end of the range 
it was noted by the State Geologist, H. H. Eames, at Prairie 
River, in 1866. He gives one analysis of "50^ per cent of 
metal" and mentions "iron ore" and "jasperoid rock with iron 
ore." In the appendix he also reports assays of this ore rang- 
ing from about forty-three to seventy per cent of iron. It is 
evident that he was not so favorably impressed with this ore as 
with that from Vermilion Lake. Midway between these ex- 
tremes iron ore was discovered by the United States land sur^ 
veyors in the region north from Beaver Bay, and a company 
was organized for the purpose of making more extensive exam- 
ination. This ore proved to be a part of the Masabi range. 
The company embraced Messrs. H. P. Wieland (one of the dis- 
coverers), W. W. Spalding, of Duluth, Peter Mitchell and others, 
Mr. Mitchell conducted the exploration in the field. The result 
of exploration was not encouraging, and the enterprise was sus- 
pended, although the company, after reconstruction, became the 
owner of a large tract of land which it still holds. This em- 
braces about 9,000 acres in the eastern part of the Mesabi range. 
The company is the oldest existing iron mining company in the 
state, incorporated June 14, 1882, under the title Mesabi Iron 
Company. For some years its president was Alexander Ramsey,, 
and its Secretary, W. W. Spalding. 

In 1875, Professor A. H. Chester examined the iron depos- 
its of the Mesabi range, as already noted, for George C. Stone. 


The average percentage of iron reported by him was forty-four 
and sixty-eight hundredths. The ore was found to be lean and 
not abundant, and although several attempts at real mining have 
been made in this part of the range they have all been failures. 
The range was visited by N. H. Winchell in 1878, and briefly 
described in his report for that year, with some analyses. In 
1886 an effort was made, directed from Grand Marais, in Cook 
County, to develop the ore about the western environs of Gun- 
flint Lake. The main deposits here were discovered by Henry 
Mayhew, and the exploration was conducted by Messrs. Paulson, 
Barker, Boyden and Millar. From the exploration resulted later 
the Gunflint Lake Iron Company, and the construction of a 
railroad from Port Arthur, Ontario. But no ore has been ship- 
ped. The enterprise is now abandoned. 

The next systematic shafting on the Mesabi range was con- 
ducted in 1888 by John Mallmann, who had been at work in the 
field with the writer for the State Geological Survey. The con- 
clusion had been reached by the Minnesota survey, that the iron 
ores of the State were in two separate series of rocks and that 
the Mesabi series was crossed by the Duluth and Iron Range 
railroad at Mesabi station on that railroad. This opinion was 
imparted to Mr. Mallmann to whom a low rock-cut was pointed 
out as the most favorable point for exploration. This was then 
known as the "red cut." Mr. Mallmann induced the Minnesota 
Iron Company to furnish the means for sinking a shaft at this 
point. In the immediate vicinity, but a little further north, 
large deposits of ore have since been reported. From this point 
exploratons were extended westward by other parties, and al- 
though there was not good success for a year or two, every test- 
pit that was sunk to the bedrock confirmed the idea that the 
Mesabi range rocks were not only iron-bearing, but that they 
were a different set of rocks from those containing ore at Ver- 
milion Lake. In the latter part of 1890 and the first part of 
1891 the great discoveries were made which have brought the 
Mesabi range into the front rank of the iron districts of the 
world. A number of parties, some as individuals and some as 
corporations, participated in the early exploration, but probably 


the Merritt Brothers, of Duluth, would be accredited, on all 
hands, with having been foremost in field exploration. In the 
year 1890 they made 116 leases of State land on the 'Mesabi range 
alone, with the view of exploring for iron ore, and others on 
the Vermilion range. George L. Bobbins, Emil Hartmann, Gen- 
eral James H. Baker, Surveyor General of the State, (associated 
with Eli W. Griffin formerly connected with the United States 
Survey under General Baker) and Henry G. Ingerson and others 
were also active. The Mountain Iron mine was found first 
(November 16, 1890), by workmen under the direction of Cap- 
tain J. A. Nichols. The Biawabik was discovered in August, 
1891, by Captain Nichols and Wilbur Merritt. The Mountain 
Iron mine was on land formerly belonging to the State of Min- 
nesota, being a part of the school lands given by Congress, but 
was lost through some mistaken action on the part of the State 
officers. 1 It was relinquished by Auditor Braden January 25, 
1888, which was nearly three years prior to the discovery of the 
Mountain Iron mine. Discoveries have followed each other rap- 
idty, and the extent of the range has been carried to and beyond 
the Mississippi River. 

It should not be inferred from the foregoing that the move- 
ment of development was entirely toward the west from Mesabi 
station. But little later than the commencement of the explora- 
tion by Mr. Mailman at the "red cut," operations of the same 
kind were begun on the western end of the range, by General 
James H. Baker and associates, having Grand Rapids as base. 
Eli Griffin conducted this enterprise and from this resulted later 
the Diamond and the Itasca Mining companies. There remains 
but little territory now on the known Mesabi range which has 
not been pierced by diamond drill at frequent intervals, resulting 
in the discovery of large amounts of ore. 

Up to January, 1908, the State had executed leases to swamp 
and school lands to the number of 4313, which netted to the 
treasury of the State for the leases alone the sum of $363,565. 
These are not wholly, but mainly, on the Mesabi range. While 

1P rhis matter was investigated by a special joint committee of the 
Legislature of 1897. 


the most of these leases have not proved productive of ore, there 
are 643 which have been converted into contracts with the State 
from which an annual rental is received of $178,300. The royal- 
ties on the ore mined from the leases amount up to January 
1908, $942,376.14. 

The explorations that have been made, although not devel- 
oped as mining properties, have been sufficient to plainly indi- 
cate that the Mesabi range occupies a larger territory than has 
been supposed, and that Minnesota can be relied on to continue 
to be a large, and probably the largest, iron producing state in 
the Union for many years. At present the large mines are at 
Hibbing, Virginia, Mountain Iron, Biwabik and Eveleth. Many 
of them are great open pits, without underground works. The 
stripping is removed and the ore is mined by steam shovel. The 
train is run on a gentle descent, into the heart of the pit, which 
sometimes is about three hundred feet below the natural, original 
surface of the country, and a quarter of a mile or more from 
the point of entrance. The succession of terraces which the 
steam shovel has left as the excavation has progressed, and on 
which the train has operated from time to time, presents a pan- 
oramic view very impressive to the observer. 

The Mesabi ore differs from that of the Vermilion range, 
being so "soft" that but a small amount of blasting is necessary. 
Yet that is not a constant difference since the ore of the Chand- 
ler mine of the Vermilion range, is so fragmentary that it is 
mined as easily as the Mesabi ore. The quality of the ore of 
both ranges is so excellent that it is employed for the making 
of Bessemer pig iron. 

The age of the formation containing the ore is that of the 
Taconic system, supposed to be in the lower Cambrian, though 
named "Upper Huronian" by the United States geological sur- 

On the Mesabi Iron range the reader who desires more 
special information may consult the following: 

Minnesota Geological Survey. The Mesabi Iron Range, 
Twentieth Annual Report, pp. 111-180, 1892, by Horace V. 
Winchell: Final Report, Vol. IV, various chapters by U. S. 


Grant and N. H. Wincheli and Vol. V., pp. 44 to 74, and 900 
to 999, by N. H. Wincheli. United States Geological Survey, 
Memoirs, XLIII ; The Mesabi Iron Bearing District, C. K. Leith, 


Granite This term will here be used only for the massive 
and even-grained varieties of crystalline rock used for building. 
Stearns County, which contains St. Cloud, lying west of the Mis- 
sissippi River, and Sherburne which lies on the east side of the 
Mississippi adjoining Stearns, were the first to furnish quar- 
ried granite. This was in 1867 and 1868. It was but little 
later that granite quarries were opened also at Sauk Rapids, 
Benton County, which lies next north from Sherburne. Two 
varieties of granite are furnished by these quarries, one with a 
large amount of free quartz, rendering it hard to quarry and to 
trim, but a very fine material when employed in situations re- 
quiring a polished surface, and one variety with much less 
quartz, a fact which induces quarrymen to prefer it for general 
uses. This is generally of a gray color, and sometimes becomes 
gneissic; while the red, which has more quartz, becomes coarser 
grained, especially in some of the quarries of Stearns County, 
and then resembles the variety often called Scotch Granite. 

These quarries furnished the stone put in the old Custom 
House at St. Paul, and in the watertables of the Union depot. 
They have also furnished the material for the walls of many 
large buildings in St. Paul and Minneapolis, and for other 

The important quarries at Big Stone Lake, near Brown's 
Valley, furnish a coarsely crystalline granite which is gray and 
massive. It was employed in the Court House of Hennepin 
County at Minneapolis. In the Minnesota Valley, from Big 
Stone Lake to New Ulm, are frequent exposures of crystalline 
rock, and some of these outcrops afford a granite which has been 
quarried, viz: at East Redwood Falls. 

Although granite is abundant in the northern part of the 
State it has not been quarried extensively. Probably the quar- 


ries opened in the granite of the Giant's range, at an old station 
on the Duluth and Iron Range Railway called "Mesabi Heights," 
is the most important. This locality furnished the granite used 
in the Auditorium Hotel at Chicago, but the work has now 

The so-called granite of Duluth is properly a gabbro, and 
contains no quartz. An allied rock is that which forms the 
"dalles" at Taylor's Falls. These rocks are softer than granite, 
but more difficult to quarry owing to their homogeneity of texture 
and absence or rift or gnessic structure. The value of the granite 
output for Minnesota, in 1905 was $481,908. 

Gneiss A handsome rock is quarried at Morton, in the 
Minnesota Valley, which has a contorted gneissic structure, but 
at no other known place is a gneiss quarried within the State. 

Quartzyte A considerable industry is centered in Pipestone 
and Rock Counties, based on a stone which in the market is 
known as "red jasper," but which, aside from hardness and color, 
has but few of the characters of jasper. A similar rock is found 
and quarried near New Him, in Nicollet County, this being the 
oldest quarry in the State in this rock. In the United States 
Mineral Statistics this rock is included with sandstone. 

Sandstone Large quantities of an excellent sandstone are 
quarried at Banning and at Sandstone in Pine County. This 
is a light yellowish stone varying to buff, and has been put into 
large structures in Minneapolis and St. Paul. It was first known 
as Hinckley sandstone where its excellent qualities were first dis- 
covered by the State Geologist in the course of a series of ex- 
periments to determine the physical properties of the building 
stones of the State, 1 but in the market it bears the name Kettle 
River stone, from the river in whose banks it is chiefly quarried. 
Other sandstones are quarried at Jordan, in Scott Crunty, Fond 
du Lac in St. Louis County, formerly near Fort Snelling from 
an island in the bottom-land of the Minnesota River. The piers 
of the Fort Snelling highway bridge were taken from this last 
mentioned locality. This stone was also put into the first hotel 

Published in Vol. 1, of the final report of the Geological and Na- 
tural History Survey of the State. 


built in the State. It was in 1838, at Mendota, and was built 
by John B. Faribault. It is still standing. 

Dolomyte This is magnesian limestone, and is extensively 
wrought at points along the valley of the St. Croix Mississippi 
from Still water to Winona. The principal points are Stillwater, 
Eed Wing and Winona. The same rock is quarried at Kasota 
and Mankato, also at Lanesboro. This rock is suitable for a 
great variety of uses, such as rough building, dressed building, 
flagging, curbing, paving and quicklime. The total production 
has varied for some years between four and five hundred thousand 
dollars per annum. The color of this stone is usually buff, but 
at Kasota it is slightly stained by iron and presents a pinkish 
or "fawn color." 

Limestone the bluish-gray limestone wrought extensively 
at St. Paul and Minneapolis is of an inferior grade, belonging 
to the Trenton formation of the Lower Silurian. This stone also 
is quarried at Northfield and Faribault. Its total production 
per year is not far from two hundred thousand dollars. 

The reader may consult, for further details, the following 
documents : 

Minnesota Geological Survey. The Building Stones of Min- 
nesota, Vol. I, Final Report, pp. 142-203, N. H. Winchell, and 
the annual reports of the United States Geological Survey on the 
Mineral Resources of the United States, David T. Day. 

Chapter XXVIII. 

AGEICULTURE and its allied industries are the founda- 
tion of Minnesota's greatness. The days when Norris 
and Haskell demonstrated at Cottage Grove, the adapt- 
ability of Minnesota's soil for the production of wheat are but 
a little over a half a century removed. Since that time, Minne- 
sota has become known throughout the World as the "Bread and 
Butter State," and annually raises a bushel of wheat and a pound 
of butter for every individual in the United States. 

This rapid development in the agricultural interests of the 
State is due to several causes, the most important of which being 
the great improvements made in agricultural machinery. The 
name most prominent in the early inventions of these improve- 
ments was Cyrus H. McCormick, a native of Virginia, who in 
1834 perfected his father's invention of a reaping machine, on 
which he received a patent. This reaper had a sickle-edge 
sectional knife, reciprocating by a crank movement with the bear- 
ing and drive wheels; a reel and a divider were used on each end 
of the platform. A seat for a driver was placed behind the 
platform. The machine was placed on the market in 1840, and 
was perfected in several ways by Mr. McCormick, who in 1851 
received a medal at the World's Fair in London. 

On the first reaping machine a man was stationed on the 
platform, who forked the grain to the ground as it was cut, an 
improvement was afterwards made by attaching a dumping ar- 
rangement so it could be operated by the driver. In 1851, W. 
H. Seymour, of New York, invented a quadrant-shaped platform, 



directly behind the cutters, a reel to gather the grain, and a 
rake moving over the platform in the arc of a circle deposited 
the sheaves on the ground. In 1856, Owen Dorsey of Mary- 
land, combined the reel and rake, and in 1865, another inventor 
named Johnston, so improved the rake that the size of the 
sheaves could be regulated at the will of the driver, thus per- 
fecting in every detail the self-rake. 

At the commencement of the harvest season, in the latter 
part of June, in Southern Illinois and Eastern Missouri, a large 
number of men were employed in binding the sheaves of grain 
as they came from the reapers. As the season progressed, these 
laborers journeyed northward, and at different points were met 
by the farmers eager to secure their services. This continued for 
several seasons, but when the time came for harvest one year, the 
laborers on arriving at different points, where they erpected to 
find work, found there was no demand for their labor. The 
reaper had been further improved by the addition of a self- 
binder, and the sheaves were placed on the ground ready to be 
gathered and carted from the fields. This so incensed the la- 
borers that in many cases they marched in a body to the fields, 
unharnessed the horses from the reapers, and ,would not allow 
the farmers to operate them; in some instances they went so far 
as to destroy the machines. 

The improved reaper and the sulky plow, turning two 
furrows at once, and on which the operator rode instead of the 
old way of following the plow, made it possible for a farmer to 
cultivate with the same amount of help, over four times as much 
land as under the old system. 

Another cause for the rapid advancement of Minnesota, as 
an agricultural State, was the attractive features it presented to 
immigrants from the United States and European countries. 
Also the pioneer movement of railroad corporations in interlacing 
the State's surface with railroads in every direction, bringing 
every portion in touch with both domestic and foreign markets. 
In many cases the country was opened up for settlement by 
these advance agents of civilization, thereby encouraging home- 
seekers, and immigrants to locate farms as they were thus as- 
sured a market for their surplus productions. 


In 1850, Minnesota had 5,035 acres of improved land, of 
which 1,900 acres were tilled, and in that year she produced 
71,709 bushels of grain and potatoes. During the next decade 
her improved lands were increased to 546,951 acres, of which 
133,267 were tilled. 

According to J. A. Wheelock, Commissioner of Statistics' 
report in 1860, the cash value of farms was estimated at $19,- 
070,737, while in 1850 their value had been placed at $161,948. 
In the latter year $15,981 was invested in farming implements; 
ten years later they were estimated to be worth $1,044,009-. The 
value of the live stock in 1850 was $92,859, which had increased 
in 1860 to $3,655,366. Minnesota's 734 swine during the same 
period had increased to 101,252; her eighty sheep to flocks 
numbering 13,123. From 1850 to 1860 her 607 milch cows 
increased to 40,386; her 655 working oxen to 27,574, and her 
860 >horses to 17,122. 

In her agriculturad products during the decade from 1850 
to 1860, the State showed marvelous growth, as seen by the fol- 
lowing statement : 

PRODUCT 1850 1860 

Wheat 1,401 bushels 2, 195,812 bushels 

Rye 125 125,257 

Indian Corn 16,725 2,987,570 

Oats 30,582 2,202,050 

Potatoes 21,145 2,027,948 

Peas and Beans 10,002 18,802 

Barley 12,116 125,130 

Buckwheat 515 27,677 

Market Garden Products 150 94,681 

Butter 1,100 Ibs. 2,961,598 Ibs. 

Hay 20,119 tons 274,952 tons 

Maple Sugar 2,019 Ibs. 37,949 Ibs. 

There were also raised in the State in 1860, 38,570 pounds 
of tobacco, and 198,904 pounds of cheese were manufactured; the 
orchard products amounted to $298, and 14,974 gallons of sor- 
ghum molasses, and 21,829 gallons of maple molasses were 

In 1870, the total acreage in farms had increased to 
6,483,828 acres, of which 2,322,162 acres were improved. The 
percentage of unimproved farm lands had decreased from 19.5 
per cent in 1860 to 64.2 per cent in 1870. The farm property 


was estimated to be worth $97,847,422, and there were $6,721,120 
invested in farming implements and machinery. The value of 
farm products, improvements and addition to stock aggregated 

The spring wheat crop in 1870 was 18,789,188 bushels, and 
was exceeded only by Iowa and Wisconsin. The winter wheat 
crop amounted to 76,885 bushels. The average wheat crops for 
eleven years ending 1869 was seventeen bushels to the acre. In 
1868 the banner wheat counties were Dakota, Fillmore, Goodhue 
and Olmsted. 

According to the census of 1870, there were raised the pre- 
ceding year in the State 4,743,117 bushels of Indian corn; 10,- 
678,261 bushels of oats; 1,032,024 bushels of barley; 78,088 
bushels of rye; 52,438 bushels of buckwheat; 1,943,063 bushels 
of potatoes; 122,571 pounds of flax; 695,093 tons of hay; and 
222,065 pounds of hops. There were 9,522,010 pounds of butter 
manufactured. The market garden products amounted in value, 
to $115,324, while the orchard products were estimated at 
$15,818. There had been since 1869 a decrease in the cultiva- 
tion of tobacco; the crop of 1869 amounted to only 8,247 pounds. 
The production of maple sugar and the manufacture of sorghum 
and maple molasses, also showed a decrease. 

The 132,343 sheep in the State in 1860 produced 401,185 
pounds of wool. The number of horses was 102, 678, while the 
neat cattle amounted to 365,241 head. 

In 1866, capitalists began to turn their attention to farm- 
ing in Minnesota; in that year the pioneer bonanza farmer, 
Oliver Dalrymple, a lawyer, of St. Paul, purchased in Washing- 
ton County, three large farms located about fifteen miles south 
of St. Paul between the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers. These 
farms were named after the three generals of the War of the 
Rebellion, Grant, Sherman and Sheridan. In 1867, he had 1,700 
acres in wheat, which yielded 35,700 bushels; the next year he 
raised 39,000 bushels, and in 1869, on 2,000 acres, in the neigh- 
borhood of 50,000 bushels. During the harvest season he em- 
ployed one Imndred men and one hundred horses. These farm-* 
ing operations paifl a handsome profit on the investment. Amongp 


the other large farmers at this period were J. W. Paxton, for- 
merly of St. Paul, who purchased upwards of 15,000 acres in 
Eedwood County, and Clark W. Thompson, who had a farm of 
9,000 acres in one body near Wells, in Faribault County. 

In the late sixties, Minnesota attracted the favorable notice 
of the citizens of her sister States, as being well adapted for ag- 
ricultural purposes. The noted editor of the New York Tribune, 
Horace Greeley, who in the early existence of the State was not 
prepossessed in her favor, wrote in 1868 as follows: 

I find her soil better than I hoped; warm, fertile, and just about 
rolling enough to secure proper drainage at little or no expense. Her 
Indian corn was not luxuriant, but of fair growth; her grass had 
plainly been ample; her wheat and oats better (in the average) than 
I ever before knew. Her vegetables (as exhibited at the State Fair) I 
had seen surpassed only in California alone. In fruit alone did she seem 
deficient; her butter, cheese and honey would justify any praise. 

General Le Due, to demonstrate, at the World's Fair in 
New York, that Minnesota was an agricultural State, was able 
to secure a few ears of corn from Cottage Grove, Sauk Eapids 
and the Fort garden at Fort Eipley. It is claimed that to make 
his exhibit more attractive on his journey to New York through 
Illinois, he made several purchases of the products of that State. 
Thus only fifteen years from the time when he attempted to 
demonstrate that Minnesota was not an utterly barren waste, 
limited to the raising of a few cranberries and some muskrat 
skins, not only was the noted editor of the New York Tribune 
lavishing praises of the agricultural values of the State, but 
these encomiums were expressed throughout the country. 

The first wheat exported from the State was raised in 1857 
on the Le Sueur prairie, and it was not until 1864 that any 
wheat was shipped north of the Minnesota River. Rochester was 
the first champion wheat market of the State; later on it traveled 
eastward to Red Wing, but finally Minneapolis became, and is 
today, the World's primary wheat market. The cause of this 
change in the location of the State's wheat market was due 
mainly to the opening up of the Red River Valley and the pro- 
duction of spring wheat in that location. 


Prior to 1878 there were no settlements away from the 
Red, Red Lake and Pembina Rivers. While wheat had been 
raised in that region since the time the Selkirk colonists had 
demonstrated the adaptability of the soil for its cultivation; it 
had been produced on small acreages from ten to twenty-five 
acres. The completion of the St. Paul, Minneapolis and Mani- 
toba railroad (now the Great Northern) to St. Vincent encour- 
aged immigration; and settlers at the various stations established 
by the company commenced to break ground and sow wheat. 
Without the advent of railroads; the country today would be prac- 
tically unpopulated and undeveloped. 

Another leading factor, in settling this country was the so- 
called bonanza farmers demonstrating on a large scale the prac- 
ticability of producing wheat at a profit on the flat lands of the 
valley. The first pioneer in the Red River Valley in this line of 
industry was Oliver Dalrymple, who in the spring of 1875, after 
an examination, became convinced of the value of lands for 
wheat growing. He entered into a contract with large holders 
of Northern Pacific bonds, who had exchanged their holdings, 
for a great block of the company's lands. The owners were to 
furnish Mr. Dalrymple with stock, implements and seed to cul- 
tivate the land, he agreeing to return to them seven per cent 
interest on their investment, also to have the option of paying 
back the principal and interest, when he was to be granted one- 
third of the land. 

In 1875, 1,280 acres were broken and the first harvest 
yielded 32,000 bushels, an average of little over twenty-three 
bushels to the acre. As soon as the results of Mr. Dalrymple's 
experiment became known; capital began seeking the depreciated* 
Northern Pacific bonds, and exchanging them for lands, and 
labor flocked from adjoining States to pre-empt Government 
lands. In the summer of 1879, the sales of Government land 
amounted to nearly 700,000 acres and during the year 1,500,000 
acres were taken as homestead, pre-emptions, and tree claims in 

The Dalrymple holdings comprised some 100,000 acres, and 
in 1878, the wheat acreage had been increased to 13,000 acres. 


It was increased from year to year until in 1895, there were 
some 65,000 acres under cultivation. The following year, a set- 
tlement was effected between the owners and Mr. Dalrymple and 
the great farm was subdivided. 

The impetus thus given to wheat raising in the Bed Kiver 
Valley produced a development, unparalleled in the history of 
the country. In the twelve counties located in the valley, six 
of which are in Minnesota and six in North Dakota, the popula- 
tion, which in 1870, was about 1,000, by the census of 1900 was 
221,758. The assessed value of the property is estimated to be 
$100,000,000. In 1898 there were under cultivation in Wilkin, 
Clay, Norman, Polk, Marshall and Kittson Counties 1,180,154 
acres, which produced 17,178,840 bushels of wheat. In the 
North Dakota counties of Richland, Cass, Traill, Grand Forks, 
Walsh and Pembina there were 1,839,335 acres under cultivation; 
which produced 30,938,916 bushels, wheat at sixty cents a bushel 
made the total value of the crop to the producers amount to 

All the factors of geographical position, topography, soil, 
climate, rainfall and genesis of its population have combined to 
make Minnesota a great agricultural State. In few, if any of 
the States of the Union is so large a proportion of the area 
capable of profitable cultivation. Exclusive of lakes this pro- 
portion is estimated to reach ninety per cent. The geological 
processes were so ordered, as to endow the State with remarkable 
wealth of prairie area covered with a productive soil. Eminent 
geologists have pointed out that the soil is derived from a mantle 
of glacial drift, and made by the intermingling of many rock 
species. This shows a remarkable variety of chemical com- 
ponents, and induces a diversity of crop possibilities rarely equal- 
led, and nowhere excelled within the United States. 

Minnesota's climate is bright, sunny and invigorating; the 
average annual temperature is about forty-two degrees. There 
is with the exception of in the immediate vicinity of Lake Super- 
ior, a noticeable absence of humidity, which in many States 
makes the summer warmth less pleasant, and intensifies the cold 
of winter. The average number of sunny days is one hundred 



and fifty a year; in some section two hundred a year. The 
rain-fall for many years has averaged thirty inches, while the 
snow-fall has averaged forty-nine inches. 

The peculiarities of the atmosphere seem especially favor- 
able to the growth of wheat, which Minnesota for many years 
produced the largest crop of any State in the Union. That for 
several seasons, she has relinquished this position to one or two 
other States; is owing simply to the former exclusive wheat 
growers having found diversified fanning more profitable. 

The State is divided into two distinct agricultural dis- 
tricts; the northern and northeastern portions are known as the 
"Big Woods Country/' The soil through this region is as a 
whole of a red, yellow or black clay variety mixed with sand, 
and this makes a combination very fertile, which is quick and 
warm, and gives forth beautiful crops, particularly of the root 
and grass variety. The northeasterly country along the iron 
ranges, and the north slope of Lake Superior, the surface in 
some places is very rough and rocky, while in its immediate 
neighborhood there are large tracts as level as a board, with 
rich black soil suitable for any kind of agricultural purposes. 

In the southern and southwestern portion of the State, there 
is a gentle rolling prairie, the soil is a rich black loam, which is 
adapted to the production of abundant crops of anything that 
can be raised in this section of the United States. This portion 
of the State is particularly adapted to stock raising, as both 
tame and wild grass grow abundantly. 

In the middle and western portions of the State, the soil is 
from two to six feet in depth of a heavy black loam, and is best 
adapted to the raising of any kinds of cereals. Dairying is 
also followed to a great extent, and large orchards of hardy 
fruits bring handsome returns for capital invested. 

There is room in Minnesota for 625,000 farms of eighty 
acres each. The number actually cultivated, according to the 
census of 1900, was 154,649 farms containing 26,248,498 acres, 
of this 18,442,585 acres were improved lands. Of these farms 
82.7 per cent were farmed by the owners, 14 per cent by share 
tenants and 3.3 per cent by tenants paying cash rentals. 


In cereal production Minnesota ranks fourth in the Union, 
and of the total acres under cultivation in 1899, seventy-four 
per cent was in cereals. The value of all farm crops in that year 
was $113,096,602, and of this cereals represented $85,817,555, 
or seventy-five per cent of the total value of all crops. In 1879, 
the State raised 23,314,240 bushels of oats, in 1899, the crop 
was increased to 74,054.500 bushels, having a marketable value 
of $15,829,804, making the State rank fourth in production 
amongst her sisters States. In barley production, Minnesota ranks 
second, having increased her crop of 3,000,000 bushels in 1879, 
to 24,314,240 bushels in 1899. In production of rye, she ranks 
fifth, her crop in 1899 being nearly 2,000,000 bushels. In flax 
seed the crop in 1899 of 5,895,497 bushels placed the 
State as second in production of this seed. To show the im- 
portance of the grain products, there were on August 31, 1906, 
1,763 public local warehouses, or county elevators and ware- 
houses in the State. 

Corn raising is rapidly becoming an important branch of 
agriculture in the State, particularly in the southern and wes- 
tern portions. Once the State, except the southern tier of coun- 
tries, was deemed "north of the corn belt." Now, many of the 
counties produce crops of corn equal to, or excelling those of 
Iowa counties. Through a careful selection of varieties, and the 
increasing self-adaption of these to the peculiarities of the 
climate, corn is making for itself a prosperous habitant even in 
the northern counties. 

In 1889, Minnesota raised 24,696,466 bushels of corn, ten 
years latter her crop amuonted to 47,266,900 bushels, an in- 
crease of about fifty per cent. At the present time the State 
produces close to 90,000,000 bushels of corn annually. There 
were sixteen counties in 1899 that produced nearly 23,000,000 
bushels, or almost as much as the entire State produced in 1889. 
These counties were Fillmore, Blue Earth, Martin, Nobles, Fari- 
bault, Freeborn, Rock, Olmsted, Mower, Houston, Jackson, 
Eedwood, Renville, Le Sueur, Wright and Murray. The largest 
yield was Fillmore with 2,530,050 bushels, the smallest, Murray 
with 1,002,550 bushels. 


The great potato belt of the State extends north and north- 
west from the Twin Cities into Anoka, Isanti, Chisago, Sher- 
burne, Wright, and southern Mille Lacs, and Pine Counties; also 
to the extreme northern counties, in fact all of the State is good 
for potato production. The crop amounts to over 20,000,000 
bushels annually, and is valued from $5,000,000 to $10,000,000 
according to the price received for the product. The soil is so 
peculiarly suited to their production that along with rutabagoes, 
turnips, mangles and carrots; they are fed to live stock to 
supplement hay, as fodder. The raising of sugar beets is 
yet in its infancy in the State, though it has advanced beyond 
the experimental stage. In Carver County there is a factory, 
now manufacturing its second year's run amounting to the pro- 
duct from 3,000 acres. 

While Minnesota's farmers can successfully raise any kind of 
farm products, in tame and wild grass both in quality and 
quantity of production, she stands foremost amongst her sister 
States. Grasses thrive in every part of the State, particularly 
in the extreme northeastern portions, though at the present 
writing the former is practically undeveloped. 

Market gardening for exportation is mainly confined to the 
vicinity of the Twin Cities, though cabbages, onions, squash, be- 
sides other vegetables are successfully raised in various parts 
of the state. 

In fruit production in the decade from 1890 to 1900, Min- 
nesota made the greatest progress of any State in the Union. In 
1903 her crop of apples was valued at $550,000. In crab 
apples, plums, grapes and berries the yield is profilic. Wild fruits 
grow luxuriantly. In the northern portion of the State cran- 
berries grow quite extensively in many places. 

The creamery industry in the State dates back only thirty 
years. In 1878, there were a few scattering creameries in the 
southern portion of the State; six years later at the Cotton 
Exposition at New Orleans, exhibitors of her creamery products 
took twenty of the class premiums. However, in 1886, there 
were only 142 creameries and cheese factories, and one-half of 
these failed in the next few years on account of improper organ- 


ization and the sale of oleomargarine. Eigid State laws creat- 
ing a dairy and food commission, and the birth of co-operative 
creameries soon placed the industry on a firm footing. 

In 1900, the first co-operative creamery was organized 
in Freeborn County, and today, there are 700 such cream- 
eries, while 185 are conducted under private or independent 
ownership. There are also seventy-six cheese factories in the State. 
In 1886 the total production was almost 7,000,000 pounds of 
butter, while in 1906, 85,000,000 were made. In 1860, the 
milch cows of the State were worth $40,000, today they are 
worth $25,000,000. In 1870 the milch cows numbered 121,000 
while, now there are a round million or more. This marvelous 
growth has been due to the fine grass and grain producing soil, 
a great abundance of pure water, and an ideal atmosphere, all 
of which are so essential to rich cream production. This has 
caused the creamery zone to move from Ilinois north to North- 
ern Iowa into Southern Minnesota, as it moves farther north 
the region seems to have still greater possibilities. Minnesota 
was the first State to establish a fully equipped dairy school in 
connection with the State Agricultural College. 

The advantages of the State's grass and grain crops are na- 
tural adjuncts for the raising of live stock, which profitably pro- 
duced is the best test for agricultural development. In 1860, 
the live stock of the State was worth a little over $3,500,000 and 
in 1907 its value approximated closed to $100,000,000. In 
1906, 191,562 cows and calves, 660,392 hogs, and 88,798 sheep 
were sold by Minnesota farmers to the South St. Paul stock 
yards, having a marketable value of $12,000,000. The State 
is particularly adapted for sheep raising, but owing to the value 
of her farms this industry has largely gone to the prairies of the 
West. Over seventy-five per cent of the area of the State is un- 
dulating land adapted to the raising of sheep; the industry 
is, however, gaining importance as an important and profitable 
business. Swine and poultry raising are also gaining prominence 
and the Minnesota horse is an important factor, some of her 
studs having achieved highest honors at the most famous horse 
shows of America. 


The economic interests of the State being so largely agricul- 
tural it is natural that its perf ennent should be the object of much 
legislative solicitude. This had manifested itself in the en- 
couragement of agricultureal education. Not only in the es- 
tablishment of the College of Agriculture, and its experimental 
stations, but by maintaining for the past eighteen years a system 
of farmer's institutes, or traveling farmer's schools, which hold 
scores of meetings annually, and in which specialists, instruct 
men and women seeking information for better conduct of the 
farm and farm home. The State has also given elementary in- 
structions in agriculture in the common schools, and has made 
the Minnesota Agricultural Society a part of the State educa- 
tional machinery, investing hundreds of thousands of dollars 
of State funds in its buildings and grounds. It has also made 
liberal annual appropriations to the State Horticultural Society; 
and through its dairy commissioner does much to promote the 
dairy interests of the State. 

Chapter XXIX. 



THE lumber district of the St. Croix Valley extends from 
near Hudson, Wisconsin, north to the line of the North- 
ern Pacific railway, and from near Lake Namekagou 
on the east to the tributaries of the Snake River, which form 
its western boundaries. The district covered embraces 8,500 
square miles, comprising 5,440,000 acres, the major part of 
which was originally covered with, a heavy growth of white 
and Norway pine lumber. 

Of the vast territory but little remains of the gigantic for- 
ests, except in small tracts, but where the woodman's axe and 
sweeping fires have devastated the country, many thousands of 
acres have been transformed into beautiful farms. 

The early history of lumbering was a history of waste in 
all lumber districts. The natural wastage of timber incidental 
to cutting logs, supplemented by the terrific forest fires, that al- 
ways follow in the wake of the lumberman's axe, nearly if not 
quite equals the quantity brought to market. 

The early efforts of lumbering have already been detailed 
in a chapter of this work. The Marine Lumber Company, the 
organization of which has already been noticed, in 1850, changed 
its title to the Judd and Walker Company the property changed 
hands several times and in 1863 when it was destroyed by 
fire, Orange Walker was the sole owner. This mill, one of the 
first to manufacture lumber in the St. Croix Valley, was in 



active operation nearly fifty years, during the last ten years of 
its existence it was managed by Anderson and O'Brien. Its 
gross output was about 197,000,000 feet 

In the spring of 1843, the first mill, in what is now the 
limits of the city of Stillwater, was located at the head of Lake 
St. Croix by Jacob Fisher on a claim of unsurveyed land. This 
site was purchased by John McKusick, Elias McKean, Elam 
Greely and Calvin F. Leach. The mill, which was the first 
frame building erected in Stillwater, began operations April 
3, 1844. Later improved methods and machinery were adopted, 
the site was moved about 1,000 feet inland from the former log 
way. The mill was managed successfully for twenty years, and 
during its existence cut about 27,000,000 feet. 

The second mill to be erected in Stillwater was by Sawyer 
and Heaton, in 1850. Two years later, it was destroyed by fire, 
and a new and improved mill was immediately rebuilt. This 
mill passed through several ownerships, finally becoming the 
property of Samuel Atlee and Company, and later was pur- 
chased by Isaac Staples. The location was finally utilized for 
the erection of a business block. 

In 1854 Schulenberg, Boeckler and Company of St. Louis, 
Missouri, erected a mill in Dakotah, now a part of Stillwater. 
The company was re-organized in 1856, when Louis Hospes be- 
came interested, and successfully operated the mill until it was 
burned in 1877. It was afterwards rebuilt, but was again des- 
troyed by fire in 1892. A third mill was built, and for many 
years it was the most important mill in the Northwest. It be- 
came the property of Isaac Staples, E. L. Hospee and Samuel 
Atlee, which firm was succeeded by George H. Atwood, the 
present owner. The mill has a capacity of from 35,000,000 to- 
45,000,000 feet of lumber annually, besides a large output of 
lath and shingles. 

The firm of Hersey, Staples and Hall, Eastern capitalists, 
built a mill in the south part of Stillwater in 1854, which 
passed through several ownerships. The amount cut by this mill 
in forty-four years was 756,000,000 feet. In 1892 the mill 
came under the management of George H. Atwood. 


In 1873, Seymour, Sabin and Company built a mill of 
medium capacity, which subsequently became the property of the 
C. N. Nelson Company, but it was afterwards dismantled, and 
the machinery removed from Stillwater. 

The East Lumber Company, composed of Stillwater par- 
ties, was incorporated in 1888, and purchased a mill property 
from Nelson and Johnson, located in Houlton, Wisconsin. The 
corporation was organized in 1902. This mill operates one 
gang saw, with a capacity of 150,000 feet a day, and one twin 
circular lath and shingle mill. 

The first mill in South Stillwater was built in 1852, by a 
company composed of Socrates Nelson, David B. Loomis and 
Daniel Mears, and known as the S. Nelson Lumber Company. 
The gross cut of this mill was about 30,000,000 feet; the mill 
was rebuilt in 1873 by Torinus and Company, who succeeded the 
S. Nelson Lumber Company, under the name of the St. Croix 
Lumber Company. In 1876 the mill was destroyed by fire, but 
was subsequently rebuilt with a greater capacity. One of the 
buildings in the past few years was sold to Tozer and Nolan; 
another to the Eclipse Lumber Company, the original company 
retaining its extensive wood working factory. The cut of this 
mill to 1899 was about 650,000,000 feet. 

Some years prior to 1870, L. B. Castle and David C. Gaslin, 
built a mill at South Stillwater. The original proprietors dis- 
posed of their interests and the mill passed through many owner- 
ships. In 1884 it was rebuilt at a cost of $70,000, and a cor- 
poration was formed under the name of the South Stillwater 
Lumber Company. This corporation later disposed of its in- 
terests to David Tozer, who made many and expensive im- 
provements. The cut of this mill to 1899 was 200,000,000 

The Hersey Lumber Company erected in 1875, at Oak 
Park Village, a sub-division of Stillwater, a mill which became, 
known as "the red mill." The annual cut of this mill averaged 
25,000,000 feet of lumber. E. W. and A. R. Turnbull, in 1886, 
built at this place, a mill costing $70,000; the capacity 
of this mill is from 25,000,000 to 35,000,000 feet annually. 


At various other points in Washington County, sawmilling 
operations were carried on. At Arcola, in the winter of 1846 
and 1847, Martin Mower, David B. Loomis, W. H. C. Folsom 
and Joseph Brewster built a mill; the capacity of this mill was 
subsequently increased, and for a number of years it was oper- 
ated successfully by Martin and John E. Mower. 

The mill history of Lakeland commenced with the erection 
of what was known as the Shanghai Mill, in 1852, by Moses 
Perin. The mill was afterwards completed by Freeman C. 
Tyler, and equipped with a sixty-horse power engine, which 
furnished power for two sash saws, one rotary, a shingle and a 
lath machine. In 1857, Ballard and Eeynolds, and Osgood and 
Andrews erected mills, the latter, however, was soon dismantled. 
The financial panic of 1857 wound up the business affairs of 
the other two mills. Later Stearns and Wilson erected a mill 
at Lakeland at a cost of $45,000. This property changed hands 
several times, finally passing to C. N. Nelson. Fall & McCoy 
afterwards built a mill at this point, but the two mills were 
dismantled, and the buildings removed. 

At Afton, a sawmill was built in 1854, by Lowry and Com- 
pany, and the following year rebuilt by Thomas and Sons, but 
succumbed to the hard times of 1857. Afterwards, in 1861, 
Getchell and Company erected a small mill which did an ex- 
tensive business. Destruction by fire was the closing scene in 
this mill's history. 

A mill was built at Point Douglas in 1851, by Woodruff and 
Sons but was afterwards removed to Prescott, Wisconsin. Mill- 
ing operations were afterwards carried on at this location by A. 
J. Short, whose interests later on were acquired by John Dudley. 

In Chisago County at Franconia, Ansel Smith in 1852 
erected a mill; it had a varied career, and was destroyed by 
fire in 1889. Kingman and Greely in 1857, and Clark Brothers in 
1860, erected mills at Taylor's Falls, but they were subsequently 
removed. There were also mills operating at different times at 
Rush City, Rushseba, Rush Lake and Sunrise City. 

The first sawmill was built at Pine City, in 1871, by 
James S. Ferson which sustained two losses by fire. This was 


followed by several smaller mills. Heaton and Taylor were the 
first to operate a mill at Mission Creek, which twice sustained 
losses by fire, and changed proprietors several times. Near 
Hinckley, D. C. Grant built a mill in 1873. The sawmilling 
industry at Hinckley originated with Thomas Brennan, who 
built and equipped a mill, and established retail lumber yards 
in St. Paul and elsewhere. In 1889, Mr. Brennan disposed of 
his property to a corporation; soon after the purchase the mill 
was destroyed by fire. A new mill, with a largely increased 
capacity, was soon in active operation; this was destroyed in the 
memorable Hinckley fire, including 30,000,000 feet of lumber, 
and a large body of standing timber. On Kettle Eiver in 1886, 
a mill was built by Weyerhauser, Sauntry and Rutledge; which 
firm afterwards became known as the Rutledge Lumber and 
Manufacturing Company. In twelve years about 216,000,000 
feet of lumber was cut, when operations were suspended. At 
Willow River in 1895, the Atwood Lumber Company purchased 
the timber holdings and other interests of the Fox and Wisdom 
Lumber Company. Extensive improvements were made, and the 
yearly cut of this mill has been about 30,000,000 feet. 

In Carlton and Kanabec Counties sawmilling operations 
were carried on extensively from 1870 to 1885. Passing beyond 
the boundary of the St. Croix basin into Northeastern Minnesota, 
a small sawmill was erected at Duluth by the town site pro- 
prietors in the winter of 1856 and 1857. In 1855 at Oneota, 
Wheeler, Ely and their associates built a good and fair sized 
steam mill, adding to it the following year a planing mill also 
lath and shingle attachments. About a mile above Oneota, in 
1857, a steam mill was built by Henry C. Ford. These two 
mills were of moderate capacity, sawing 20,000 to 30,000 feet 
of mixed class lumber a day. They were kept in operation in- 
termittently in sawing pine cut on lands in the immediate vi- 
cinity until 1866, when they ceased running because of the total 
lack of any demand or market for lumber. The Ford's mill 
was destroyed by fire in 1868, and the following year the Oneota 
mill was removed to Duluth, where it shared the same fate in 


At Thomson, a mill was built in 1873 by A. M. Miller, 
and six miles northwest of that locality, another mill was built 
by A. K. Lovejoy. Both of these mills have been dismantled. 
Carlton has had four sawmills on the same site, the first being 
built in 1870. The first mill in Cloquet was built in 1878 by 
Charles D. Harwood, and was rebuilt in 1883 by the Knife Falls 
Lumber Company. In 1880, two other steam mills were built 
there by C. N. Nelson and Company, and a water power mill by 
James Paine, McNair & Company. Other mills have been built 
later. The aggregate lumber product of Cloquet is estimated to 
be at least 1,000,000,000 feet, equaling or exceeding that of 
Duluth. Much lumber has been sawn at various localities on 
the Mesabi and Vermilion Iron ranges. 

The sawmills situated in the State south of the St. Croix 
Valley have depended mainly, or to a considerable degree, on 
the St. Croix lumbermen for their supplies of logs. 

In St. Paul, in 1854, a mill known as the "Rotary Mill" 
was operated by John S. Prince on the banks of the Mississippi 
River, a short distance east of the site of the Union railway 
depot. After cutting about 1,000,000 feet of lumber it was re- 
moved to Hastings by William G. LeDuc. Among the other 
early mills erected in St. Paul was one built by John R. Irvine, 
in 1851, on the levee near the foot of Eagle street, which con- 
tinued operations for about seven years. In 1855 J. B. Holmes 
erected a small mill near the spot where the Union depot now 
stands; the following year William L. Ames built a mill at the 
foot of Dayton's Bluff, which was in operation for about four 
years, the output being about 1,250,000 feet annually, it was 
finally burned down. 

About five hundred feet below this mill was the Sanford 
mill, erected in 1856; it was in operation three years. In the 
same year Staurt, Cobb and Company erected a mill on the 
upper levee about 600 yards above the Irvine mill, which con- 
tinued in operation four years, when it was destroyed by fire; 
it sawed about 2,000,000 feet per annum. During the year 1857, 
Henry P. Upham and Chauncey W. Griggs operated the old 
Fuller mill, situated on the upper levee. The following year 



Mr. Upham purchased a small mill on the west side of the 
Mississippi River, just below the Wabasha street bridge; he and 
Freeman James operated it about six years. At Pig's Eye, 
William Davis and Joe Deion operated a mill from 1861 to 
1865. Another mill was built in 1870 on Phalen Creek by 
Louis Krieger and John M. Keller, and operated about three 

The pioneer lumberman of Hastings was William G. Le 
Due, who, in 1856, built a mill beside the Mississippi River at 
the west edge of the city. In the autumn of the same year 
Phelps, Graham and Knapp built another mill at the east end 
of the city; this mill was operated three years, when it was sold 
to A. J. Short, who removed it to Point Douglas. 

A mill was built by Ballard and Post in 1853 at Wacouta, 
a few miles east of Red Wing, and was operated for five years. 
The first mill at Red Wing was built in 1855 by Pettibone and 
Knapp; it was sold in 1861 to Cogel and Betcher, and in 1875 
this property passed into the hands of Charles Betcher. In 1857 
Grannis, Daniels and Company built another mill, which con- 
tinued in operation until 1889 under successive owners when it 
was destroyed by fire. A third mill was also built in 1857, by 
a Boston capitalist, but ceased operations on account of the 
financial panic of that year. 

In 1856 and later, mills were operated in Frontenac and 
Central Point. At Reed's Landing in the autumn of 1854 Wil- 
liam R. Marshall, Joseph M. Marshall and N. P. Langford 
erected a small mill; in the summer of the following year it was 
sold to a Wisconsin lumberman, who operated it several years, 
when it was eventually destroyed by fire. 

The first sawmill erected in Winona was of small capacity; 
it was built in 1855 by Highlands and Wyckoff, and was 
destroyed by fire five years later. In the same year Laird Broth- 
ers were engaged in handling sawed lumber from the Chippewa 
River; the following year the firm was changed to Laird 
Norton and Company. This firm built their first mill in 1857, 
which was equipped with a muley and circular saw; improvements 
were afterwards made, but the original mill was burned down in 


1878, and replaced by a new one, furnished with modern machin- 
ery. This mill was destroyed by fire in 1887, but was imme- 
diately rebuilt. This firm has virtually been engaged contin- 
ually since 1857 in the lumber industry, having mills at the 
present day with a capacity of 35,000,000 to 40,000,000 feet of 
lumber annually. 

The third mill erected in Winon was by E. S. and A. B. 
Youmans, it being equipped with the regulation muley saw. The 
mill's capacity was increased in 1877 by the addition of a gang 
saw, and about this time the firm was incorporated as Tollman's 
Brothers and Hodgkins. Later the mill's capacity was again 
enlarged, and it remained in active service until 1898, when it 
was dismantled. 

The Winona Lumber Company began business in 1881, by 
the construction of a mill furnished with two circular and 
two gang; the circulars were afterwards taken out and band saws 
substituted giving a capacity of 35,000,000 to 40,000,000 feet 
annually. This mill has been in active operation since it was 
built, but not, however, at all times at its full capacity. 

The Empire Lumber Company in 1886, owing to a scarcity 
of logs in the vicinity of Eau Claire, Wisconsin where it was 
located, removed its machinery to Winona. This Company since 
the erection of its first mill has been steadily engaged in the 
manufacture of lumber. 

During the period of lumbering in the St. Croix Valley, 133 
mills were erected for the manufacture of almost exclusively pine 
lumber, of this number only about twenty-seven are miming. 
This decrease is partially due to the improvements in machinery; 
mills of the present day are cutting from 10,000,000 to 45,000,- 
000 feet of lumber during the season, when formerly it took 
ten to fifteen mills to manufacture this amount. 

An estimate of the logs that were manufactured into lumber 
from 1837 to 1903 in the St. Croix Valley, which includes logs 
furnish to lower points on the Mississippi River, gives a total 
of 15,683,781,720 feet of lumber. The banner year during this 
period was in 1890, when it amounted to 452,360,890, feet; in 
1903 it was 245,675,230 feet. The value of the timber at its 


stumpage value of $3 per thousand, taken from the St. Croix 
basin from 1837 to 1903 would amount to over fifty mil- 
lion dollars. It would be merely conjectural to estimate the 
amount of standing timber remaining in the Valley. Many of 
the large firms a decade ago placed the limits of their operations 
from five to ten years. The history of pine lumber growing 
countries in many instances proves that the timber may be repro- 
duced, growing anew after the original growth has been re- 
moved, if fires are kept subdued; this is also true of hardwood 



The lumbering industries of Minneapolis date their nativity 
from the efforts of Franklin Steele, to interest Eastern capi- 
talists to furnish financial help to make improvements on his 
claim located at St. Anthony Falls. Negotiations were com- 
menced prior to 1847, and in the summer of that year Benjamin 
Cheever, representing Eastern capitalists called on Mr. Steele. 
The principal contention between the parties interested was that 
the claim was not adequate security for the capital necessary 
for the improvements, as it was located on unsurveyed lands. 
Finally an agreement was entered into, that the financial aid for 
the improvements would be advanced; if after an exploration of 
the country adjacent to the Mississippi River and its branches, 
there was found a satisfactory amount of pine forests, and the 
river and its branches were navigable. 

The Eastern capitalists interested in promoting lumber in- 
dustries in Minnesota were Caleb Gushing, afterwards Attorney 
General in President Pierce's Cabinet, Robert Rantoul, a promi- 
nent attorney of Boston and other citizens of Massachusetts. 
Daniel Stanchfield, an explorer of the pineries of Wisconsin, was 
selected to make the investigation to demonstrate wether pine 
forests existed near the banks of the Tipper Mississippi in 
quantity and quality, sufficiently to make lumbering a success. He 
started with two companions, September 1, 1847, paddling in a 


bark canoe up the Mississippi River above St. Anthony Falls. 
At the mouth of Rum River, a lumber crew of twenty men that 
had come up by road was met, they were to advance with the ex- 
ploring party until pine was discovered. On the third day, a 
tract of scrub pine, about three miles northwest of the present vil- 
lage of Cambridge, was located, and here the lumber crew were 

The canoe party explored the Rum River to Mille Lacs, the 
bottom land was wide, the growth of timber thick, but it was 
wholly of a deciduous species, with no pine, besides, the river was 
crooked. The mosquito, the gnat, and the moose fly, also fought 
the intruders to their hitherto free exclusive territory. After 
passing over sixty miles of the meandering course of the river, 
the mouth of a tributary was reached, and upon exploration pine 
and hardwood were found, on each side of the stream for miles 
away. The stream was navigable and was called the West 
Branch of the Rum River, and at its mouth is now located the 
village of Princeton. 

The country adjacent to this branch was well timbered for 
more than twenty-five miles, as was also the land contingent to 
its branches. From its mouth the West Branch was explored 
for eight miles, and large tracts of pine lands were discovered. 
From the top of the highest tree, the eye could see pine trees 
reaching from the banks on both sides of the river for its en- 
tire extent of fifty miles to the Mille Lacs. 

Mr. Stanchfield dispatched a report to Mr. Steele stating, 
that he had seen more pine than seventy mills could cut in as 
many years, although he had seen but a small part of the ter- 
ritory that was afterwards converted into lumber. Upon the re- 
ceipt of this report, the Eastern capitalists furnished Mr. Steele 
with $10,000 as their part towards a construction of a dam, and 
the building of a sawmill to begin the manufacture of lumber 
at St. Anthony Falls. 

The first drive from the Rum River district reached the 
Mississippi River November 1, 1847. The crew had only con- 
structed a temporary boom at the mouth of the Rum River to 
hold the logs; they were without ropes and in an exhausted con- 


dition, owing to their wading in the cold waters of the river. 
At night the snow began falling fast, and was frozen to the 
logs by the cold blasts of wind; at midnight the boom broke 
and the logs started on their way down the Mississippi River, 
with no controlling hand to regulate their speed. This drive 
was intended for the building of the dam at St. Anthony Falls; 
on account of its loss hardwood trees were cut down on Henne- 
pin Island, and the dam was constructed from Nicollet Island 
to the east bank of the river of round timbers instead of square. 
The millwright in charge of the work was Ard Godfrey, while 
Jacob Fisher of Stillwater superintended the building of the 
dam. The construction of the mill was somewhat delayed, by the 
sinking in the Erie Canal of the boat containing the machinery, 
hardware, etc. 

After the dam was built and the mill constructed, the next 
step was to procure pine logs for first year's sawing. These 
could not be driven down the Rum River, until the stream was 
cleared of drift wood, therefore, the country adjacent to the 
Mississippi River was explored to the mouth of the Crow Wing 
River; here, Henry M. Rice had a trading post and nearby was 
located a tribe of Chippewas, of whom Hole-in-the-Day was 
chief. A bargain was finally consummated, by which the In- 
dians . were to receive fifty cents for each pine tree felled, and 
the cutting of logs commenced. In March, 1848, a drive was 
commenced down river. 

The dam at St. Anthony Falls was finished in the spring 
of 1848, and immigration being attracted, the town began to 
put on a domestic appearance. The mill commenced sawing 
lumber September 1, 1848, Sumner W. Farnham being in charge. 
The product was utilized in the building of houses to accom- 
modate the fast increasing population. A gang mill and two 
shingle mills were built in the autumn of 1848. The increased 
products were made use of, not only in the construction of 
houses at St. Anthony, but a market was also found at St. Paul. 

In 1849, logs scaling 2,500,000 feet were put in the Rum 
River by Daniel Stanchfield to supply the mills of St. Anthony, 
and Joseph R. Brown cut and had ready for market, 1,000,000 



feet of logs. In the spring of 1850 these two drives went down 
the river together. 

During the year 1850, the jams of driftwood were cleared 
out of the upper course of the Rum River, making it navi- 
gable from its source. The West Branch was also cleared 
the same year. This stimulated log cutting, and 6,000,000 feet 
were driven in 1851 to St. Anthony, while other logs went 
below to the St. Paul boom for markets, further down the river. 

The first sawmill on the Mississippi River above St. An- 
thony Falls was at Little Falls; it was built in 1849 by James 
Green, and operated by different owners until 1858, when it was 
washed away. At the rapids of the Elk River in Sherburne 
County, Ard Godfrey and John G. Jameson built in 1851, the 
first dam, and mill, .where four years later the village of Orono 
was surveyed and platted, and which now forms the western 
part of the town of Elk River. This mill had only a single 
sash saw, and was capable of sawing about 3,000 feet daily. 

In the winter of 1850 and 1851, there were eight parties, 
under different proprietors, engaged in lumbering on the Upper 
Mississippi, and about 8,800,000 feet of logs were driven the 
next spring to St. Anthony. These were manufactured into 
lumber, and sold at that point, St. Paul and the settlement on 
the west side of the Mississippi River, which was afterwards 
known as Minneapolis. 

The cut from the Rum River pineries in the winter of 
1852-1853 was over 11,000,000 feet; a portion of this went over 
the Falls, and was rafted at the St. Paul boom, and supplied 
the lower markets. In 1853, there was over 23,000,000 feet of 
logs put in the Rum River and the West Branch. The cut the 
following year was nearly 33,000,000 feet, and the next year 
it exceeded 36,000,000 feet. More than half of the logs cut in 
the winter of 1855-1856, went over the St. Anthony Falls on ac- 
count of the breaking of the boom above the Falls, in the spring 
of 1856. The logs were scattered at different points down the 
river, and about 20,000,000 feet were collected, rafted and sold 
in the Southern markets. 


From 1856 to 1859 there were many improvements in lum- 
ber manufacturing, and mills were added at St. Anthony, also 
at various points on the Upper Mississippi foundations were laid 
for the production of lumber on a small scale. 

In the winter of 1853-1854, the first dam and mill was 
built at Anoka by Caleb and W. H. Woodbury; this mill was 
bought in 1869 by James McCann, it having at that time only 
one sash saw, and a capacity of 6,000 feet. This site was pur- 
chased by William D. Washburn and others, who in 1872 made 
extensive improvements, and the mill was in operation uninter- 
ruptedly until 1889, annually manufacturing from 15,000,000 to 
15,000,000 feet of lumber. 

Among the other early mills in Anoka County was one 
built by Charles Peltier on Clearwater Creek near Centerville, 
which was operated for five years; a large steam mill was built 
in 1857 by Starkey and Petteys at Columbus, but it was des- 
troyed by fire a few years later, and the village became extinct. 
A mill was built at St. Francis in 1855 by Dwight Woodbury. 

At Princeton, a steam mill was built in 1856 by William F. 
Dunham and others. A mill run by water power was built in 
1858 by Samuel Ross, the daily capacity of these mills was 
about 6,000 and 3,000 feet respectively. 

In 1855-1856, two large steam mills were built at Monti- 
cello, with a daily capacity of about 25,000 feet. One of these 
was operated many years; the other was destroyed by fire in 1858, 
and was never rebuilt. 

A dam and mill were built in 1856 at Clearwater, but when 
it was ready to commence sawing it was washed away by a flood. 
The next year Herman Woodworth built a second mill on the 
Clearwater River about a mile above the site of the first mill, 
and in 1858 Frank Morrison erected a steam mill near the lo- 
cation of the original mill; these two mills continued in opera- 
tion for about twenty years. 

The earliest enterprise in the lumbering industry at St. 
Cloud was the erection, in 1855, of a steam mill by a company 
consisting of J. P. Wilson, George F. Brott, H. T. -Welles, and 
C. T. Stearns; it was destroyed by fire, but was eventually re- 


built. One of the present industries of St. Cloud was founded 
in 1857, when Raymond and Owens built a factory for making 
doors, sash and blinds; the building was carried away by the ice 
in the winter of 1862, but was rebuilt the same year. 

The now unimportant hamlet of Watab was platted in 
1854, and flourished for several years; it had a steam mill, 
which was built in 1856 by Place, Hanson and Clark. 

Mention has already been made of the first mill built in 
Morrison County. During the years 1856 to 1858, the Little 
Falls Manufacturing Company made extensive expenditures in 
building a dam and mill; they were both destroyed by a flood in 
the summer of 1860. Near the mouth of the Swan River on 
the west side of Pike Rapids, Anson Northup built a steam 
mill in 1856, which was in operation two years. On the Skunk 
River at Granite City, in the eastern part of the county, at a 
distance of nearly twenty miles from Little Falls, a steam mill 
and a considerable village were built . in 1858 ; the site was 
abandoned at the time of the Indian outbreak in 1862, and wa& 
never re-occupied. 

The production for the Upper Mississippi from the reports 
of the Surveyor General of logs and lumber, and the State Com- 
missioner of Statistics from 1848 to 1899 (a period of fifty-two- 
years) gives a grand total of 10,869,632,106 feet. A consider- 
able amount of other pine lumber, doubtless a tenth, or may be 
a fifth of the above amount was also cut in this district. There- 
fore the whole lumber product during this period would equal 
or exceed twelve billion feet. Fully two-thirds of this amount 
was sawed in Minneapolis. At six dollars a thousand feet, the 
average value of the lumber at the mills, the total value of the 
product would be $75,000,000. 

According to the census of 1890, the city of Minneapolis 
was reported to have thirty-nine establishments in lumber in- 
dustries; this included besides the sawing of logs, planing mills 
and factories for making sash, doors, blinds, lath and shingles. 
The capital invested was about $10,000,000, employment was 
given to 3,894 people, who received yearly wages amounting to 
$1,800,000; the value of the annual product was $9,626,975. 


During the next decade, the lumber industry increased more than 
fifty per cent, not only in Minneapolis but in the entire district 
of the Upper Mississippi. 

The three great lumber States about the Great Lakes are 
Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. The former in 1900 still 
contained the largest number of mills, and the latter the smallest. 
The lumber industry in this region commenced in Michigan, 
moved westward, therefore, Minnesota represents the latest stage 
in this lumber movement. The value of the product in 1900 
in Michigan and Wisconsin show a decrease from what it was 
in 1890, while in Minnesota it increased from $25,075,132 in 
1890 to $43, 585,161 in 1900; showing that the State had not 
at that time reached the height of its prosperity as a lumber 

The State had, in 1900, four hundred and thirty-eight es- 
tablishments engaged in the lumber industry, representing a 
capital of $52,095,923, giving employment to 15,140 wage 
earners, who received in wages that year $7,140,571. It fur- 
nished in 1900 seven and seven one-hundredth per cent of the 
entire lumber product of the country, being only exceeded by 
Wisconsin and Michigan. The average machinery in each es- 
tablishment is only exceeded by California and Arizona, in 
the latter there being only fourteen establishments. In the 
average production and wage earners for each establishment 
Minnesota ranks first. 

The State's logging camps in 1900 were only 165, while 
being exceeded by twenty-eight States in the number, the capital 
invested, $26,042,470, was only exceeded by Wisconsin, with 
her 450 establishments and Michigan with 690 establishments. 

Henry Gannett in his report in the United States Census of 
1900, said: 

The largest logging camps, however, in the United States, whether 
measured by the amount of capital, the number of hands employed, the 
amount of wages paid, or the quantity and value of lumber produced, 
are on the average in the State of Minnesota. The industry is car- 
ried on upon a larger scale than anywhere else; the capital invested for 
each establishment is nearly double that of Wisconsin and California, 


whose operations are the next largest. The average number of hands em- 
ployed in the camps of Minnesota is more than double that of any other 
State or Territory except Arizona, and the cut and value are double 
those of any other State. 

In a classification of the mills of the United States, Minne- 
sota contains three of the four mills sawing annually 100,000,000 
feet and over; eleven of the twenty-seven mills sawing from 
50,000,000 to 100,000,000 feet and forty-seven of the 655 saw- 
ing from 10,000,000 to 50,000,000. 

Lumbering has been carried on in the State actively for 
over thirty years, and a large part of the pine has been removed. 
The wood land of the State, including stump lands is estimated 
at 52,200 square miles, or sixty-six per cent of the total area. 
The standing timber has been variously estimated from 8,170,- 
000,000 to 17,000,000,000 feet and it is safe to say that much 
more than the largest of these amounts will eventually be cut. 
The industry grew slowly and became most important between 
1880 and 1890. The northern portion of the State was heavily 
timbered mainly with white and "Norway" pine, while in the 
Red River Valley, particularly in the west and southern portion 
the prairies are intersected with belts of mixed hardwood 

There was a time when the idea of using up all the lumber 
in Minnesota would have been scouted as ridiculous, but that 
was prior to the terrific onslaughts that have been made in late 
years on the forests. Brief items have appeared from time to 
time in the newspapers of the State, that certain lumber mills 
have been closed, with an added sentiment or two to the effect 
that "this marks the close of the lumber industry in this sec- 
tion." Conservative estimates made by thorough investigations, 
have demonstrated at the present rate of cutting, there is only 
enough standing timber in the State to last for fifteen years. 
That in 1922 Minnesota will be stripped of her forests, which 
have been her pride and strength in the past, and which were 
the first means of attracting enterprise to the Northwest. 

There has, however, been advanced a movement to protect 
the growing timber, and it is the duty of the people to aid and 
encourage the State in its preservation of the supply. This new 


conception of the character of timber, as a product, is not based 
on the popular opinion, that the great timber growths are a gift 
of Nature which would produce itself as fast as depleted, but 
that it must be protected from the depredations of those who 
would destroy it for the sake of personal gain. 

The fact becoming self evident that the timber supply was 
being cut much faster than it was growing, one of the first 
fruits of this realization was the setting aside by the State of 
great forest reserves. This work has entailed an almost endless 
fight between the authorities and the trespassers, but slowly and 
surely are the rights of the State, and the Nation, to control 
and to cause cessation of inroads on these resources of the 
country, are being gradually maintained. Another movement 
for protecting the forests was the decision of those engaged in 
the lumber interests to gradually reduce the extent of the cut- 
ting, as the amount of the timber was reduced. This in a de- 
gree has resulted in an inclination towards a lumber famine. 
This has been materially aided by the mild winters for the past 
several years, which has prevented the lumbermen from getting 
their logs to the streams. 

The greatest of all undertakings to rehabilitate the timber 
supply is the plan of reforestization. Whether the work will 
be actually carried out to any extent remains to be seen. It does 
not prove attractive to individuals, and corporations are wary 
of entering into any such enterprise. It has been estimated that 
one form of pine would have to be left eighty years after it had 
attained its growth, before it would be ready to cut for available 
timber. This length of time eliminates either individuals or cor- 
porations engaging in the enterprise, and therefore leaves only 
the State to carry out the project. Nothing could better illus- 
trate the changed conditions from what they were a few years 
ago than this project of reforestization, and the acclaim with 
which it has been greeted. It only remains for the people of the 
State to give their encouragement and support to the movement; 
so that in years to come posterity will enjoy the advantages 
which the timber forests have given to their ancestors. 

Chapter XXX. 

THE foundation of the milling industry of Minnesota was 
laid by Nature. It is due to the soil and the atmos- 
phere that her wheat belt contains more than the aver- 
age of quality and quantity of the elements of nutrition; and by 
utilizing the water power of her rivers and streams, her manu- 
facturers are enabled to convert cheaply and efficiently the wheat 
of the Northwest into flour. 

The windmill, a relic of great antiquity, was introduced into 
the State in the early sixties, for milling purposes. The Cru- 
saders, in the thirteenth century, had borrowed the invention 
from the Saracens, and introduced it into England and a part 
of Continental Europe, and in the seventeenth century it crossed 
the Atlantic Ocean, decorating the hills of the New England 
Colonies, and in time made its appearance in the Northwest. 

A contributor to the Northwestern Miller, a Mr. Simpson, of 
Owatonna, writing to that paper in 1876 says: "I have operated 
a windmill since 1867. The wind-wheel is sixty feet in dia- 
meter and furnishes forty-five horse power; it runs three run 
of buhrs with all necessary machinery with satisfactory results. 
The wheels are perfectly self regulating and durable, and I 
have ground in one month 3,540 bushels of wheat and 1,200 
bushels of feed." There were according to his statement seven 
sixty-foot wind-wheel flouring mills in the State, besides smaller 
mills, all doing a good business. 

An early historian of the State, J. W. McClung, of St. Paul, 
speaks of the wind grist mills at St. Peter and Mankato, that at 
the latter place, in 1868, grinding 160 bushels of wheat daily. 



The first flouring mill built in Minnesota was built, owned 
and run by the Government in 1823, and has already been de- 
scribed in this work. It was nearly a quarter of a century after 
its establishment before the first grist mills were built in the 
Minnesota country for the accommodation of the general public. 
The earliest flouring mill erected by a private individual, ac- 
cording to Folsom's "Fifty Years in the Northwest," was on 
Bolles' Creek, in the town of Afton, Washington County. The 
builder and owner, Lemuel Bolles, in the winter of 1845-1846, 
was the first one to grind wheat north of Prairie du Chien. This 
pioneer flour miller of Minnesota was a native of New York 
and came to St. Croix Falls in 1840. In 1843 he opened a 
grindstone quarry, a short distance below the Dalles. He made 
Stillwater his home until his removal to Afton. He died at 
the former place in 1875. There had been, however, a grist 
mill erected the previous year by Benjamin Gervais, at Little 
Canada, Ramsey County, but the business was confined to grind- 
ing cornmeal unsifted and unbolted. 

From 1850 to 1855 small grist mills were built on streams 
in a dozen counties in the Territory. There were grist mills in 
Houston, Winona, "Wabash, Dakota, Washington, Chisago, Hen- 
nepin, Sherburne 'and Stearns Counties prior to 1855. In that 
year Chatfield and Rochester had each a mill, and the following 
year Northfield and Preston. In 1851 Richard Rogers built a 
one-run grist mill at St. Anthony Falls. In 1852 Franklin 
Steele became a partner in this mill, and a second run of stone 
to grind wheat, as a merchant mill was added. This pioneer 
mill was destroyed by fire in 1857. At Taylor's Falls in 1852 
several parties in a corporation built a grist mill. 

The erection in 1854 of Eastman, Rollins and Upton's five- 
run mill, on the lower end of Hennepin Island, marked the first 
substantial beginning of merchant milling in Minneapolis. The 
mill was 40x60 feet and cost $16,000. The name adopted by the 
firm for the mill was "The Minnesota," and its flour the first 
shipped to the Eastern markets. There was not enough wheat 
raised near Minneapolis to supply the mill, and it was hauled by 
wagon one hundred miles from Wisconsin and brought by boat 
from Iowa. 


During the Territorial days, a milling company was incor- 
porated at New Ulm, under the name of the "Globe Milling 
Company." The purpose and object of the company was stated 
to be the manufacture of lumber and flour. The capital stock 
was $30,000, but the sum actually paid in, as has been stated, 
was less than $300. A mill, however, was erected in 1857-1858 
with a daily capacity of about fifty bushels, and it was operated 
until the Sioux outbreak, when with the "Eagle," a saw mill 
built in 1856, and a wind-mill erected in 1857, with one set of 
buhrs for flour and one run of stone for flax, it was burned to the 
ground August 23, 1862, by the hostile Indians. 

About 1855, John W. North founded a mill and town at 
Northfield, and three miles below,, on the Cannon Kiver, at 
Dundas, a canny Scotchman, the famous Archibald, established 
a flouring mill, and by his great care in dressing the stones, ac- 
complished better grinding, and by using less and more even 
pressure in grinding, produced a whiter and purer flour, which 
not only increased its value, but excited the envy of his com- 
petitors. The fame of his flour in Eastern markets antedates 
that of all other Minnesota mills, and on account of the excel- 
lence of the product it commanded one dollar more a barrel in 
New York and Boston markets. 

Another noted mill at this time was the Gardiner Mill, at 
Hastings, which by reducing the pressure and increasing the 
number of grindings avoided the undue heat, which both in- 
jured the color and quality of the flour. The product of this 
mill readily brought from one to two dollars a barrel more in the 
East than the best Minneapolis, Wisconsin, or Illinois flour. 

A character that aptly illustrates the uncertainties and mis- 
fortune of milling was John Kearcher, a native of France, who 
in 1855 built a mill at Preston, which he ran with success until 
the financial crash of 1857. Kearcher afterwards regained this 
mill, but lost it again and operated other mills at Chatfield, 
Hampton, Fillmore and Troy, and finally, while located on the 
south branch of the Boot River, on account of fire, flood and other 
misfortunes, found himself with no assets and a debt of $30,000. 
He managed to build in Southern Minnesota a small mill with 


one four-foot stone and a ten-foot "pony," which, he named "Clear 
Grit." Inside of ten years this grew into a modern structure, 
with a daily capacity of one hundred barrels of high grade flour; 
which enabled the owner to pay one hundred cents on the dollar 
of his old indebtedness. 

One the failures of milling is illustrated by the rise and 
fall of the Minnetonka Mills. As early as 1853, Simon Stevens 
located a claim near the rapids of Minnehaha Creek, and the fol- 
lowing year built a mill which survived three years. In 1860, 
on the same site, T. H. Perkins erected a three and one-half story 
mill, which afterwards became the property of Loren Fletcher 
and C. M. Loring, of Minneapolis. They organized the Minne- 
tonka Mills Company, doubled the capacity of the mill and three 
hundred barrels of flour daily were produced. They disposed of 
the plant to two Canadian capitalists, who got into a partnership 
tangle; suits were also brought against Hennepin County by 
property owners at Lake Minnetonka, for damage to their prop- 
erty by the dams raising the water level; then came suits for 
damage to property along Minnehaha Creek. This resulted in 
fifteen years of lawsuits, and death and decay to the once bloom- 
ing hamlet of Minnetonka Mills, which became a thing of the 

The first report of the State Commissioner of Statistics, 
Joseph A. Wheelock, made in 1861, reviewing the flour indus- 
try of Minnesota, says: 

"Two years ago Minnesota imported flour to supply the defi- 
ciencies in her own product. She has now probably one hundred 
and forty grist mills, one hundred and twenty-two being the 
number actually reported to this office. Some of these mills are 
very large and fine, and the quality of flour produced rivals the 
best Eastern brands." 

This early estimate must have been over-stated, as the Gov- 
ernment census of 1860, places the number of flour mills at 
eighty-five, of which sixty-three were run by water and twenty- 
two by steam. The wheat ground amounted to 1,273,509 bushels 
and the flour produced amounted to 254,702 barrels. The en- 
tire output was valued at $1,310,431, which in a decade showed 
a great increase, as it was in 1850 only $500. 


The largest flouring mills in the United States in 1860 were 
at Oswego, New York, and the yearly production was 300,000 
barrels; Richmond, Virginia, had two mills with an output re- 
spectively of 190,000 and 160,000 barrels. These Virginia mills, 
though inferior in mechanical perfection were of about the same 
capacity and size as the mills at St. Cloud, Mankato, New Ulm, 
Faribault, Northfield, Hastings, Red Wing, Wabasha and Waseca 
of the present day. 

By the census of 1870, Minnesota mills had increased to 216, 
requiring 281 water wheels and thirty-eight steam engines, rep- 
resenting 507 run of stone, with a daily capacity of 61,314 bar- 
rels. The capital invested was $2,900,000 and the annual value 
of the milling products was over $7,500,000, which consisted of 
about 1,000,000 barrels of flour, and 500,000 bushels of cornmeal 
and feed. This output is, however, at the present day nearly 
equalled by several Minnesota counties even outside of Hennepin 
and St. Louis Counties, while either of the two great milling 
companies of Minneapolis grind five times more flour than the 
total amount credited to the State in 1870. 

The leading milling counties in 1870 by the number of mills 
were: Hennepin, fourteen; Winona, thirteen; Rice and Good- 
hue with eight each; Houston, Le Sueur, and Stearns with six 
each. There were fourteen counties making a showing of over 
$100,000 in value of milling products, with Hennepin leading 
with $1,125,000; Rice and Winona following with about $800,- 
000 each ; Goodhue, the fourth, with $600,000 ; then Dakota with 
close to $400,000, followed by Olmsted and Pillmore with $200,- 
000 to $250,000 each; and then, in order, Stearns, Le Sueur, 
Mower, Scott, Blue Earth, Meeker and Houston, with a product 
of $100,000 to $160,000 each. Flour manufacturing at this 
time had not obtained a foothold in Duluth or the Red River 

The year 1870 marks the introduction of the middlings puri- 
fier into the Minneapolis mills. For nearly a century, the mill- 
ing system invented by Oliver Evans, who invented the American 
automatic mill which made it possible, by the use of an elevator 
and conveyor, and other appliances, for a bushel of wheat to 


make the rounds of a two to seven-story mill without the aid of a 
human hand, and the grain dumped by the farmer into the hop- 
per at the platform to re-appear as a sack of flour. The only 
other improvements down to 1870 was the substitution of the 
French buhr stone for the granite, a silk bolting cloth for a 
woolen, some advancement in cleaning the wheat and in dress- 
ing the stones. 

The ambition of the American miller was to "grind exceed- 
ingly fine," and all the flour possible at one grinding. This re- 
quired the millstones to be set close together, and run at a 
high rate of speed as possible, thus reducing the grain into flour 
at one grinding. This was the fast-reduction and low-grinding 
process, and that part of the wheat berry, which lies between the 
bran covering the starchy center, known as the middlings was 
something to be discarded, as, in the old-fashioned way of mill- 
ing it was of little value. 

By the new process middlings became the most valuable part 
of the product, as the gluten lies in the hard exterior of the 
kernel, just beneath the bran covering, and this gives the bread 
its rising power or strength, and is the most nutritious quality 
in wheat for sustaining life. In the old process, this became a 
part of the middlings, and cast aside, so a complete revo- 
lution in grinding grain took place. Instead of making as little 
middlings as possible at the first grinding, the aim became to 
grind as little flour as possible. Therefore the stones, instead of 
being run at a velocity of 250 to 300 revolutions a minute, were 
run at 100 to 150, and instead of being set low or close, they 
were set high, so as to simply crush the berry at the first grind- 
ing. This necessitated from two to three extra grindings, and 
the flour which under the old process was dark and specky, be- 
came white and free from discolorations. The speed and pres- 
sure under the old system generated heat, which made the flour 
pasty and damaged its color and quality. The new process re- 
quired more time and labor, but the value of the flour was en- 
hanced, and the introduction of the purifier, with its horizontal 
screen, and air blast for cleaning, made Minnesota flour command 
an advance of one to two dollars a barrel in the bread making 
markets of the East. 


The purifier mentioned was the clever invention of Nicholas 
and Edmund N. La Croix, and a son of the former named 
Joseph. The two brothers were Frenchmen of education, skilled 
millers and engineers, well acquainted with French machinery 
and processes. They came to Minnesota from Montreal, Canada, 
at the solicitation of Alexander Faribault, in 1860, to construct 
a mill in the town he was founding and which he named for him- 
self. After building this mill they erected, in 1866, one for 
themselves at Faribault, and in which they experimented with 
a machine described in a French work and patented in that 
country for purifying middlings. Their dam, however, was 
unfortunately, in 1870, carried away by a freshet, and Edmund 
N. La Croix removed to Minneapolis. Here he attempted to 
interest the millers of that city in his invention, but no one 
would listen to his visionary ideas, until George H. Christian, a 
student and a searcher into scientific matters, gave him an op- 
portunity to place a machine in the mill he was then operating. 
La Croix was a year perfecting the machine, which was built at 
the Minnesota Iron Works, at a cost of three hundred dollars, 
but it increased the value of Minnesota flour from one to three 
dollars per barrel, and was soon adopted by all the enterprising 
mills of the State. This machine was the cause of placing the 
hard spring wheat, which was rich in gluten and middlings, from 
its standing the lowest in market on' account of producing dark 
middlings flour by the old process, to the highest in value because 
of the large proportion of middlings it yielded. In the decade 
from 1870 to 1880, Minnesota's wheat crop increased from 18,- 
000,000 to 34,000,000 bushels, and the mills multiplied from 210 
to 436. The sum paid by millers to Minnesota farmers increased 
from $6,000,000 to $34,000,000 while the capital invested in 
mills amounted to $10,000,000, and the value of flour produced 
aggregated $41,000,000. 

But what reward did the La Croixs, whose wonderful inven- 
tion, caused this marvelous growth and prosperity, receive? The 
two brothers died within a week of each other in 1874, Nicholas 
leaving a widow, three daughters and a son, Joseph, in straitened 
circumstances. The son got together the various improvements 


inaugurated by himself, his father and his uncle and attempted 
to interest capital to manufacture the La Croix machines. This 
resulted in a combination which eventually left La Croix a 
bankrupt. When the purifier combine attempted to levy upon 
American millers a royalty, a tribute that would have reached mil- 
lions of dollars, and relying upon the La Croix patents to perfect 
their monopoly, though large money inducements were offered 
to members of that family, they stood by the millers in their 
fight against the combine. 

The revolution in the manufacture of flour occasioned by the 
introduction of the purifier, caused the Minneapolis millers to 
look for further improvements in the process of milling. They 
had followed the English system, with some inventions of the 
French, and George H. Christian, the chief promoter of the mid- 
dlings purifier, sought further novelties. Through the means of 
the latest French and German works, he learned that the big 
mills of Hungary used chilled iron rollers instead of millstones. 
In 1874, he had a number of sets of these rollers made for the 
Washburn A Mill, just built. The porcelain rolls were after- 
wards adopted. Charles A. Pillsbury having visited Hungary in 
connection with W. D. Gray, who had made a study of Hungar- 
ian milling, made inventions in which American ideas and the 
best principles of French and Hungarian milling were combined, 
and reconstructed his mill dn the principle of American milling. 

Then came another invention, the chief object of which was 
the gradual breaking and bruising of the grain, so as to keep 
the broken portion rough and "alive;" repeated reductions of the 
middlings, the separation of every part of the flour from the 
bran, and the judicious blending of the flour obtained from the 
several reductions. 

The wheat is prepared for the rolls by cleaning machines 
which remove the dust, the chaff, the oats, the cockles, polish the 
berry, remove the crease in the side, and grade the kernels ac- 
cording to size. The grain is then passed through corrugated, 
chilled iron rollers, the corrugations of which range from eight 
to forty to the square inch, which bruise the grain without grind- 
ing it. This is all done on the ground floor of the mill. The 




bruised grain is then raised to the bolting machine on an upper 
floor, where it is passed through guaze cloths of different tex- 
tures, and from where it is sent down to a lower story, to pass 
through finer corrugated rollers, running at a speed of from 150 
to 300 revolutions a minute. These processes of reduction and 
sifting are repeated six or seven times, the third giving more flour 
than the first two reductions, and the fifth giving the best rising 
flour and the strongest albuminoids. Ten different grades of 
flour are produced by these reductions. As a precaution against 
accidents electric bells are connected with different parts of the 
machinery; suction pipes also pass from the stones and rollers, 
to prevent heating of the rapidly revolving surfaces, and to carry 
the dangerous explosive dust into the upper stories, where it is re- 
ceived by webs of flannels, and is swept off and driven into a dis- 
charge-tube by the automatic working of a traveling brush. 

To separate the flour from the bran a cleaner is used. This 
machine consists of iron disks fitted with pegs, one set of which 
is stationary, the other revolving at the rate of 2,000 revolutions 
a minute. 

The bran is generally sold at prices ranging from six to 
twelve dollars per ton, at the mill. 

The greatest catastrophe in the history of milling took place 
May 2, 1878. The Washburn A Mill, at Minneapolis, which was 
138 by 110 feet on the ground, six and one-half stories in height, 
fitted out with forty-two run of French buhr stones, one hundred 
reels and eighty purifiers, exploded. A fire started in some of the 
machinery, eighteen lives were lost and six mills were wholly de- 
stroyed as follows: Washburn A, forty-two run; Diamond, six 
run; Humboldt, eight run; Zenith, six run; Galaxy, twelve run; 
and Pettit-Robinson, fifteen run; total eighty-nine run of stone. 
Property was damaged by the explosion in some cases nearly a 
mile away, and the total loss exceeded $1,000,000. 

The walls of the Washburn A mill were of solid masonry, 
and for the first story were six feet thick, and built down to bed 
rock. The eighty purifiers, however, were only equipped with 
small fans to dispose of the dust. The millers were often obliged 
to wear sponges for the protection of their mouths and noses, the 

IV. -26 


mill being so full of dust. 'There had been several slight shocks 
received by the men from previous explosions, and at one time the 
roof of a dust room had been partially lifted. In the great ex- 
plosion the walls were blown down to the foundation and fell 

Minneapolis early became the- important milling center of the 
Northwest. Water power of immense capacity is supplied by 
the falls in the Mssissippi River, which is nearly 1,000 feet wide 
at this point and has a fall of seventy-five feet within the space 
of a mile. By the help of the Federal Government, the gradual 
recession of the falls from the wearing away of the soft sandstone, 
which forms part of the river-bed, has been arrested by the con- 
struction of a subterranean wall, of concrete across the river be- 
hind the falls, and for a distance of fifty feet into the bank OH 
either side, also by covering the falls themselves, with a heavy 
crib-work filled with stones, and a flooring of timber. This has 
also been supplemented by the Government building large reser- 
voirs, in the Upper Mississippi to be used on occasions of a low 
state of water. At a short distance above the falls, the water is 
turned into a canal sixty feet wide, and fourteen feet deep, by 
which it is carried in a course parallel with the riyer to the mills. 

The Washburn A Mill that was erected after the explosion 
of 1878, had a daily capacity of 4,000 barrels, this was several 
times that of the biggest mills in the East. It was equipped 
with eighty-six sets of rollers, forty-eight corrugated and twenty- 
six smooth iron, and twelve porcelain. It had seventy-eight puri- 
fiers, one hundred and forty-eight bolting reels 'and fifty-eight 
cleaning machines. 

This was followed by the erection of the Pillsbury A Mill, at 
the time it was built the largest in the world. It was 180 feet 
long, 150 feet wide and 117 feet high to the wall-plate. The 
foundation side wall are of limestone eight and one-half feet 
thick, and the walls even as high as the seventh story are two 
and one-half feet thick. These two mills were followed by 
others, now operated by an English Syndicate; the capacity of 
Washburn A being today about 11,000 barrels, and the Wash- 
burn C over 8,000, while the Pillsbury A will produce about 13,- 
000 and the Pillsbury B about 7,000. 


The direct exportation of flour to foreign ports from Minne- 
apolis, began in 1878 with 107,183 barrels. In 1890 this had 
reached 2,000,000 barrels and in 1900, 4,702,845 barrels, being 
one-fourth of the total exports of flour in the United States. 
Next to Minneapolis as a direct exporter stands Duluth with 
over 1,000,000 barrels to her credit. The principal foreign con 
sumer is the United Kingdom, more than one-half of the flour 
exported from the United States going to Great Britain. The 
next largest consumer of American flour is the West Indies, then 
follow in order China, Brazil and Germany. 

There were in Minnesota in 1901, about 400 flour and grist 
mills. The capacity of the twenty-one mills at Minneapolis ex- 
ceeds 75,000 barrels daily, and they grind annually 70,000,000 
bushels of wheat into 15,000,000 barrels of flour. The State 
"Gazette" enumerates about 200 mills outside of Minneapolis and 
Duluth, with an aggregate daily capacity of over 42,000 barrels, 
and 180 others, the capacity of which is not given. Placing the 
capacity 'of the 180 at 20,000 barrels, would give about 140,000 
barrels daily as the milling capacity of the State. It is fair 
therefore to state that Minnesota mills consume from 110,000,000 
to 120,000,000 bushels of grain yearly, and turn out upwards of 
25,000,000 barrels of flour, which is enough to sustain one-third 
of the population of the Nation. 

The largest milling centers in America as measured by their 
flour output in 1899 are as follows: Minneapolis, 14,291,780 
barrels; Duluth-Superior, 1,763,920; Milwaukee, 1,737,826; St. 
Louis, 1,166,439; Toledo, 1,150,000; Chicago, 1,125,745; Kan- 
sas City, 1,094,846; Buffalo, 1,068,944; Nashville, 630,803; De- 
troit, 594,700. 

The flouring mill industries of the State are not wholly con- 
fined to Minneapolis; besides the English Syndicate mills already 
mentioned, in that city there are a number of others of var- 
ious capacities, prominent among these are G. C. Christian with 
a daily output of 1,500 barrels; Phoenix Mill Co., making 1,100 
barrels; and the Diamond Elevator and Milling Co. with a capa- 
city of 500 barrels. 


At Winona the Bay State Milling Co. produces 3,500 barrels 
of flour daily, and the New Prague Flouring Mill Co., of New 
Prague; the Eagle Boiler Mill, of New Ulm; and Hubbard Mill- 
ing Company, of Mankato, have an output of 2,500 each. The 
next flouring mill in order of its production is the Sheffield- 
King Milling Co., of Faribault, with a daily capacity of 2,200 
barrels. Red Wing has two mills with an output of 1,200 barrels 
each, viz.: Simons Milling Co. and the La Grange Mills. 

The Wells Flour Milling Co., of Wells, the George Tileston 
Milling Co., of St. Cloud, and the Duluth Universal Mill Co., of 
Duluth, have a capacity of 1,000 barrels each. Everett, Aughen- 
baugh & Co. operate two flouring mills, one at Waseca, having 
a capacity of 700 barrels, and the other at New Richland with an 
output of 450 barrels. Another 700 barrel mill is Jennison Bros. 
& Co., of Janesville, who also operate a 225 barrel mill at Ely- 
sian. The mills having daily capacity of 600 barrels are the 
Springfield Milling Co., of Springfield; Wabasha Roller Mill Co., 
of Wabasha ; Minnesota Mill Co., of Little Falls ; and the Dwight 
Flour Mills, of Moorhead. Those with 500 barrels of daily ca- 
pacity are the Red Lake Falls Milling Co., at Red Lake Falls; 
the Fergus Flour Mills, of Fergus Falls; Montevideo Roller Mill 
Co., at Montevideo; Morton Merchant Milling Co., at Morton; 
Tennant & Hoyt, of Lake City; and the James Quirk Milling 
Co., of Montgomery, the latter also operates a mill of 300 barrels 
capacity at Waterville. The D. M. Baldwin, Jr., mill, at Grace- 
ville, and the Blue Earth Milling Co., at Blue Earth City, have 
a capacity of 450 barrels daily. 

The 400 barrels daily capacity mills are Sackett and Fay, of 
St. Peter; Marshall Milling Co., of Marshall; Crown Milling Co., 
Morristown, Sleepy Eye Milling Co., of Sleepy Eye, Winnebago 
Flour Mills, of Winnebago City; Osakis Milling Co., of Osakis; 
Globe Milling Co., of Perham. Besides those mentioned there 
are a number of mills in the State with a daily capacity of from 
100 to 350 barrels. 



Aaker, L. K., Ill, 459. 

Abbott, l)r. Charles C., I, 83. 

Abbott, S. J., IV, 233, 258. 

Abert, Col. J. J., Ill, 474. 

Accault or Ako, Michael, I, 213, 215, 

Acker, Henry, sketch of, III, 82, 94. 

Ackerman, Julius H., IV, 162. 

Ackley, Mrs. Anna B., II, 255. 

Ada, incorporated as a village, IV, 100. 

Adams, Mrs. Ann, II, 49. 

Adams, Charles Francis, IV, 51. 

Adams, Charles Powell, II, 492; III, 
133, 135, 423; sketch of, IV, 92, 133. 

Adams, John Quincy (Mass.), II, 359. 

Adams, M. Cuyler, IV, 380. 

Adams, Mrs. Moses N., I, 118. 

Adams, Rev. Moses N., I, 126; II, 251, 
253, 255. 

Adams, Samuel B., Ill, 80. 

Adams, Stephen (Miss.), Ill, 33, 34. 

Agassiz, Louis, I, 49. 

Ahmann, John J., IV, 298. 

Aillebout (Governor of Quebec), I, 157. 

Aitken, Alfred, II, 55, 125, 126. 

Aitken County: named, I, 317; estab- 
lished, II, 506; organized, IV, 44; 
iron developments, 380. 

Aitken, John, II, 55, 159. 

Aitken, William A., biography, I, 317; 

II, 55, 59, 125; letter to Sibley, 125- 
127; Burnett's letter, 129-130, 156, 
159, 168, 222, 279. 

Aitkinson, Gen. Henry, II, 144, 189, 
191, 193, 197, 199. 

Alton, Rev. John F., II, 251, 419. 

Albert Lea, incorporated as a city, IV, 

Alderman, Solomon F., IV, 238. 

Aldrich, Cyrus, III, 7'J; biography, 80, 
93, 107, 122. 

Aldrich, Capt. Leonard, III, 377. 

Aldrich, Paschal, II, 133. 

Alexander, Col. E. B., Ill, 237, 245, 
251 254-257 

Alexandria, land office, IV, 28; incor- 
porated as a village, 100. 

Allen, Col. Alvaren, IV, 312-314. 

Allen, Maj. Charles J., I, 388. 

Allen, J. S., IV, 119, 121. 

Allen, Jerome, III, 524. 

Allen, Lieut. James, I, 354, 355. 

Allen, William P., IV, 197, 232. 

Alley, John T., IV, 279. 

Allouez, Rev. Claude (Jesuit mission- 
ary), I, 112. 

Alpha (steamboat), IV, 316. 

Ambler, Capt. Rufus C., Ill, 378. 

American Board of Home and Foreign 
Missions, II, 220, 226, 230, 232, 237, 
238, 245. 

American Fur Company, I, 326, 351, 
354, 371; trading stations, II, 54, 
59, 113, 177, 211, 219, 281, 294, 371, 
372; IV, 310. 

Ames, Dr. Albert A., Ill, 438; IV, 133, 
144, 146, 205. 

Ames, Dr. Alfred E., II, 467; sketch, 

III, 43. 

Ames, Rev. C. G., II, 482, 483. 

Ames, Michael E., II, 450; sketch, 451. 

Anahwangmanne, Simon, III, 395, 400, 

Anderson, A. M. M., IV, 286. 

Anderson, August J., IV, 233. 

Anderson, Berger, III, 307. 

Anderson, Bemhart N., IV, 290. 

Anderson, Charles L., I, 386. 

Anderson, Capt. Joseph, III, 328, 343- 
349, 393, 394. 

Anderson, Lieut. Robert, II, 196. 

Anderson, Thomas L. (Mo.), Ill, 71. 

Anderson, William B., IV, 290. 

Andrew, Joseph F., II, 144-146. 

Andrews, C. N., IV, 276. 

Andrews, Gen. Christopher C., Ill, 81, 
150-152, 457, 458; IV, 64. 

Andrews, John A. (Mass.), Ill, 453. 

Andros, Frederick, sketch, II, 479. 

Ankeny, William P., IV, 48. 

Anoka, lumber mills, IV, 29; incorpo- 
rated as a city, 89. 

Anoka County, organized, II, 506. 

Anthony Wayne (steamboat), IV, 322, 

Apportionment Bill based on Census 
of 1850: dissatisfaction with, II, 
456-456; new act, 480; new appor- 
tionment law, III, 90. 

Arbor and Bird Day, established, IV, 

Ariel (steamboat), IV, 320. 

Armstrong, Augustus, III, 431, 437. 

Armstrong, George W., II, 506; III, 58; 
IV, 281, 291. 

Armstrong, J. L., Ill, 437. 

Armstrong, John, III, 381. 

Armstrong, Thomas H., Ill, 116; 
sketch, 120, 427; IV, 56, 57, 65, 80, 

Arrow, The (Indian chief), II, 42. 

Article 13 Federal Constitution rati- 
fied, III, 124. 

Ashmun, George (Mass.), II, 411. 

Assiniboines, I. 104, 110-112, 152, 153, 
193, 206, 272. 

Astor, John Jacob, I, 326. 

Atchison, David R. (Mo.), II, 411. 

Atchison, Capt. John, II, 85; IV, 320. 

Atherton, H. H., sketch, IV, 52. 

Atkinson, Capt. George, III, 386. 

Atkinson, Lieut. J. B., Ill, 356. 

Attempt to change northern boun- 
daries of Territory, II, 493-494. 

Atwater, Isaac, II, 462; III, 525. 

Auguelle, Anthony, I, 214, 215, 233, 234. 

Austin, incorporated as a village, III, 
454; as a city, IV, 154. 

Austin, Horace, sketch, III, 33, 34; in- 
augural address, 38; annual mes- 
sage, 44; vetoed State Internal Im- 
provement Fund Act, 45, 46; mes- 
sage in 1872, 49, 54-58; farewell 
message, 62, 68, 73. 

Australian ballot system adopted, IV, 
165; applied to whole State, 181. 

Auteaun, Father, I, 272. 

Averill, Gen. John T., III. 81, 174, 177, 
413, 414, 427; sketch, IV, 41, 52. 

Awatnik (Indian narrator), I, 110, 
193, 197. 

Ayer, Mrs. Elizabeth T., II, 223, 226, 
228; sketch, 234. 

Ayer, Rev. Frederick, II, 173, 220-229; 
sketch, 234. 

Ayers, Ebenezer, sketch, III, 438. 

Ayers, Oscar, III, 468, 



Baasen, Francis, sketch, II, 492; III, 

58, 244. 

Babbitt, Miss Franc, I, 83. 
Babcock, L. V., sketch of, IV, 282 
Babcock, Lorenzo A., II, 441; sketch, 

445, 458, 475; IV, 503. 
Backus, Miss Elizabeth, III, 315. 
Bacon, Gen. John M., IV, 247-2o2. 
Bad Hail (Sioux chief), II, 163, 311, 312. 
Badger, George E. (N. C.), II, 401. 

. > 

296, 297, 305, 306, 312, 419, 441. 
Bailly. Henry G., II, 486; III, 61. 
Bailly, Mrs. Lucy (nee Faribault), II, 

Baker. Ann (Mrs. Robinson Jones), 

III, 304-309. 
Baker, Benjamin F. (Blue Beard), III, 

54, 138, 159. 

Baker, D. A. J., sketch, III, 41, 516. 
Baker, Col. E. D., Ill, 131. 
Baker, Howard, III, 304-306, 308-310. 
Baker, Mrs. Howard, testimony of, 

III, 305-307. 
Baker, Gen. James H., I, 287; extract 

from address, 288; III, 36, 79, 107, 

192-194, 412-414, 498; IV, 172, 174, 

183, 196, 337, 383. 
Balcombe, St. A. D., II, 486, 494-496; 

III, sketch, 62. 
Baldwin, Jr., D. M., IV, 430. 
Baldwin, M. R., IV, 187; sketch, 188, 


Baldwin, Matthew W., Ill, 534, 535. 
Baldwin, Rufus J., sketch, III, 93, 99. 
Baldwin School, founded, III, 534. 
Ball, Lieut. Col. John, III, 198. 
Bank of Minnesota, II, 512. 
Banking laws amended, IV, 303. 
Banks, Nathaniel P. (Mass.), II, 482; 

III, 169-171, 421. 
Banks, Capt. Rollo, III, 386. 
Banning, William D., sketch, III, 96; 

IV, 96. 

Barker, Henry F., sketch, IV, 278. 
Barnes, Rev. Albert, III, 534. 
Barnes, Nathan P., sketch, III, 432. 
Barnesville, incorporated as a city, 

IV, 166. 

Barnum, E. P., IV, 133. 
Barr, George T., IV, 178, 197. 
Barrett, J. O., IV, 172. 
Barrett, T. H., IV, 145. 
Barrett, Capt. Theodore H., Ill, 379, 


Barteau, Stephen B., IV, 162. 
Bartlett, Dr. C. K., Ill, 491. 
Bartlett, Louis, II, 476. 
Barto, Alphonso, IV, 49, 60. 
Barton, Capt. Asa, III, 205; IV, sketch, 

43, 48, 57, 127. 
Bass, J. W., II, 476. 
Bassett, Joel B., sketch, II, 491. 
Batchelder, George F., Ill, 459. 
Batchelder, George W., Ill, 455; IV, 

35, 42, 47, 127. 

Bates. Capt. David G., IV, 319. 
Bates, Erastus N., Ill, 60. 
Batz, Valentine, IV, 278. 
Baxter, George N., IV, 127, 128. 
Baxter, Col. Luther L., Ill, 120, 206, 

283, 438, 443, 460; IV, sketch, 35, 

47, 52. 

Baxter, William C., Ill, 470. 
Bay State Milling Co., IV, 430. 
Bayard, James A. (Del.), Ill, 67, 68. 
Bazille, Charles, II, 121; III, 464. 
Beadle, Frank J., Ill, 362. 
Beatty, Hamilton, III, 121. 
Beatty, James, sketch, II, 460, 479. 
Beauchamp, Capt. (Sac half breed), 

II, 187, 188. 
Beauharnois, Marquise de (governor 

of New France), I, 269, 271, 277, 


Beauregard, Gen. P. T., Ill, 153, 208. 
Becht, Maj. J. C., Ill, 169. 
Becker County, established, III, 64. 
Becker, George L., II, 484; III, 59, 79, 

451, 506, 535; sketch, IV, 35, 52, 

195, 350. 
Bede, J. Adam, IV, 276; sketch, 277, 


Bedford, S. B., IV, 296. 
Bee, Capt. Bernard E., Ill, 223, 237; 

sketch, 238, 239-242. 
Beecher, Miss Catherine, III, 514. 
Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward, II, 206; 

IV, 83. 
Begon, (intendant of New France), I, 


Belcourt, Rev. George A., I, 103, 110. 
Bell, Capt. Edwin, description of first 

steamboat trip on the Red River 

of the North, IV, 331. 
Bell, John (Secretary of War), II, 287, 

288, 471; III, 32. 
Bell, Dr. Robert, I, 54. 
Belle Plaine, incorporated as a bor- 
ough, III, 454. 

Bellin (French geographer), I, 269. 
Beltrami County, established, III, 435; 

organized, IV, 93. 
Beltrami, Count J-. Constantino, I, 93, 

119, 121, 356, 358; biography of, 

359-362; journey to upper Missis- 
sippi, 372-375, 377; description of 

Fort Snelling, II, 62; IV, 317, 318. 
Beman, Samuel S., Ill, 60; IV, 48, 52, 


Ben Campbell (steamboat), IV, 323. 
Benjamin, Judah P. (La.), Ill, 72. 
Bennett, Samuel, III, 99. 
Benson, Charles A., IV, 279. 
Benson, David, IV, 61, 82. 
Benson, Jared, sketch, III, 94, 100, 115; 

IV, 93, 162. 

Benson, Lyman L., IV, 312. 
Benton County, boundaries of, II, 439, 

456, 461. 
Benton, Thomas H. (Mo.), I, 385; II, 


Berdan, Col. Hiram, III, 202. 
Berg, Albert A., IV, 195, 270. 
Bergen, A., Ill, 459. 
Berkey, Hiram, II, 140, 141. 
Berkey, Peter, IV, 49. 
Berry, Charles H., Ill, 58; sketch, IV, 

Berry, John M., II, 492; sketch, III, 


Berthoud, Capt. Edward L., I, 273. 
Bidwell, James, vote cast for, IV, 185. 
Biennial sessions of the Legislature 

adopted, IV, 82. 
Bienville (governor of Louisiana), I, 




Bierbauer, Capt. William, III, 325, 376, 


Bierce, A., IV, 140. 
Biermann, Adolph, IV, 133, 139, 140, 

172, 173. 

Big Canoe (Winnebago chief), II, 217. 
Big Eagle (Sioux chief), III, 285, 303, 

312, 326, 336, 338, 346-34;?, 371, 399, 

404; IV, 317. 
Big Head, III, 390. 
Big Stone County, established, III, 

103; organized, IV, 44. 
Big Thunder (or Little Crow, IV), II, 

156, 163-165, 180, 240, 241, 262-272, 

274, 281. 
Big Walker (Tonka Mannee), II, 247, 


Biggs, Asa (N. C.), Ill, 31, 34, 35. 
Bigler, William (Pa.), Ill, 68. 
Billson, W. W., IV, 134. 
Bird Island, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 100. 
Bishop, Miss Harriett E., II, 122, 242, 

462; III, 514, 515. 

Bishop, John F., Ill, 162, 316, 319, 320. 
Bishop, Col. Judson W., Ill, 139, 144. 
Bismarck, Prince, congratulated, IV, 


Bisson, Joseph, II, 80. 
Bixby, Tarns, IV, 272. 
Black Dog (Sioux chief), II, 163, 171, 

181, 274; IV, 318. 
Black Eagle, III, 219, 221. 
Black Hawk (Sac war chief), II, 187, 

191, 194-200, 217. 

Black Hawk (steamboat), IV, 324, 327. 
Black Hawk War, II, 191-200; IV, 307. 
Black, Mahlon, sketch, II, 446, 458, 492. 
Black River (steamboat), IV, 320. 
Elaine, James G., IV, 96, 140; memorial 

legislative session, 193. 
Blair, jr., Frank P. (Mo.), Ill, 71. 
Blake, Edward, II, 133. 
Blake, John W., sketch, IV, 53, 65, 134. 
Blakeley, David, III, 108, 111. 
Blakeley, Capt. Russell, I, 135, 142, 287; 

IV, 313, 314. 

Blanchard, C. C., II, 121. 
Bland Silver Bill in Senate, IV, 89. 
Blashfleld, Edward H., Ill, 473. 
Bliss, Maj. John, II, 240. 
Block, H. C., IV, 281. 
Block, Julius H., IV, 263, 275, 286, 293. 
Blodgett, William H., Ill, 319. 
Blood, Charles H., IV., 276. 
Blue Earth City, incorporated as a vil- 
lage, IV, 50; special act, 94. 
Blue Earth County, organized, II, 468. 
Blue Earth Milling Co., IV, 430. 
Boal, James McC., II, 297, 357, 435; 

sketch, 442, 460, 463. 
Board of Canvassers, created, IV, 82. 
Board of Emigration, new board cre- 
ated, IV, 45. 

Board of Public Charities and Correc- 
tions established, IV, 136. 
Boardman, Capt. L. M., Ill, 324. 
Boardman, Mrs. Martha, II, 269. 
Bobleter, Col. Joseph, IV, 145, 173, 189. 
Bodleian Library, I, 127. 
Boen, Haldor E., IV, 187; sketch, 188, 


Bohannon, E. W., Ill, 525. 
Bohrer, F. A., IV, 133. 

Bolles, Lemuel, II, 420; IV, 420. 
Bonga, George, II, 55, 127, 130. 
Bonga, Stephen, II, 281. 
Bonniwell, William T., IV, 42, 82; 

sketch, 85, 90. 

Borchert, Ferdinand, IV, 186. 
Borgerorode, Col. Rudolph Von, III, 

159, 163. 

Borup and Oakes, II, 510. 
Borup, Charles Wolf, II, 55, 211, 332, 

423; III, 503. 

Boswell, Miss Julia, II, 269. 
Bosworth, James E., IV, 280. 
Boucher, Rene, Sieur de la Perriere, I, 


Bouck, I. W., IV, 299. 
Boutwell, Mrs. Hester Crooks, II, 223, 

226, 228. 
Boutwell, Rev. William Thurston, I, 

119, 354, 355; II, 125-127, 130-132, 

159, 220-232; sketch, 233, 239, 240, 


Bowers, Dr. J. E., Ill, 492. 
Bowles, J. M., IV, 196, 205, 236. 
Bowron, Joseph, II, 364. 
Boyce, John, II, 162. 
Boyce, William W. (S. C.), Ill, 30. 
Boyd, Maj. George, II, 59. 
Boyd, Linn (Ky.), II, 406, 411. 
Boyden, Nathaniel (N. C.), II, 380, 383, 

384, 405-408, 411, 413. 
Boyer, Peter (Pierre Bourrier), III, 


Boyle, Robert, II, 500. 
Brackett, Maj. A. B., Ill, 203, 204. 
Brackett, J. J., IV, 312. 
Braden, William W., sketch, III, 438; 

IV, 133, 145, 173, 383. 
Bradford, G. A., IV, 126. 
Bradley, Col. George, sketch, III, 74, 

179, 180. 

Bradley, J. F., II, 482. 
Bradshaw, John, III, 22% 223. 
Bragg, Gen. Baxton, III, 139, 140, 156, 

185, 205, 210, 212. 

Branch, William, II, 492, 498; III, 432. 
Branham, Jesse V., Ill, 356. 
Branham, jr., Jesse V., Ill, 356. 
Branham, William, III, 366. 
Brawley, Daniel F., II, 478; sketch, 

479; III, 464. 
Bray, Ebenezer, III, 76. 
Breaks Up and Scatters, III, 303. 
Breckinridge, John C., Ill, 66, 93. 
Bright, James C., Ill, 304. 
Bright, Jesse D. (Ind.), Ill, 68. 
Brisbin, John B., sketch, II, 486, 491, 

493, 495, 496, 498; III, 105. 
Brisbine, William, III, 439. 
Bristol, Warren, II, 483; sketch, III, 


Broberg, Anders P., Ill, 354. 
Broberg, Daniel P., Ill, 354. 
Broderick, D. C. (Calif.), Ill, 68. 
Brodhead, John R. (historian), I, 105. 
Brodhead, jr., Richard (Pa.), Ill, 31, 


Bromley, Capt. Charles A., Ill, 281. 
Bronson, E. H., IV, 186. 
Brower, Mrs. H. F., Ill, 186. 
Brower, Jacob V., I, 83, 86, 92, 104-108, 

133, 135, 143, 170, 183, 232-235, 253, 

255, 355, 358; III, 498, 511. 
Brower, Ripley R., IV, 278. 



Brown, Albert G. (Miss.), ni. 32, 35, 

fi7 72 

Brown, Charles T., Ill, 431, 451. 
Brown County, named, I, 317; organ- 
ized, II, 480. 
Brown, Edward S., sketch, IV, 75. 

irown! RJU5-F, IV, 173, 189. 

Brown, J. W., Ill, 487. 

Brown, John, II, 400. 

Brown, Joseph Renshaw, biography, I, 
317; II, 45, 46, 55, 61, 86, 87; biog- 
raphy, 91-93, 105-108, 133, 137, 141, 
142 297, 301, 329, 332, 347, 349, 351- 
357, 362-367, 372, 375, 407, 414, 420, 
423, 425, 432, 436, 438, 442, 476, 4H2; 
III 48, 55. 57, 249, 274-276, 287, 343- 
345, 349, 393, 395, 400, 412, 423, 498, 
515; IV, 339, 411. 

Brown, Nathaniel B., II, 107. 

Brown, Nathaniel R., II, 329. 

Brown, Orlando, II, 292, 295. 

Brown, Samuel F., II, 107. 

Brown, Samuel J., Ill, 400. 

Brown, Warrington B., IV, 150. 

Brown, William R., II, 133, 269. 

Brown Wing, III, 303. 

Brownell, George W., II, 343-345, 350, 

Bruce, Rev. H. J.. II, 267. 

Brules (Indian tribe), II, 216. 

Brunet, Jean, II, 149, 156. 

Brunson, Rev. Alfred. II. 261-268. 

Brunson, Benjamin W., II, 123; sketch, 
444, 451. 

Brunson, Ira B., II, 87, 88, 106, 123, 

Bryan. 'William Jennings, IV, 204, 236, 


Bryant, George, III, 459. 
Buache, Philip (French geographer), 

I, 269, 275, 277. 

Buchanan County, consolidated. III, 98. 
Buchanan, James (Secretary of State), 

II, 364, 365, 503; president, III, 66. 
Buck, Adam, III, 437, 452. 

Buck. C. F., II, 487; IV, 36, 41, 82, 91, 


Buck, C. M., IV, 279. 
Buck, Capt. Cornelius F., Ill, 375, 376. 
Buck, Daniel, III, 431: IV, 91, 172. 
Buck, W. W., Ill, 438, 444. 
Buckman, Clarence B., IV, 134, 150, 

257; sketch, 277. 
Buckman, Thomas S., sketch, IV, 60, 

127, 200. 

Budd, Joseph D., sketch, IV, 81. 
Buell, Gen. D. C., Ill, 138, 140, 210, 211. 
Buell, D. L., sketch, 111, 106, 431, 451; 

IV, 35, 47, 73, 91. 
Buell, Maj. S. A., Ill, 325, 329. 
Buell, Maj. Salmon B., Ill, 421. 
Buffalo Ghost, III, 349. 
Bullis, A. H., Ill, 121; IV, 147. 
Bunker, Alonzo S., IV, 119-121. 
Burhank, H. C., IV, 315. 
Burbank, James C., IV, 49, 313-315. 
Burger, Capt. Emil A., Ill, 386. 
Burkhardt. Henry, IV, 178. 
Burkleo, Samuel, II, 140, 141, 363, 441; 

sketch. 442. 

Burnard, Eugene, n, 488. 
Burnett, Abner C., Ill, 362. 
Burnett, Thomas P., II, 129, 131, 192, 


Burns, J. H., IV, 281. 

Burns, Lieut. William, III, 362. 

Burpee, Lawrence J., I, 272, 274. 

Burt, Armstead, II, 404. 

Burt, David, III, 518, 519. 

Burt, Maj. W. H., Ill, 180. 

Bush, John, II, 419. 

Bushnell, Daniel P., II, 279, 280. 

Butler, A. H., in, 100. 

Butler, Andrew P. (S. C.), II, 395, 398, 

399, 401; III, 32. 
Butler, Benjamin F., IV, 140. 
Butler, Charles J., sketch, III, 41. 
Butler, Levi, sketch, IV, 48, 60, 75. 
Butler-Ryan Company, III, 470, 472. 
Butters, Reuben, sketch, III, 62, 105, 

431, 438, 443. 
Byrce, Prof. George, I, 135, 191, 192, 

Byron, incorporated as a village, IV, 


Cady, Capt. John S., Ill, 408. 
Calhoun, John C., II, 33-35, 44, 50, 51, 


Calhoun, John F., IV, 280, 296. 
Cameron, Daniel, sketch, III, 115. 
Cameron, Duncan, II, 71. 
Camp Coldwater, II, 47, 81. 
Camp, Maj. George, III, 183, 418. 
Camp Release, III, 180, 255, 264. 
Campbell, Alexander S., IV, 279, 296. 
Campbell, Antoine Joseph (Joe), II, 

329; III, 255, 264, 311, 357, 360, 361, 

371, 372, 395-397. 
Campbell, Baptiste, III, 263, 357. 
Campbell, Colin, II, 144-146. 
Campbell, Duncan, II, 54. 
Campbell, George W., Ill, 62. 
Campbell, Henry Colin, I, 134, 135, 142. 
Campbell, Hippolite, III, 255. 
Campbell, John, II; 54; III, 255, 262. 
Campbell, Samuel L., IV., 76. 
Campbell, Scott, II, 113, 121, 241, 280- 

283, 312. 

Campbell, William M., IV, 97. 
Canadian Northern Railway Company, 

IV, 367. 
Canby, incorporated as a village, IV, 


Canby, Gen. E. R. S., Ill, 174, 182, 197. 
Canestrop, Ole O., IV, 297. 
Canning, Charles, IV, 158. 
Cannon Falls, incorporated as a town, 

II, 493. 
Cannon River Improvement Co., Ill, 


Cantonment New Hope, II, 45, 47. 
Carey, John R., I, 186, 210. 
Carhart, Joseph, III, 524. 
Carimona (Winnebago chief). II, 217. 
Carli, Dr. Christopher, II, 107, 372. 
Carli, Mrs. Lydia, II, 107. 
Carli, Paul J., II, 107, 108. 
Carlson, Carl J., Ill, 355. 
Carlton College, III, 536. 
Carl ton County, established, II, 506; 

organized, IV, 40. 
Carothers, David, III, 314. 
Carpenter, George C., IV, 298. 
Carver County, organized. II. 480. 
Carver, David, III, 229, 233, 234. 
Carver, Jonathan, I, 65, 86, 87, 90, 93, 
105, 109 119, 121, 182, 183. 232; biog- 
raphy, 280, 282; publication of 
travels, 282, 283-295, 323, 356. 



Case, John H., IV, 42. 

Cashman, Thomas E., IV, 296. 

Cass County, organized, IV, 50. 

Cass, Lewis, I, 121; biography, 348, 

350-356, 367; II, 62, 189, 273, 274, 


Cass Treaty, II, 150. 
Castle, James N., Ill, 459, IV, 35, 41, 

92, 134, 174; sketch, 175. 
Caswell, Carlos, III, 357. 
Cataret, Sir George, I, 127. 
Catlin, George, I, 90, 93; biography, 

380-382, 384; II, 422; IV, 320. 
Catlin, John, II, 363, 364, 371-379, 412, 


Caton, J. T., IV, 187. 
Cavanaugh, James M., Ill, 59; sketch, 

60, 73, 74, 79. 
Cave, Charles S., II, 459, 478, 479; 

sketch, III, 60. 

Cavileer, Charles, II, 122, 123, 133, 269. 
Census revised, II, 436. 
Center, Mrs. Edward H., Ill, 478. 
Central Bank of New Ulm, II, 512. 
Central House (St. Paul), II, 110, 436, 


Chace, Alexander R., I, 351. 
Chadderdon, J. C., IV, 65. 
Chalfant, William, III, 121, 431. 
Chamberlain, G. C., Ill, 105. 
Chamberlain, Selah, III, 443; IV, 100. 
Chambers, John (governor of Iowa 

Territory), II, 56, 292, 293. 
Chambers, Tom, III, 359. 
Champlin, E. T., sketch, IV, 180. 
Chan Yuksa (Wood Breaker), III, 220. 
Chapel, Charles E., Ill, 335. 
Charles II (King of England), I, 127. 
Charleville (French explorer), I, 253, 

254, 268, 283. 
Charlevoix, Pierre F. X., I, 255, 276, 

Chase, Charles L., II, 503, 504; III, 39, 

40, 55, 66; IV, 314. 
Chase, Lieut. Dudley P., Ill, 201. 
Chase, Jonathan, sketch, II, 492; III, 

119, 284. 

Chase, Salmon P., II, 400; III, 119, 284. 
Chaska, incorporated, IV, 44; as a 

city, 82. 
Chatfleld, incorporated, II, 493; IV, 44; 

city charter granted, 154. 
Chatfleld, Andrew G., biography, II, 

473, 503; III, 104, 107, 147. 
Chau-inkapa (End of a Tree), III, 329. 
Cheever, Benjamin, IV, 409. 
Chefflns, Joseph B., Ill, 226, 237, 243. 
Chester, Prof. A. H., IV, 377, 378. 
Che-tan Wahkoota Manne (Walking 

Hunting Hawk), II, 40. 
Chewning, R. J., Ill, 452, 460; IV, 34. 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Rail- 
road Company, IV, 367. 
Chicago and Great Western Railway 

Company, IV, 367. 
Chicago and Rock Island Excursion, 

IV, 324-325; Railway Company, 368. 
Chic-hon-sic (Winnebago), II, 186, 189. 
Chief Johnnie Green (Fox), III, 222. 
Child, Elisha A., IV, 150. 
Child, James E., sketch, IV, 48, 61, 145. 
Child, Simeon P., sketch, IV, 49, 60, 82. 
Childs, Henry W., IV, 189, 195. 
Chippewa County, established, IV, 103. 

Chippewas, I, 91, 93, 96, 102-105, 110- 
116, 121, 157-161, 164, 165, 182, 183, 
232, 245, 347; II, 32, 38, 39, 55, 79, 
105, 125, 130, 135-138, 148-150, 153- 
179, 185, 209-213, 216, 219-235, 246, 
271, 273-275, 507; III, 287, 379, 385; 
IV, 321, 411. 

Chippewas Treaty, Indian signers of, 
II, 280. 

Chisago County, organized, II, 455. 

Chittenden, H. M., I, 326. 

Cholera morbus amongst the Sioux, 
II, 210. 

Chourant, Medard, see Sieur des Gros- 

Chouteau, Auguste, I, 348. 

Chouteau, jr., Pierre, I, 326. 

Chouteau, Jr., and Company, Pierre, 
II, 294, 331, 448. 

Christian, G. C., IV, 429. 

Christian, George H., IV, 423, 426. 

Church, Mrs. Louisa, III, 229. 

Church, William, III, 234. 

Chute, Richard, II, 297, 305. 

Cisco, John J., Ill, 284. 

Clague, Frank, IV, 281; sketch, 291, 
293, 296. 

Clapp, Moses E., IV, 145, 168, 173, 191; 
biography, 272, 284, 285, 293. 

Claremont, organized as a village, IV, 

Clarion (steamboat), IV, 326, 327. 
Clark, Charles H., Ill, 451, 459; IV, 65. 
Clark, Charlotte O. (Mrs. Charlotte 

Van Cleve), II, 42. 
Clark, Ernest F., IV, 196. 
Clark, Mrs. F. B., Ill, 478. 
Clark, Francis H., IV, 196, 208. 
Clark, H., IV, 208. 
Clark, Capt. Nathan, II, 42, 43, 154. 
Clark, Thomas, I, 386. 
Clark, Gov. William (Mo.), I, 348, 362; 

II, 42, 273, 277; IV, 317. 
Clay, jr., Clement C. (Ala.), Ill, 33, 70. 
Clay County, established, III, 103. 
Clay, Henry (Ky.), II, 47. 
Clayton, Capt. W. Z., Ill, 209. 
Clearwater, incorporated, II, 493. 
Cleary, Capt. James, III, 378. 
Clement, T. B., IV, 86, 101, 102. 
Cleveland, G. K., Ill, 99. 
Cleveland, Grover, III, 458; IV, 140, 166, 


Clewett, James R., II, 119. 
Cloud Man (Sioux chief), II, 241, 242, 

Clough, David M., Ill, 471; IV, 151, 189, 

200, 205; biography, 231, 235, 237, 

252, 253, 260. 
Clough, G. W., IV, 91. 
Cloutier, Alex, II, 465. 
Coake, Lieut. G. F., Ill, 207. 
Coates, Capt. H. C., Ill, 135. 
Cobb, Daniel, IV, 34. 
Cobb, Howell (Ga.), II, 380, 405-408, 


Coe, Rev. Alvan, II, 219, 220. 
Coggswell, Amos, III, 47, 56, 82, 447; 

IV, 60; sketch, 65. 

Colburn, Capt. Nathan P., Ill, 377, 438. 
Cole, A. L., IV, 282, 293, 294. 
Cole, Alonzo B., IV, 280. 
Cole, Gordon E., Ill, 79, 111, 431; IV, 

70; sketch, 135, 138. 



Coleman, John, III, 494. 

Colfax, Schuyler III, 36. 

Colhoun, James E., I, 364, 365, 368, 611. 

Collamer, Jacob (Vt.), II, 383, 407, 411, 


College of St. Thomas, III, 536. 
Coller, Julius A., IV, 278 296. 
Collester, Eugene B., Ill, 69; IV, 197, 

Collins,' Loren W., sketch, IV, 135, 236, 

284, 285, 289. 
Columbia Fur Company, I, 368; posts, 

II, 54; factory at Mendota, 55, 147; 

IV 319. 

Columbus, Christopher, I, 115, 202. 
Commission appointed to Centennial 

Exhibition, IV, 68. 
Commissioner of Statistics created, 

Comptbn, Capt. James, III, 496; IV, 
150; sketch, 151. 

Comstock, E. P., IV, 280. 

Comstock, Solomon G., Ill, 524; IV, 76, 
93, 134, 150, 158; biography, 159, 
162, 174, 200. 

Conkey, C. A., IV, 75. 

Conniff, Thomas H., Ill, 115. 

Conrad, C. M. (Secretary of War), II, 

Constans, Louis, III, 346. 

Constans, William, II, 464, 465. 

Constitutional Convention: contesting 
delegates, III, 37-38; members of 
Democratic wing, 41-46; members 
of Republican wing, 43-46; vote for 
negro suffrage, 48; compromise 
measures. 48-53; altercation be- 
tween Wilson and Gorman, 54. 

Construction materials, IV. 385-387. 

Convention at Still water, II, 363-369. 

Cook, Jay and Company, failure of, 
IV, 58. 

Cook, Lytle O., IV, 278, 296, 237. 

Cook, Michael, III, 80, 81, 93, 99, 192, 

Cooper, Charles H., Ill, 523. 

Cooper, David, II, 426; biography, 427, 
428, 429, 449, 473; III, 64, 503. 

Cooper, James (Pa.), II, 333. 

Cooper, Joseph, II, 449. 

Cooper, Peter, IV, 80. 

Cope, Col. E. B., IV, 235. 

Copp, William N., IV, 140, 143, 144. 

Copway, Rev. George, II, 263, 268. 

Corbin, J. B., II, 150. 

Corliss, E. E., Ill, 469; IV, 49.. 

Cornell, F. R. E., sketch, III, 95, 100, 
121, 450; IV, 34. 

Cotrell, Joseph, II, 140. 

Cottage Grove cyclone, IV, 212. 

Cottonwood County, established, II, 
506; organized, IV, 40. 

Coty, Jofin B., II, 123. 

Coues. Dr. Elliott, I, 105, 121. 

Counties, Territory divided into, II, 

County Commissioners created, III, 90. 

Coursalle, Joseph, III, 223, 228-228, 239- 

Covey, Dr. J. B., II, 372. 

Covill, Jr., Col. William, I, 91; III, 111, 
121, 132, 133-135, 206, 428, 436, 450; 
biography, IV, 87, 235, 305. 

Cowan, D. C., sketch, IV, 279. 

Cowan, Thomas, III, 80, 81. 

Cox, E. St. Julien, lieutenant, III, 282; 

captain, 320, 329, 378, 381, 393; IV, 

sketch, 53, 60, 64; impeachment 

trial, 105; proceedings expunged, 


Cox, Kenyon, III, 473. 
Coy, Ansel B., II, 121. 
Craig, H. E., IV, 281. 
Craig, R. O., IV, 178. 
Crandell, Charles S., sketch, IV, 62, 

150, 178. 

Crane, Royal, III, 121. 
Crary, B. F., Ill, 518. 
Cratte, Oliver, II, 80. 
Crawford, Charles, II, 329. 
Crawford, Samuel J., II, 133. 
Crawls Against, III, 303. 
Creamery industry, IV, 398, 399. 
Crees, I, 93, 104-106, 110-113, 152, 153, 

161 171, 174, 180, 185, 188, 191, 232, 


Cressey Rev. T. R., Ill, 535. 
Creton, Rev. Joseph, II, 112. 
Crittenden, John J., (Ky.), II, 471; III, 

33, 35, 67-69. 
Crooker, J. B., Ill, 121, 431; sketch, 


Crooks, Ramsey, I, 326; II, 223. 
Crooks, Col. William, III, 175, 177, 412- 

414; sketch, IV, 97, 349. 
Crookston, incorporated as a city, IV, 

94, 143. 

Crosby, J. B., Ill, 62. 
Cross, David, III, 372, 373. 
Crow Wing, II, 421. 
Crow Wing County, organized, II, 506; 

iron developments, IV, 380. 
Crown Milling Company, IV, 430. 
Cullen, Maj. William J., II, 507; III, 

104, 254, 257, 258, 261-263, 266, 276, 

280, 302, 393. 

Culver, George, II, 214, 217. 
Culver, Lieut. Norman K., Ill, 162, 283, 

332, 333. 
Cunningham, Mr. and Mrs. H. D., II, 


Curial, Edward L., IV, 187. 
Curtis, Gold T., II, 372; sketch, III, 41. 
Gushing, Caleb, IV, 409. 
Cut Heads, III, 291, 381. 
Cutts, C. E., IV, 76, 91. 
Cyclones, IV, 211-222. 
Dahkotah County boundaries, II, 439. 
Dahlon, Rev. R. C., I, 110, 194. 
Daily, C. M., Ill, 284. 
Daily, M. A., Ill, 105. 
Dakota (steamboat), IV, 316. 
Dakota Alphabet, II, 201-203. 
Dakota Presbytery, organized, II, 251. 
Dakotah (town) II, 105-108. 
Dakotas, see Sioux. 
Dale, O. G., 279, 296. 
Dalen, G. G., IV, 281. 
Dalrymple, Oliver, IV, 392-395. 
Dana, Prof. J. D., I, 52, 55. 
Dana, Gen. Napoleon J. T., II, 327, 328; 

III, 130, 131. 

Dandy (Winnebago chief), II, 217. 
Dane, Capt. Jerome, III, 377, 381, 392. 
Daniels, Lieut. Don H., Ill, 423. 
Daniels, J. V., sketch, III, 99, 436; IV, 

75, 97. 
Daniels, Dr. J. W., Ill, 351. 



Daniels, Joseph, III, 464. 

Daniels, Milton J., sketch, IV, 150. 

Danielson, Nels, III, 307. 

Dare, Arthur N., sketch, IV, 259. 

Darragh, Edward J., IV, 196. 

Dart, Charles H., IV, 278. 

Daugherty, Frank B., IV, 257. 

Daulac or Dollard, Adam, I, 196. 

Davenport, Ambrose, II, 55. 

Davenport, William, II, 55. 

Davidson, Chester D., Ill, 451; sketch, 

Davidson, John X, IV, 51. 

Davis, C. P.. Ill, 121. 

Davis, Charles R., IV, 162, 176; biog- 
raphy, 276, 295. 

Davis, Cushman K., Ill, 438, 437; IV, 
56, 57; biography, 59-60; inaugural 
address, 63, 67-70, 76-77, 137, 154, 
155, 190, 191, 204, 235, 261; death, 
265-267, 272. 

Davis, David, IV, 151. 

Davis, Capt. David L., Ill, 370. 

Davis, Prank, IV, 185. 

Davis, George, IV, 198. 

Davis, H. W., Ill, 71. 

Davis, Maj. J. B., Ill, 139. 

Davis, Gen. Jeff C., Ill, 210, 211. 

Davis, Jefferson, (Miss.), Ill, 66-72. 

Davis, Capt. John B., IV, 330. 

Davis. Samuel M., I, 330. 

Davis; Thomas J., Ill, 381. 

Davis, Prof. W. M., I, 52-55. 

Davis, William A., II, 476, 478, 497. 

Dawley, Lieut. Richard L., Ill, 210. 

Day, Dr. David, sketch, II, 460, 466. 

Day, Frank A., sketch, IV, 150, 178, 
197, 204, 208, 232. 

Day, James C., Ill, 60. 

Day, Dr. John H., sketch, II, 476. 

Dayton, Lyman, I, 88. 

De Laittre, John, III, 469. 

De Meurons Settlement, II, 74-75. 

De Soto, Herando, I, 211, 212, 350. 

De Vandreuil (Governor of New 
France), I, 275. 

Dean, William B., Ill, 467, 469; IV, 178, 

Dean. William J., IV, 185, 186. 

Decline of Steamboat Traffic, IV, 331- 

Delano! Francis R., Ill, 481, 482; 
sketch, IV, 66. 

Delap, Hiram, II, 263, 266. 

Delisle, William, I, 268. 

Demeiest, Lieut. David B., Ill, 135. 

Denny, William R., sketch, IV, 62. 

Denton, Lyman W., IV, 147. 

Denton, Rev. Samuel, II, 259-261. 

Denver, Gen. J. W., Ill, 251-255, 262, 

Dergulee, Louis, II, 80. 

Desire Francois (Fronchet), II, 81. 

Deuel, Burr, IV, 67, 81. 

Dewelle, Lieut. G. Merrill, III, 423. 

Dewey, Dr. John J., II, 441; sketch, 

Dewey, Nelson (Governor of Wiscon- 
sin), II, 365. 

Diamond Elevator and Milling Co., IV, 

Diamond Jo Line, IV, 333. 

Dibble, William B., II, 133, 140. 

Dick, Philip H., Ill, 357. 

Dickinson, D. H., IV, 191. 
Dickinson, Daniel S., (N. Y.), II, 391. 
Dickinson, J. C., Ill, 315. 
Dickson, Col. Robert, I, 347; II, 32, 145, 


Dickson, William, II, 54, 272. 
Dike, Maj. William H., Ill, 129. 
District Court, First, II, 130-133. 
Dixon, James B., II, 478. 
Dobbs, Arthur, I, 299. 
Dodd, Capt. W. B., II, 332; III, 214, 

245, 235. 
Dodge, Augustus C. (Iowa), II, 338, 

398, 400, 412. 

Dodge Center, incorporated as a vil- 
lage, IV, 50; charter amended, 89. 
Dodge County, organized, II, 480. 
Dodge, Henry (Wis.), II, 80, 120, 196- 

199, 280, 377, 400, 412. 
Doe, Hilton, II, 133. 
Donahower, Lieut. J. C., Ill, 282. 
Donaldson, C. R., IV, 297. 
Donnelly, Frank, II, 507. 
Donnelly, Ignatius, III, 79; biography, 

86-88, 104, 108, 120, 436, 455-458; IV, 

41, 60, 69, 75, 85, 89-92, 140, 152, 

156, 167, 171, 172, 178, 183, 186, 200, 

206, 233, 236. 
Dooley, Samuel, II, 486. 
Doolittle, Henry, III, 516. 
Doolittle, J. R. (Wis.), Ill 68. 
Doran, Michael, sketch, IV, 42, 65, 80, 

89, 91, 134, 155. 

Dorsett, Charles W., IV, 286, 293, 294. 
Dorsey, J. H., sketch, IV, 298. 
Dorsey, Owen, IV, 390. 
Doty, James D. (Governor of Wiscon- 
sin Territory), I, 351; II, 87, 285- 

288, 392, 425. 

Dougherty, James G., IV, 186. 
Douglas County, organized, III, 64. 
Douglas, J. W., IV, 141. 
Douglas, Stephen A., I, 119; II, 340, 

344, 350-352, 355. 356, 395-402, 410- 

415; III, 31, 34, 35, 66, 68, 69, 93. 
Douglas, Thomas (Earl of Selkirk), II, 

69, 75. 
Douglas, Wallace B., I, 78; IV, 198; 

sketch, 234, 236, 276. 
Douglass, Capt. David B., I, 351, 354. 
Dousman, Hercules L., II, 279, 280, 297, 


Dousman, Michael, II, 53. 
Dow, James J., Ill, 489. 
Dow, Gen. Neal, II, 462; IV, 96. 
Dowling, John, II, 329. 
Dowling, Michael J., sketch, IV, 270, 


Downer, John B., Ill, 121. 
Downie. Col. Mark W., Ill, 135, 136. 
Doyle, Dennis, III, 452. 
Dr. Franklin No. 1 (steamboat), IV, 

321, 322, 326. 

Dr. Franklin No. 2 (steamboat), IV, 

322, 324. 

Drake, Elias F., sketch, IV, 61, 349. 

Drake, Jack, II, 131. 

Draper, Dr. Lyman C., I, 285, 291; II, 


Draper, N. C., Ill, 437. 
Driscoll, Frederick, III, 107. 
Dry year, II, 65. 
Du Bois, J. A., rV, 276. 



Du Luth, Daniel Greysolon, I, 133, 180, 
194 202; sketch, 205, 206-211, 216, 
229-233, 235, 248, 267, 274. 277, 399. 

Du Pratz, Le Page, I, 254. 

Du Toit, Frederick E., sketch, IV, 49, 
257, 296. 

Du Toit, George A., Ill, 469. 

Dubay, Baptiste, II, 281. 

Dubuque and St. Paul Packet Com- 
pany, organized, IV, 325; boats in 
commission 1856, 328; new boats, 

Dudlev', Lieut. N. A., in, 246, 248. 

Duer, 'William (N. Y.), II, 386. 

Dufault, Louis, II, 55. 

Duffy, Thomas, III, 99. 

Dugas, William, II, 374, 441, 442; 
sketch, 444. 

Duluth, land office, IV, 28; incorpo- 
rated as a city, 3y, 100; charter 
amended, 154; annexation of out- 
side territory, 182; exporter of 
flour, 429. 

Duluth Universal Mill Co., IV, 430. 

Duly, William J., Ill, 389, 390. 

Dunbar, W. P., Ill, 58. 

Dundas, incorporated as a village, IV, 
89; special act, S4. 

Dunn, Judge Charles, II, 107, 131, 133. 

Dunn, Frank, II, 131. 

Dunn, H. H., IV, 232. 

Dunn, James, III, 320. 

Dunn, Robert C., IV, 162, 180, sketch 
189, 195, 284-286. 

Dunraven, Earl of, III, 475. 

Durant, Edward W., sketch, IV, 53, 65, 
150, 168, 279. 

Durant, Mrs. Edward, III, 478. 

Durantaye (French explorer). I, .245. 

Durment, Edmund S., IV, 297. 

Dustin, Daniel H., II, 474. 

Dutton, G. B., sketch, II, 467. 

Dwight Flour Mills, IV, 430. 

Dyke, Edwin W., IV, 60, 73. 

Eagle Roller Mills, IV, 430. 

Eames, Henry H., I, 386; IV, 376, 377, 

Earl, J. W., Ill, 314. 

East Grand Forks, city charter grant- 
ed, IV, 154. 

Eastman, Alvah, sketch, IV, 163. 

Eastman, Capt. Seth, III, 474, 475. 

Eastman, Mrs. Seth, III, 476. 

Easton, Elijah, III, 459. 

Eaton. S. W., Ill, 451. 

Eberhardt, A. O., IV, 279. 

Eckland, A. M., Ill, 310. 

Eclipse (steamboat), IV, 320. 

Eddy, Frank M., sketch, IV, 196, 209, 
284, 285. 

Eddy, Norman, II, 503, 504. 

Eddy, Major Orlando, III, 206. 

Edgerton, Alonzo J., Ill, 81; IV, 81, 90, 
biography 104, 376. 

Edson, James C., sketch, IV, 87. 

Edson, Lieut. James E., Ill, 157. 

Edwards, Charles G., sketch, IV, 81, 90, 

Edwards, D. W., IV, 158. 

Edwards, James III, 380. 

Edwards, Ninian (governor of Illinois 
Ter.), I, 348. 

Eeen-yang-Man-nie (Running Walk- 
er), if, 302. 

Egan, James J., Ill, 345, 460. 

Election laws amended, IV, 304. 

Elk River, incorporated as a village, 
IV, 100. 

Ellis, Charles H., Ill, 308. 

Ellison, Smith, sketch of, III, 432. 

Elwell, James T., IV, 297. 

Ely, incorporated as a city, IV, 379. 

Ely, Edmund F., II, 174, 222, 226, 228, 
sketch 234. 

Emerson, Prof. B. K., I, 53. 

Emerson, Dr. John, II, 66, 83, 280. 

Emmett, Lafayette, II, 475, 506. 

Enderson, Mrs. Guri, III, 355. 

Enderson, Lars, III, 355. 

Engel, Rt. Rev. Peter, III, 535. 

Enterprise (steamboat), IV, 320, 326. 

Epidemics, II, 63. 

Erickson. Oliver T., IV, 196. 

Erickson, Oscar, III, 354, 355. 

Erwin, W. W., IV, 183. 

Eustis, William H., IV, 236, 263. 

Evans, D. C., Ill, 81. 

Evans, Louis A., Ill, 121, sketch 438, 

Evans,' Oliver, IV, 423. 

Evans, Robert G., IV, 272. 

Everett, Aughenbaugh & Co., IV, 430. 

Everett, Mahlon R., IV, 278. 

Everett, R. H., Ill, 459. 

Ewing, Thomas (Secretary of the In- 
terior), II, 2S2. 

Excelsior (steamboat), II, 235. 

Execution of criminals regulated, IV, 

Extends His Head-dress (Big Curly 
Head), II, 300. 

Eyre, Dan. E., IV, 48. 

Faber, Paul, III, 460; IV, 37. 

Fairbanks, J. H., II, 55. 

Fairchilds, Sylvester M., IV, 264. 

Fall, Lieut. James, III, 209. 

Falls City (steamboat), IV, 325. 

Falstrom, Jacob, II, 80, 268. 

Fanning, Edward, IV, 290. 

Faribault, incorporated as a city, IV, 

Faribault, Alexander, II, 81, 281, 296, 
305-307, 332, 450, sketch 453; III, 

Faribault County, named, I, 318; or- 
ganized, II, 480. 

Faribault, David, II, 297; III, 320. 

Faribault, George, III, 344. 

Faribault, George N., II, 305. 

Faribault, Jean or John Baptiste, biog- 
raphy, I, 318, 348; II, 37, 44, 55, 116, 
283, 284, 297, 301, 420; III, 320; IV, 

Faribault, Oliver, II, 281, 295. 

Faribault's or Pike Island, II, 284. 

Farley, Jesse P., IV, 351. 

Farmer, John Q., Ill, 431, 438, 451; IV, 
42, 47. 

Farmers' Alliance, IV, 169-171. 

Farmers' Board of Trade established, 
IV, 93. 

Farmington, incorporated as a village, 

Farnham, Sumner W., sketch, II, 460, 

487; IV, 411. 

Farrar, Lieut. Waldo, III, 135. 
Farrell, Capt. W. B., Ill, 135. 
Farrington, George W., II, 458; IV, 338. 



Farrington, Ray G. ( IV, 298. 
Farwell, Capt. James C., Ill, 136. 
Favorite (steamboat), III, 394. 
Fayette (steamboat), II, 13y; IV, 321. 
Featherstonhaugh, George W., I, 119, 

121, 377, biography 3/8; II, 56. 
Feig, Henry, IV, 187, 198, sketch 234. 
Fergus Falls, incorporated as a village, 
IV, 50; special act, 100; as a city, 

Fergus Flour Mills, IV, 430. 
Ferris, A. F., IV, 278. 
Ferry, Thomas W., II, 219. 
Ferry, Rev. William M., II, 219-221. 
Fifteenth Amendment to U. S. Consti- 
tution ratified, IV, 39. 
Fifteenth Regiment Infantry, organiza- 
tion, officers, embarked for Camp 
Meade, arrival in Georgia, IV, 243; 
mustered out and losses, 244. 
Fillmore County organized, II, 468. 
Fillmore, Millard, II, 2b5, 457, 471. 
Findley, John L., II, 149, 151. 
P'indley, Samuel J., II, 459. 
Finseth, Anders K., sketch, IV, 65, 80, 


Fish, Hamilton (N. Y.), Ill, 33. 
Fisher, Jacob, II, 108, 372; IV, 411. 
Fisher, John, II, 476. 
Fisher, Lieut. Richard, III, 207. 
Plske, John (historian), I, 114. 
Fitzpatrick, Patrick, IV, 208, 278, 236. 
Five Million Loan Bill, IV, 346. 
Five Nations, I, 94. 

Flandrau, Charles E., I, 75; II, 486, 
491, 503, 505; III, 47, 48, 58, 230, 
236-238, 251, 254-256, 262, 274, 324- 
329, 338, 339, 377, 378, 380, 382, 3i?3, 
biography 447-449, 450. 
Flat Mouth (Chippewa chief), II, 153- 


Fletcher, Hezekiah, II, 476. 
Fletcher, Maj. J. E., II, 202-212, 215, 

Fletcher, Loren, IV, 49, 82, 97, 135, 186, 

sketch 188, 196, 208, 276, 287. 
Flower, Mark D., sketch, IV, 291. 
Floyd, John B., Ill, 252, 254, 262. 
Flynn, J. C., IV, 162. 
Folsom, W. H. C., I, 132; II, 132; III, 
60, 437, 450, 459, 476, 478; IV, 65, 75. 
Folwell, Col. William W., Ill, 527-528. 
Foot, Solomon R., Ill, 355. 
Foote, Charles D., II, 141, 142. 
Foote, Solomon (Vt.), Ill, 33. 
Forbes, William H., II, 123, 280, 297, 
332, 441, sketch 443, 458; III, 503," 
504; IV, 311. 

Ford, John A., II, 133, sketch 451, 456. 
Forney, Col. John W., IV, 341. 
Forrest, Gen. N. B., Ill, 148, 165, 180, 

187, 188, 194, 204, 398. 
Forsyth, Robert, II, 37. 
Forsyth, Maj. Robert A., I, 351. 
Forsyth, Maj. Thomas, II, 36-44. 
Fort Abercrombie, III, 159, 162, 282. 
Fort Atkinson, II, 212-215. 
Fort Crawford, II, 34-3.4, 143, 185, 188, 

213, 276, 428; IV, 307-309. 
Fort Dearborn, I, 365; II, 37. 
Fort Dodge, III, 221, 224, 232. 
Fort Douglas, II, 71, 72. 
Fort Gibraltar, II, 71. 

Fort Ridgely, naming, II, 327, 328; III, 
149-162, 175, 179, 184, 193, 226-229, 
242-245, 254-258, 280-286, 28y, 2dl, 
295, 297-299, 303, 315, 316, 319, 320, 
323, 326, 327; defence of, 331-341, 
343, 346, 341), 351, 371, 380, 3^0, 34, 
395, 397-400, 405. 

Fort Ripley, III, 159, 162, 282, 289, 298, 

Fort Snelling, II, 31-52, 56; in early 
days, 62-66, 75; expulsion of set- 
tlers, 79-89, 111, Dodge Treaty 
signed, 137, 138, 143-145, 148, 150- 
153, 158-160, 163, 164, 168, 169, 175, 
178, 184-187, 183, 206, 213, 216, 218, 
219, 225, 237-241; first church es- 
tablished, 242, 243, 245, 249, 250, 
265, 278, 281, 283, 295, 400, 420, 422- 
428; III 299, 332, 341, 392, 409; IV, 
307-309, 317-320. 

Fosberg, August O., IV, 276. 

Fosen. Amos N., IV, 111, 807. 

Fosnes, C. A., IV, 158. 

Fosseen, Manly L., IV, 297. 

Foster, James, III, 294. 

Foster, Dr. Thomas, II, 296, 302, 305, 

Fourteenth Amendment to U. S. Con- 
stitution, III, 440-442; ratified, 443. 

Fourteenth Regiment of Infantry, or- 
ganized, officers, encamped in 
Georgia and Tennessee, mustered 
out, losses, IV, 242. 

Fox, Patrick, sketch, III, 85. 

Frank, John, IV, 144. 

Franklin, Benjamin, III, 451, 458. 

Franklin, Col. W. B., Ill, 130. 

Frazer, Jack (half breed), II, 199; in, 
331, 339, 344. 

Frederick, John, III, 447. 

Freeborn County, established, II, 480; 
organized, 493. 

Freeborn, William, sketch, II, 475, 
486, 493, 495-497. 

Freeman, Capt. Ambrose, III, 386, 387, 

Freeman, E. P., Ill, 451. 

Fremont, John C., I, 385; II, 422. 

French, B. F., I, 212. 

French Crow (Sioux chief), II, 194. 

French, Daniel Chester, III, 473. 

French, Theodore, III, 505. 

Frenier, Antoine, III, 391. 

Fridley, Abraham Me., II, 479; III, 60; 
sketch, IV, 36, 93. 

Frontenac, Count (governor of New 
France), I, 211, 267. 

Frost, Nathaniel, III, 227, 228. 

Fugitive Slave Law, II, 482, 484. 

Fuller, Alpheus G., Ill, 74. 

Fuller, Jerome, biography, II, 457. 

Fullerton, J. E., II, 459. 

Fulton (steamboat), IV, 320. 

Fur Trade, II, 53-57. 

Furber, Joseph W., II, 438, 442, 491, 
496; III, 452, 525; IV, 65, sketch 66. 

Furlong, J. J., IV, IPS. 

Gage, George M., Ill, 523. 

Gagnier, Rigeste, II, 186, 188, 189. 

Galbraith, Maj. Thomas J., II, 487; 
III, 39, 55, 57, 277-285, 289-292, 
296-299, 333, 344, 345, 349, 397. 

Galena (steamboat), IV, 324. 



Galena, Dunlieth and Minnesota 
Packet Company, new boats, IV, 
328; lines established to meet rail- 
roads, 32i>, 330. 

Galena and Minnesota Packet Com- 
pany, members of, IV, 321; reor- 
ganized, 324; boats in commission 
in 1855, 325. TT 

Galtier, Rev. Lucian, at St. Paul, II, 

1 -t 91 1 n 122 

Game Law's passed, III, 98, 118. 
Game and Fish Commission created, 

IV 283 

Gamelle, or (Gammel), David, II, 177. 
Gamelle, Francois, II, 176, 177. 

Gandrud, P. A., IV, 2D1. 

Gannett, Henry, I, 121; reports of, IV, 

Gardner, Miss Abbie, III, 218, 232- 
236, 240. 

Gardner, Cephas, II, 476. 

Gardner, Charles, II, 487 

Gardner, Capt. Franklin, III, 241, 
sketch 247 

Gardner, Rowland, III, 225, 226, 233, 

Garneld, James A., IV, 66, 101, 102. 

Garnett, Robert S. (Va.), Ill, 30, 71. 

Garvin, Alfred, III, 483. 

Gaskill, J. R. M., Ill, 62; sketch, IV, 

Gavin, Rev. Daniel, II, 259-261. 

Geike, Prof. James, I, 54. 

Geneva, incorporated, II, 493. 

Geographical names of locations de- 
rived from the Chippewa language, 
I, 122-124; from Sioux, 124-126. 

George IV (King of England), II, 32, 

George, G. D., Ill, 120. 

George, Henry, IV, 166. 

George, Col. James, III, 126, 129, 137, 
139, 144, 282. 

George Tileston Milling Co., IV, 430. 

Georgii Julius, II, 478, 506. 

Gere, Lieut. Thomas P., Ill, 162, 283, 
289, 2S4-297, 315, 320, 331-334. 

Gere, William B., II, 485, 488, 422; III, 
159, 163. 

Gervais, Benjamin, II, 84, 88, 119; IV, 

Gervais, Peter, II, 84, 88. 

Getchell, Alva, III, 361, 362. 

Geyer, H. S., Ill, 505. 

Ghost that Kills, III, 303, 305, 309. 

Gibbons, Richard, III, 348. 

Gibbs, John L., Ill, 116, 121; IV, 76, 
sketch 81, 141, 145, H'8, 205. 

Giddings, Joshua A. (Ohio), II, 380, 
400, 406-408. 

Gideon, George W., in, 362. 

Gieske. John L., IV, 276. 

Gilbert, Cass, III, 470. 

Gilbert, Bishop H. M., Ill, 471. 

Gilflllan, Charles D., Ill, 121, 279, 427; 
sketch, IV, 76, 86, 90, 134. 

Gilflllan, Col. James, III, 198. 

Gilflllan, John B., IV, 75, 80, PO, 91, 
97. 134, 140, biography 141, 147. 

Gilflllan, Rev. Joseph A., I, 104, 110, 
118, 121. 

Gillet, Capt. J. B., Ill, 247. 

Oilman, Charles A., IV, 65, 76, sketch 
86, 92, 145, 157. 

Oilman, David, II, 452, 456. 

Gilman, John M., Ill, 121, 451, 460; 

IV, 37, 82. 

Gingras, Antoine, II, 460, 466. 
Gitche Gaubou (Chippewa chief), II, 


Gjertson, Henry J., IV, 280. 
Glaucus (steamboat), II, 80; IV, 320. 
Glencoe, II, 512; incorporated as a vil- 
lage, IV, 53. 
Glispin, James, IV, 126. 
Globe (steamboat), IV, 327. 
Globe Milling Co. (New Ulm), IV, 421. 
Globe Milling Co. (Perham), IV, 430. 
Glotzback, Frank L., IV, 297. 
Gluck, Frederick, III, 81. 
Glyndon, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 100. 

Godfrey, Ard, IV, 411. 
Gonnor, Nicolas de, I, 276. 
Good Friday, made a holiday, IV, 304. 
Good Road "(Sioux chief), II, 163, 164, 

171, 310. 
Good Thunder (Winnebago chief), II, 


Good Voice Hail, III, 292. 
Goodhue County, organized, II, 468. 
Goodhue, James Madison, II, 294, 296, 

420, 431, 432, 449, 450; IV, 337. 
Gooding, Capt. George, wife of, II, 

42, 43. 
Goodrich, Aaron, sketch, II, 426, 428, 

429, 449, 457; III, 503, 508, 509; IV, 


Goodrich, D. F., IV, 150. 
Goodrich, F. N., Ill, 121. 
Gordon, H. L., Ill, 437. 
Gorman, Capt. James, III, 162, 193, 

298, 299, 333, 398. 
Gorman, Willis A., II, 322, biography 

471-472, 477, 478,- 480. 485, 488, 492, 

497, 498, 503; III, 35, 39, 40, 85, 

129, 130, 245, 465, 535; IV, 340, 342. 
Government land grants to aid rail- 
roads, IV, 344. 
Governor Ramsey (steamboat), IV, 


Graham, Alexander, II, 295. 
Graham, C. C., IV, 51. 
Graham, Christopher, III, 79. 
Graham, Duncan, II, 80, 186, 189, 419. 
Graham, Gilbert, III, 115. 
Grand jury, first in Minnesota, II, 132. 
Grand Portage (oldest town in Minne- 
sota), I, 287. 
Grandin, Francois, II, 54. 
Grange movement, IV, 57. 
Grant, Charles, II, 479, 487. 
Grant County, established, III, 454; 

organized, IV, 53. 
Grant, George J., II, 479, 481. 
Grant, Lieut. Col. Hiram P., Ill, 177, 

343-345, 347, 349. 
Grant, Ulysses S., Ill, 150, 153-155, 165, 

174, 207, 455; IV, 51, 96, 143. 
Grant, Ulysses Sherman, I, 312. 
Grasshopper Raids, IV, 107-116. 
Graves, Charles H., Ill, 469, 471; IV, 

52, 65, 70, sketch 163, 167. 
Gray Bird, III, 326, 347, 348, 369. 
Gray Cloud Island, II, 40, 87, 105, 137, 

354, 420. 

Gray Foot, III, 326. 
Gray Iron, II, 145, 146, 311, 332. 



Gray, Thomas J., Ill, 524. 

Gray, W. D., 426. 

Greek Slave (steamboat), IV, 324, 326. 

Greeley, Horace (N. Y.), II, 380, 407, 
408, 411; IV, 51, 393. 

Greely, Elam, II, 108, 109, 132, 133, 169, 
458, 492. 

Green, Charles H., Ill, 148. 

Green, James S. (Mo.), Ill, 34, 69. 

Green, Dr. Lucas, II, 140. 

Greenback craze and party, IV, 79-80. 

Greenleaf, land office, IV, 28. 

Greenleaf, Mrs. Franklin L., Ill, 478. 

Greenleaf, William H., IV, 48, 134. 

Greer, Allen J., IV, 197, 256. 

Great Northern Railway Company 
leased lines, IV, 353, 367. 

Griffin, Eli W., IV, 383. 

Grlggs, Alexander, IV, 315. 

Griggs, Col. Chauncey W., Ill, 150, 438, 
443, 451. 

Grinnell, J., IV, 189. 

Griswold, Charles, III, 122. 

Groetch, Lieut. John, III, 387. 

Grondahl, Jens K., IV, 258. 

Groseilliers, Sieur des, I, i>2, 94, 96, 99- 
104, 107, 111, 112, 115, 127, biog- 
raphy 128, 131-138, 141-149, 152, 153, 
156-158, 161-174, 180-186, 193, 198- 
202, 211, 232, 236, 239, 254, 270, 274, 
315, 360. 

Gross, Nicholas, sketch, III, 101. 

Gross, William H., I, 89. 

Grover, A. J., Ill, 459. 

Grover, M., II, 497. 

Grow, Galusha (Pa.), Ill, 29, 30, 36, 70. 

Guerin, Vetal, II, 84, 123; III, 506. 

Guignas, Michel, I, 276. 

Guiteau, K. N., Ill, 121. 

Gunderson, Glaus J., IV, 298. 

Gunn, D. M., IV, 2<J8. 

Gustavson, Nicholas, IV, 119, 127. 

Gwin, William M. (Calif.), II, 330; III, 
67, 68. 

Gypsey (steamboat), II, 138; IV, 321. 

Hackney, Joseph M., sketch, IV, 297. 

Hadley, Maj. John, III, 147. 

Hahn, W. J., IV., 95. 

Hale, A. T., Ill, 485. 

Hale, John P. (N. H.), Ill, 33, 36. 

Halgren, Charles G., IV, 162. 

Hall, Albert R, III, 459; IV, 37, 48, 53, 
61, 82. 

Hall, Prof. C. W., I, 33, 34. 

Hall, Darwin S., IV, 76, 150; sketch 
158, 174. 

Hall, Maj. Francis, III, 163, 283, 289. 

Hall, Hiriam P., IV, 56, 57. 

Hall, Osee Matson, IV, 141, sketch 

174, 186, 196. 

Hall, R. J., IV, 171, 172. 

Hall, Rev. Sherman, II, 220-221, 225, 

228 233 

Hall, Willard P. (Mo.), II, 380, 381, 406. 
Hall, William Sprigg, sketch, III, 60, 


Halladay, William, II, 151. 
Halleck, Gen. Henry W., Ill, 152, 153, 

204, 208. 

Halpin, James, IV, 308. 
Halverson, Kittel, IV, 152, 174, sketch 

175, 196. 

Hamilton, Col. W. S., II, 196-198. 
Hamlin, Edward O., sketch, III, 98. 

Hamlin, Hannibal, III, 98. 
Hamline University, III, 535. 
Hammer, E. D., Ill, 459. 
Hammond, William B., IV, 205, 237. 
Hammond, Winfield S., IV, 186, biog- 
raphy, 295. 

Hampson, L. F., IV, 187. 
Hanchett, Dr. Aug., I, 386. 
Hanchett, August H., IV, 376. 
Hancock incorporated as a village, 

IV, 100. 

Hancock, Rev. Joseph, III, 251, 252. 
Hancock, Gen. Winfield S., Ill, 134; 

IV, 96. 

Handlan, James, IV, 299. 
Hanson, A. L., IV, 297. 
Hanson, D. M., II, 479, 486, 431. 
Hanson, Hans O., IV, 299. 
Hanson, Henry E., IV, 296. 
Hanson, John, IV, 61. 
Hanson, Peter E., IV, 198, 263, 275, 


Harden, George W. W., IV, 291. 
Harder, Lieut. Henry W., Ill, 210. 
Hardy, John C., IV, 278, 296. 
Hare, D. O., Ill, 476. 
Harlan, James (Iowa), III, 71, 72. 
Harpe, Bernard de la, 1, 252, 254, 256, 

Harries, William Henry, biography, 

IV, 174, 186. 

Harrington, L. C., Ill, 121. 
Harrington, Capt. Lewis, III, 356, 3.68, 

372, sketch 431. 

Harrington, W. E., sketch, IV, 279. 
Harrison, Benjamin, IV, 183, 185, 273. 
Harrison, Hugh, IV, 155. 
Harrison, Gen. William Henry, II, 288, 


Harsh, P. H., IV, 186. 
Hart, William L., Ill, 348, 349. 
Hartley, Capt. Edward, HI, 379. 
Hartmann, Emil, IV, 383. 
Haskell, Joseph, II, 141, 420; III, 459; 

sketch, IV, 43, 389. 
Hastings, incorporated as a city, II, 

493; new act, IV, 89. 
Hatch, Maj. E. A. C., II, 217; III, 422, 

423, 464. 

Hatch, E. C., Ill, 284. 
Hathaway, R. D., Ill, 459. 
Haugan, Bernt B., IV, 264, 265. 
Haugen, Charles N., IV, 291. 
Haugland, J. O., IV, 281. 
Haus, Reuben, II, 478, 479, 487. 
Hawkins, E. B., IV, 278. 
Hayden, William, II, 499. 
Hayes, Maj. Orrin T., Ill, 421. 
Hayes, Rutherford B., IV, 80, 193. 
Hayner, Henry Z., II, 457, 465, 466, 473. 
Haywood, Lieut. F. L., Ill, 209. 
Hazelwood Republic, II, 254-256. 
Hazzard, George H., Ill, 499. 
Heard, Isaac V. D., Ill, 316, 318, 321, 

343, 349, 369-372; sketch, IV, 47, 52. 
Heaton, David, III, 93, 99. 
Heatwole, Joel P., IV, 186, sketch 196, 


Heffelflnger, Maj. C. P., Ill, 206. 
Heideman, C. W. H., IV, 162. 
Heilscher, Theodore, IV, 51. 
Heinrichs, Julius J., IV., 205, 236. 
Heintzelman, Col. S. P., Ill, 130. 
Helling, K. H., IV, 91. 



Hemstead, Warren, sketch, IV, 270. 
Henderson, incorporated as a town, 11, 

480; as a borough, III, 435; as a 

citv IV 182. 

Henderson, John, III, 225, 232-235, 241. 
Henderson; Col. W . C II 2,7 305 
Hendricks, Capt. Mark, HI, 350, 398, 

Hennecin County established, II, 462. 

Slnnlpin, Louis" I, 65, S,3, 105, 107, 108, 
120 133, 202, 206, biography 214, 
215, account of his captivity 216- 
229J 230-240, 267, 268, 274, 283, 2.99; 

Henni's, Charles J., Ill, 535. 

Henry, Alexander I, 93, 287, biography 

2a>5, journal of, 302-304, 356. 
Henry, Alexander, the younger, I, 93, 

295, biography 2i)7-2;;S, 315. 
Henry, William, III, 452, 459; sketch, 

IV, 81. 

Herberg, J. F., IV, 209. 
Herbert, B. B., IV, 407 
Herriott, Dr. Isaac A., Ill, 218. 
Hess, Charles, II, 147. 
Hewson, Stephen, III, 121. 
Heywood, Joseph L., IV, 119-121, 127, 

Hicks, 'Henry G., sketch, IV, 87, 233, 


Hicks, John P., Ill, 340. 
Higbee, Isaac N., II, 123. 
Higgins, George W., IV, 237, 297. 
High Forest, incorporated as a village, 

III, 460. 

Highland Mary (steamboat), IV, 322. 
Hill, Alfred J., I, 86, 92, 105, 106, 135, 

183, 235, 253, 254, 260, 364. 
Hill, Charles, IV, 36. 
Hill, H. W., IV, 91. 
Hill, Henry, III, 121. 
Hill, James J., IV, 315, 351, 352. 
Hilleboe, Hans S., IV, 195. 
Hinckley holocaust, IV, 223-229. 
Hinckley, John S., II, 120. 
Hinds, Henry, IV, 91, 97. 
Hinman, Rev. S. D., Ill, 302, 318. 
Hinpa (The End), III. 408. 
Hinton, William A., IV, 296. 
Hippler, Lieut. Benedict, III, 201. 
Ho-choke-pe-doota, III, 311. 
Hodges, Emerson, III, 80. 
Hokah, incorporated, IV, 44. 
Holcombe, William, II, 138, 139, 172, 

173, 340-343, 350, 353, 354, 359, 362- 

366, 372, 373, 414, 442; biography, 

III, 58, 74, 80, 86. 
Hole-In -the-Day, see Poe-go-no-gi- 


Holland, J. M., II, 488. 
Holland, Capt. John, II, 138. 
Holler, John A., IV, 291. 
Holley, Capt. H. W., Ill, 93, 377. 
Hollinshead, William, II. 462; III, 535. 
Holmes, Elon G., IV, 162. 
Holmes, Thomas, III, 360, 362. 
Holmes, Thomas A., sketch, II, 445. 
Holton. Rev. John, II, 133, 267-269. 
Hone, David, II, 139-141. 
Hood, Gen. J. B., Ill, 181, 185, ISO, 191, 

19C, 197, 207. 

Hooper, Capt. W. H., TV, 321. 
Hopkins, Robert, II, 245, 249, 251, 256, 

295, 297. 
Hopper, Lieut. Andrew, III, 368. 

Horton, Hiler H., Ill, 468; sketch, IV, 

257, 278. 
Hosford, Miss Amanda (Mrs. H. L. 

Moss), III, 514. 
Hotchkiss, Capt. William A., Ill, 210, 


Hotonna (Animal Voice), III, 351. 
Houghton, Dr. Douglass, I, 354. 
Houseworth, R. P., Ill, 40. 
Houston County organized, II, 477. 
Houston, George S. (Ala.), II, 406. 
Houston, Samuel (Texas), III, 35. 
Howe, Linus, III, 357. 
Howes, A. F., II, 498. 
Hoyt, Frederick W., IV, 162, sketch 


Hubbard County, established, IV, 136. 
Hubbard, Daniel W., II, 41. 
Hubbard, Gen. Lucius F., Ill, 159, 163, 

169, 171, 173, 316, 317, 387, 439, 457, 

458, 494; IV, 47, 57, 60, 101, 102, 

105 biography 131-133, 135, 137- 

143, 152. 

Hubbard Milling Co., IV, 430. 
Hubbell, J. B., II, 487; sketch, IV, 43, 


Huddleston, Rev. M. I., II, 267. 
Hudson, Aaron G., Ill, 60. 
Hudson Bay Company, I, 128, 200, 201, 

312, 325, 326, 369, 371; II, 31, 35, 37, 

57-59, 69, 70, 72, 75, 147; III, 422; 

IV 307, 315. 

Huey, Lieut. William, III, 326, 327. 
Huff, Henry D., sketch, III, 64. 
Huggins, Alexander G., II, 205, 206, 238, 

246, 249, 295, 297. 
Huggins, Miss Fanny, II, 205, 206, 246, 

Hughes, Thomas, I, 264, 265; III, 243, 


Hugo, N. F., IV, 299-. 
Humberston, Capt. Samuel, IV, 327. 
Humiston, R. F., IV, 73. 
Humphrey, Lieut. C. M., IV, 247-250. 
Humphrey, Philander P., sketch, II, 


Hungerford, W. S., II, 138. 
Hunt, T. J., Ill, 459. 
Hunt, Thomas B., II, 488. 
Hunter, R. M. T. (Va.), Ill, 67. 
Hurons, I. 93-102, 114, 115, 150, 153, 

161, 165, 166, 169, 170, 173, 185, 198. 
Hurter, Lieut. Henry S., Ill, 209. 
Hurtzell, Levi, II, 366. 
Hushasha, III, 326, 346, 351. 
Hutchins, Samuel, III, 357. 
Hutchinson, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 100. 

Hutchinson, W. B., Ill, 320. 
Hyerstadt, F. U., Ill, 428. 
Ice Age, I, 52-56. 
Illinois Central Railroad Company, IV, 


Immigration laws, III, 118. 
Impeachment of State Treasurer, IV, 


Imprisonment for debt, II, 481. 
Indiana (steamboat), IV, 319. 
Ingalls, John J. (Ka.), IV, 93. 
Ingerson, Henry G., IV, 383. 
Inkpadoota (Scarlet End, or Red End), 

III, 219-230, 235, 236, 243, members 

of band, 248, 252-256, 262, 267, 268, 

282, 292, 396. 
Innls, George F., IV, 208. 



Insurance legislation, IV, 343. 
International (steamboat), IV, 315, 


Inter-State Park, III, 499-501. 
Iowa Central Railway Company, IV, 


loways, II, 273, 276. 
Ireland, Archbishop John, I, 216, 238; 

II, 113, 117; III, 471. 
Irgens, John S., IV, 67, 73. 
Iron Cloud, II, 161. 

Iron Hawk, III, 236. 

Iroquois, I, 93, y4, 100, 105, 114, 115, 

136, 142, 150, 165, 245. 
Irvine, John R., II, 121, 133, 420; 

sketch, III, yy, 41)8. 
Irwin, Judge David, II, 107. 
Irwin, M. E., II, 473. 
Irwin, M. W-, II, 485. 
Isanti County, organized, II, 493, seat 

of Sunrise War, 507; tornado, IV, 


Island Cloud, III, 303, 309, 310, 354. 
Itasca County, boundaries of, II, 439; 

organized, 4B3. 
Itasca State Park, III, 498; created, 

IV, 181. 
Iverson, Samuel G., sketch, IV, 152, 

Ives, Gideon S., Ill, 468; IV., 173, 181, 

182, 185. 

Ives, J. N., IV, 144. 
Ives, John H., IV, 257. 
Jackman, Henry A., II, 487; sketch. 

III, 439, 482. 

Jackson, land office, IV, 28. 
Jackson County, established, II, 506. 
Jackson, Henry, II, 119, sketch, 120, 

122, 123, 297, 305, 332, 353, 361, 363, 

366, 374, 432, 441, sketch, 445; III, 


Jackson, Oscar F., Ill, 77. 
Jacobson, Jacob F., IV, 198, 270, 293. 
Jaeger, Luke, IV, 145. 
James II (King of England), I, 127. 
James, Amos, III, 369. 
James, B. M., IV, 162. 
James, Edward, II, 86, 87. 
James, Dr. Edwin, II, 221. 
James, Frank, IV, 117, 125, 129. 
James, Jesse, IV, 117, 125, 129. 
James Quirk Milling Co., IV, 430. 
James, Rev. Woodbridge L., II, 232. 
Jay, Stephen H., Ill, 121, 431. 
Jeannette Robert (steamboat), IV, 


Jefferson, Thomas, II, 31, 419. 
Jenkins, Albert G. (Va.), Ill, 71. 
Jennison Bros. & Co., IV, 430. 
Jennison, Col. Samuel P., Ill, 192-197; 

IV, 46, 60. 

Jenny Lind (steamboat), IV, 326. 
Jepson, Lowell E., IV, 278. 
Jesuit Relations, I, 151, 152, 197-199. 
Jewett, Charles, II, 505. 
Jewett, Frank G., Ill, 372. 
Jogues, Rev. Isaac, I, 104. 
John, Rev. D. C., Ill, 523, 535. 
John Other Day, III, 236, 256, 266, 398, 

399, 407. 

Johns, Capt. Henry F., Ill, 440. 
Johnson, Andrew (Tenn.), II, 380, 409, 

411; III, 68, 435, 444, 446, 449, 455. 
Johnson, C. A., IV, 279, 296. 

Johnson, jr.. D. B., Ill, 438. 
Johnson, Hugh, III, 115. 
Johnson, Capt. J. C., Ill, 224. 
Johnson, John, II, 263, 267. 
Johnson, John A., IV, 258, 285, 286, 

biography, 289, 292-294, 299-302. 
Johnson, Lawrence W., IV, 298, 2;9. 
Johnson, Marcus, IV, 160. 
Johnson, Parsons K., II, 436, sketch, 

444, 487. 

Johnson, R. B., IV, 91. 
Johnson, Gen. Richard W., biography, 

IV, 102, 106. 
Johnson, Robert W. (Ark.), II, 388, 

406; III, 67. 

Johnson, Samuel C., sketch, TV, 259. 
Johnson, Tosten, III, 439; IV, 43, 150. 
Johnson, Victor L., IV, 297. 
Johnson, W. C., II, 500. 
Johnston, Col. Albert Sidney, III, 252. 
Johnston, James, IV, 297. 
Johnston, Gen. Joseph E., Ill, 150, 168. 
Joliet, or Jolliet, Louis, I, 202, 211, 212, 


Jones, Maj. A. B., Ill, 201. 
Jones, Dewitt C., Ill, 452. 
Jones, Edwin J., IV, 256. 
Jones, Gen. George W., II, 494; IV, 


Jones, J. D., IV, 198, sketch, 233, 257. 
Jones, Capt. John, III, 162, 283, 295, 

333, 335-338, 416, 423, 424. 
Jones, Lieut. John A. W., Ill, 202. 
Jones, Maj. John R., sketch, III, 61, 

377, 428, 436. 
Jones, John S., Ill, 381. 
Jones, Ray W., IV, 286. 
Jones, Richard A., sketch, IV, 43, 48. 
Jones, Robinson, III, 303-300, 35!', 3fiO. 
Jordan, incorporated as a city, IV, 


Josephine (steamboat), IV, 320. 
Jouett, Capt. W. R., II, 64. 
Judd and Walker, IV, 401. 
Judd, Albert, II, 140. 
Judd, George B., II, 140, 141. 
Judd, Lewis S., II, 139, 140. 
Jury trial, first, II, 141. 
Kanabee County, established, III, 64; 

organized, IV, 104. 

Kandiyohi County, organized. III, 64. 
Kansas -Nebraska Act, II, 483; III, 29. 
Kapanick, Henry, IV, 127. 
Kaposia, I, 368; II, 156, 170-172, 176- 
181, 184, 240, 241, 249, 250, 262-266, 
268, 281, 419. 

Ka-tah-te. Thomas, III, 395. 
Kavanaugh, Rev. B. F., II, 122, 267, 


Kearcher, John, IV, 421. 
Keating, Prof. William H., I. 49, 93, 
119, 121, 358, biographv 359, 364- 
366, 368, description of Winnipeg, 
370, 371. 

Keller, Henry, III, 468; IV, 178, 197. 
Kelley, D. F., IV. 281. 
Kelley, William H., I, 88; III, 506, 507. 
Kellogg. Orlando (N. Y.), II, 376. 
Kelly, A. B., IV, 258, 270. 
Kelly, James C., IV. 163, 178. 
Kelly, John F., IV, 236. 
Kelly, Patrick H., Ill, 469; IV, 193. 
Kelso, William F., IV, 187. 
Kennedy, Anthony (Md.), Ill, 70. 



: lobe"rt "it 363, 437; III, 503; 
IV, 312. 

KlokukTlndian chief), II, 61, 146, 193. 
Kephart, Miss Julia, II, 245. 
Keves, John A., IV, 205. 
Kha-dayah (Rattler), II, 177. 

'f'A'lNlB; IV. 186, 


Kilbourne, Dr. Arthur P., Ill, 493. 

Kilbourne, Byron, II, 343. 

Kildahl, John N., Ill, 536. 

Kimball, De Grove, III, 404. 

Kindred, C. F., IV, 133, 137. 

King, Dana E., Ill, 438, 459; IV, 35, 42. 

King, David, II, 263, 264. 

King, William R. (Ala.), II, 387-400. 

King, William S., sketch, IV, 64 

Kingsbury, Lieut. James W., II, 195. 

Kingsbury, William W., II, 492, 506; 

III, 74. 

Kinney, P. H., Ill, 489. 
Kinyon, William R., Ill, 452; sketch, 

IV, 65, 66. 

Kitchell, J. L., II, 501. 
Kittleson, Charles, IV, 95. 
Kittson County, named, I, 319; organ- 

ized, IV, 93. 
Kittson, Norman Wolfred, biography, 

I, 319; II, 91, biography, 101-103, 

458, 476; IV, 310, 311, 315. 
Kleeberger, George R. v III, 524. 
Knatvoid, T. V., IV, 197, 256. 
Knauft, Ferdinand, sketch, II, 488. 
Knight, Dr. George H., Ill, 490. 
Knight, Dr. H. M., Ill, 489. 
Knowlton, Wiram, II, 131, 132, 212. 
Koerner, August T., IV, 189, 195. 
Koeth, Lieut. William, III, 209. 
Kolars, Charles C., IV, 276. 
Koochicking County organized, IV, 


Kreiger, Mrs. Justina, III, 344. 
KHz, Edward H., IV, 264, 265. 
Kron, Ole, IV, 196. 
Kruger, Lieut. William E., II, 49. 
La Bathe, Francois, II. 281; III, 314. 
La Belle, Louis, III, 357. 
La Claire, Antoine, II, 81. 
La Crescent, incorporated, II, 493. 
La Croix, Edward N., IV, 425. 
La Croix, Joseph, IV, 425. 
La Croix, Nicholas, IV, 425. 
La Dow, George A., Ill, 452. 
La Due. Jay, III, 468. 
La Farge, John, III, 473. 
La Framborse, Sr., Joseph, II, 281, 

207, 327; III, 238-241, 400. 
La France, Joseph (half breed), nar- 

rative, I, 299-302. 
La Grange Mills, IV, 430. 
La Roche, L. H., II, 123. 
La Salle, Robert Cavalier de, I, 105, 

120, 212-215. 229, 237, 238, 248. 267. 
Lac qui Parle County, established, IV, 

Lahonton, Baron de (Armand de Lorn 

d-arce), biography, I, 239, 240. 
Lake City, incorporated, 14, 50. 
Lake County, II, 480; organized, 489. 

Lake Gervaise, visited by cyclone, IV, 

Lake Minnetonka, discovered by 
whites, II, 61. 

Lake Pepin, storm on, IV, 218. 

Lake Superior and Mississippi Rail- 
road Company incorporated, IV, 

Lake Superior, Puget Sound and Pa- 
cific Railroad Company incorpo- 
rated, IV, 339. 

Lakeville, incorporated as a village, 
IV, 89. 

Lalemant, Father Jerome, I, 197. 

Lamartine (steamboat), IV, 322. 

Lamb, John, II, 495, 498. 

Lambert, David, II, 123, 363, 366, 373, 
374, 414, 418, 435. 

Lambert, Henry A., II, 438; III, 120. 

Lamberton, Henry M., Ill, 469. 

Lamberton, Henry W., Ill, 469. 

Lamberton, W. H., Ill, 120. 

Lamphere, George M., IV, 236. 

Lamson, Chauncey, III, 409. 

Lamson, Nathan, III, 372, 409. 

Lane, A. P., II, 482. 

Lanesboro, village incorporation, III, 
460; charter amended, IV, 89. 

Langdon. R. B., sketch, IV, 52, 65, 80, 
97, 134. 

Langerson, C. T., IV, 208. 

Langley, D. F., Ill, 115. 

Lapham, Prof. Increase A., IV, 337. 

Lamed, William L., II, 458. 

Larpenteur, Auguste Louis, II, 120- 
124, 305. 

Larson, Charles J., IV, 256. 

Lathrop, John, III, 459. 

Latimer, J. A., IV, 133. 

Lauer Bros, and Miller, III, 470. 

Laugen, O. G., IV, '279. 

Laut, Miss Agnes, I, 326. 

Lawler, Daniel W., IV, 185, 191. 

Lawrence (steamboat), IV, 319. 

Lawrence, James G., IV, 97, 134, 186. 

Lawrence, Lorenzo (To-wan-eta-ton), 
III, 400. 

Lawrence, Phineas, II, 107. 

Laybourne, George R., IV, 279, 296. 

Le Blanc. George, III, 328. 

Le Boutillier, Charles W., sketch, II, 

Le Due, William G., II, 297, 315, 468; 
III, 535; IV, 393. 

Le May, Joseph, II, 478, 479. 

Le Roy, windstorm at, IV, 220. 

Le Sueur, made a borough, IV, 82; 
incorporated as a city, 182. 

Le Sueur County organized, II, 468. 

Le Sueur, Pierre Charles, I, 105-108, 
113, 118, 181, 183, 210, 243, 248, bi- 
ography 249-251, 252-256, 260, 265, 
268, 274, 283, 323. 

Lea, Lieut. Albert Miller, biography, 
I, 379. 

Lea, Luke, I, 203. 380; II, 295-315. 

Lea, Pryor, I, 380. 

Leach, Calvin F.. II, 108, 363, 366. 

Lean Bear, in, 325, 389. 

Leavenworth, Col. Henry, I, 108, 292, 
352, 357; II, 35-48. 

Leavitt, Martin, II, 458. 

Lee, Col. Francis, II, 327. 

Lee, Gen. Robert B., Ill, 133, 174. 



Lee, William, IV, 349. 

Lee, William E., sketch, IV, 189. 

Leech, Gen. Samuel, II, 124. 

Leffler, Shepherd, II, 338. 

Lfeisch, Theodore, III, 243, 244. 

Leonard, Charles E., II, 478. 

Leonard, J. A., Ill, 459. 

Lester, Col. Henry C., Ill, 147-150. 

Letford, John S., Ill, 115. 

Lettisom, Dr. John C., I, 282, 285. 

Levin, Lewis C. (Pa.), II, 406. 

Lewis & Clark, I, 277. 

Lewis, Eli F., Ill, 43;), 443, 452. 

Lewis, Isaac, III, 452. 

Lewis, John H., Ill, 519, 520. 

Lewis, T. H., I, 86-92. 

Lewis, Capt. William P., Ill, 244, 245. 

Lincoln, Abraham, II, 326, 380, 400, 

403, 406-411, 471; III, 93, 119, 120, 

125, 129, 137, 159, 174, 179, 186, 2S8, 

392, 409, 440; IV, 193; birthday 

legal holiday, 202. 

Lincoln County, established, IV, 53. 
Lincoln, Robert T., IV, 194. 
Lind, John, IV, 147, 158, 174, 182, 185, 

191, 204, 205, 236, biography, 255, 

260, 264, 265, 270, 272, 275, 276, 287. 
Lindall, Jonas, IV, 48. 
Lindbergh, Charles A., biography, ' IV, 


Lindsay, Capt. Allen, II, 187, 188. 
Lineau, Charles H., Ill, 439, 443, 445, 

467; sketch, IV, 49, 65, 80, 178. 
Lipcap, Solomon, II, 186-189. 
Liquors, sale regulated, II, 454; licenses 

increased, 481. 
Litchfleld, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 50. 

Little Crow, see Tak-o-yah-te-Doota. 
Little Dekora (Winnebago chief), II, 

Little Falls, incorporated as a city, 

IV, 166. 
Little Hill (Winnebago chief), II, 213, 


Little, John T., IV, 189. 
Little Priest (Winnebago chief), III, 

302, 326, 375. 

Littleton, Samuel T., sketch, IV, 233. 
Livingston, James, II, 138. 
Lloyd, Job W., IV, 197. 
Lobeck, Engebert E., IV, 299. 
Lochren, William, III, 428, 459; sketch, 

IV, 35, 69, 235. 
Lockee, J. B., Ill, 121. 
Lockwood, James H., II, 53, 135, 136, 


Lofthus, O. E., IV, 293, 294. 
Logan, Sir William, I, 54. 
Lommen, Edwin E., IV, 209. 
Long, J. Henry, IV, 147. 
Long, Lionel C., IV, 186, 196, 236. 
Long, Maj. Stephen H., I, 49, 73, 93, 

119, 121, 357, biography, 358, 359, 

362-369, 371. 

Longfellow, Henry W., I, 121, 166. 
Longley, Thomas L., II, 245-247, 255. 
Loomis, David B., II, 441, 450, 458; III, 

503; sketch, IV, 61. 
Loomis, Maj. Gustave, II, 242. 
Loras, Mathias (Bishop of Dubuque), 

II, 111, 113, 168. 
Lord, Livingston C., Ill, 524. 
Lord, O. M., II, 476. 

Lord, Judge Samuel, III, 62, 431, 437; 

sketch, IV, 36, 127, 128. 
Lord, Samuel, sketch, IV, 258, 278, 293. 
Lossow, Fred W., IV, 162. 
Lott, Bushrod, II, 466, sketch, 467, 487. 
Lott, Henry, III, 222. 
Louis XIV (King of France), I, 112, 

244, 245, 268. 
Louisiana and Mississippi Railroad 

Company, incorporated, IV, 33J. 
Louisiana Purchase, I, 332-334. 
Lovejoy, Owen, III, 36. 
Lovely, John A., IV, 147. 
Lowe, Charles F., Ill, 476, 477. 
Lowell, Benjamin A., Ill, 120. 
Lowell, Wiiliam, IV, 37. 
Lower Sioux agency established, II, 


Lowry, Rev. David, II, 251. 
Lowry, Sylva'nus B., sketch, II, 458, 

475; III, 103. 

Lowry, Thomas, IV, 272. 
Lowry 1 , William D., Ill, 486, 494. 
Loyer, John S., II, 189. 
Lucas, Thomas H., IV, 187, 265. 
Ludden, John D., sketch, II, 452, 458, 

466, 486, 493, 495. 
Ludwig, John, III, 469. 
Lull, C. P. V., II, 450; III, 388. 
Lumber industry, II, 135-142; IV, 402- 


Lund'oerg, Andreas, III, 354. 
Lundberg, G. A., IV, 144. 
Lydiard, David A., IV, 258. 
Lyman, H. C., IV, 179. 
Lymann, C., II, 133. 
Lynd, William Pitt (Wis.), II, 389. 
Lynde, James W., sketch, III, 64, 312. 
Lynx (steamboat), IV, 321. 
Lyon, Capt. Isaac, II, 212. 
Lyons County, established, III, 460. 
McArthur, George D., IV, 256. 
McCain, Lieut. John, III, 361. 
McCall, John, III, 339. 
McCleary, James T., IV, 181, sketch, 

187, 1S6, 200, 208, 276. 
McClellan, Gen. George B., Ill, 120, 

McClernand, John A. (111.), II, 380, 

406, 411. 
McClure, Charles, II, 506; sketch, III, 

44, 47. 

McClure, J. C.,, IV, 90. 
McClure, Lieut. James, II, 63, 2.')7. 
McClure, Nancy Winona, II, 205, 297. 
McColl, Henry, IV, 297. 
McCook, Gen. R. L., Ill, 138. 
McCormick, Cyrus H., IV, 389. 
McCoy, Andrew C., sketch, IV, 280. 
McCrea, Andrew, IV, 91, sketch, 92, 97. 
McDonald, Donald, II, 83-85. 
McDonell, Alexander, II, 71. 
McDonell, Miles, II, 71. 
McGannon, James, III, 408. 
McGannon, Thomas, III, 308. 
McGill, Andrew R., IV, 101, 102, 145, 

146, biography 149, 152, 153, 157, 

164, 182, 185, 1S5, 257, 278. 
McGillivray, William, I, 287. 
McGorty, William B., Ill, 62. 
McGovern, Peter, sketch, IV, 65, 257, 


McGowan, J. T., IV, 278, 296. 
McGrath, D. F., sketch, IV, 259. 



McGregor Alexander II, 106. 
McGrew, James G. t HI, 162, 294, 6M. 
McGulre, Peter J., IV, 173. 
McHale, James, IV, 1U7, 200. 
McHattie, Alexander, II, 141 
McHench, James, III ,469; IV ,81. 
McHenry, Lieut, R J. Ill 386 
Mcllrath, Charles, IV, 34, 67, 83. 
McKean, Elias, II, 108. 
McKee, J., II, 467. 
McKenny, Capt. T. L., II, 274. 
McKenzie, Kenneth, II, JJW. 
McKinley, William IV, 204 2o3 
McKinnon, Alexander, IV, 205, 236, 

McKune, Capt. Lewis, III, 281, 282. 

McKune, Lewis L., Ill, 60. 

McKusick, John, II, 108, 110, 131, 3o6, 

357; sketch, III, 104. 
McKusick, Jonathan E., II, 132, 362, 

371; III, 464, 481. 
McKusick, L. H., IV, 257. 
McKusick, William, II, 476; III, 81; 

sketch IV 61. 
McLaren, *Col. Robert N., Ill, 81, 93, 

175, 350, 404, 414, 416, 421. 
McLean, James C., Ill, 333. 
McLean! Maj. Nathaniel, II, 297, 332, 


McLean, Thomas, IV, 196, 
McLennan, William, I, 211. 
McLeod, Alex Roderic, II, 357. 
McLeod County, named, I, 319; organ- 
ized, II, 480. 
McLeod, Capt. George, III, 244, 245, 

McLeod, Martin, biography, I, 319; II, 

91; biography, 100-101, 254, 29 <, 

301, 305, 332, 441, 458, 466; III, 503, 


McMillan, F. G., Ill, 467, 468. 
McMillan, Samuel, J. R., biography, 

IV, 70, 71, 73. 100, 154, 155. 
McMillan, Capt. Thomas, III, 496. 
McMillan, Col. W. L., Ill, 187. 
McNab, Lieut. John, III, 242. 
McNair, Capt. Thomas, II, 53. 
McNair, William W., IV, 80, 133. 
McNamee, Richard S., IV, 278. 
McNelly, John, sketch of, IV, 81, 162. 
McPhail, Col. Samuel, III, 340, 343, 

350, SPS-St^, 412-415, 421. 
Macalester, Charles, III, 535. 
Macalester College, III, 535. 
Macdonald, Colin Francis, sketch, IV, 

91, 97. 
Macdonald, John Lewis, III. 460; 

sketch, IV, 37, 42, 52, C5. 147, 158. 
Mackay, Lieut. A. Eneas, I, 351. 
Mackenzie. Sir Alexander, I, 93, 277, 

287, biography, 295-296, 304, 312, 


Mackey, Andrew H., II, 141. 
Mackubin & Edgerton, II, 510. 
Mackubin, Charles N., sketch, III, 82. 
Madelia, incorporated as a village, IV, 

Maglnnis, Maj. Martin, III, 198; IV, 


Magnuson, Charles, III, 307. 
Magnuson, Swan, IV, 281. 
Mahkato County, boundaries of, II, 


Mahkpeah (The Cloud), II, 272. 
Mahnomen County, organized, IV, 306. 

Mahood, William R., IV, 270. 

Maine Liquor Law, II, 462-465, 484, 


Maland, Martin A., IV, 162. 
Mailman, John, IV, 377, 382, 383. 
Mandan (steamboat), IV, 319. 
Mandans (Indian tribe), I, 273, 274; 

III, 408. 

Manderville, Jack (Saucy Jack), II, 


Manitoba (steamboat), IV, 315, 316. 
Mankato, II, 512; incorporated as a 

village, III, 122, as a city, 454. 
Mankato (Sioux chief), III, 326, 336, 

337, 346-348, 402, 405. 
Mann, Henry E., Ill, 85. 
Mann, Horace (Mass.), II, 380, 407, 411. 
Manning, A. R., IV, 121, 122. 
Marble, Mrs. Margaret, III, 218, 236, 


Marble, William, III, 219, 227. 
Margy, Pierre, I, 105, papers, 112, 213, 

230, 252, 253, 271-276. 
Marin, Piere Paul. I, 276. 
Marine (village), II, 139. 
Marine Lumber Company, II, 140, 141; 

IV, 321, 401. 

Marine Mills, II, 420, 422. 

Mark, Emmet, IV, 291. 

Markham, Morris, III, 224-226, 229, 


Markham, Maj. William, III, 186, 189. 
Marksman, Peter, II, 263, 267. 
Marquette, Rev. James or Jacques, I, 

120, 202, 211, 212, 237, 267. 
Marsh, George P. (Vt.). II, 377. 
Marsh, James A., I, 259. 
Marsh, James M., II, 123. 
Marsh, John, II, 191, 193. 
Marsh, Capt. John S., Ill, 160, 161, 283- 

286, 289, 297-299, 315-323, 331-333, 

343, 375. 
Marsh, Lieut. Col. Josiah F., Ill, 186- 


Marshall County, organized, IV, 93. 
Marshall Milling Co., IV, 430. 
Marshall. William R., II, 347, 351, 441, 

482-486, 500; III, 107, 179, 180-182, 

340, 341, 305, 308, 404, 413, 415, 427, 

biography, 428-430, 434, 450-453, 

460, 510, '525; IV, 37. , 

Martin County organized, II, 506. 
Martin, Morgan L., I, 118, 119; II, 340- 

356, 412. 

Martin, Porter, IV, 133. 
Marvin, Luke, sketch, IV, 43. 
Mascoutins (Indian tribe), I, 244. 
Mason, Capt. Charles H., Ill, 135. 
Mason, James M. (Va.), Ill, 32, 67, 68. 
Massie, Louis, II, 76, 80, 81. 
Masters, Robert C., Ill, 76. 
Mather, William W., I, 377, biography, 


Mattocks, Rev. John I., 286, 291. 
Mattson, Col. Hans, III, 152; IV, 29, 

biography, 34, 46, 145, 193. 
Maury, Lieut. M. F., Ill, 506. 
Mausten, O. N., IV, 280. 
Maxwell. G. E., Ill, 522. 
Mayall, Samuel, II, 510: IV, 46, 51, 57. 
Maybee, Wilmot, in, 357. 
Mayer, Frank B., II, 297. 
Mayhew, Henry, IV, 382. 
Maynard, A. K., Ill, 439, 443, 447. 
Mayo, Charles E., Ill, 507. 



Mayo, W. W., IV, 51, sketch, 179. 

Mayraud, J. B., II, 53. 

Maz-ah-Koo-te-Manne, Paul, III, 400. 

Meagher, J. L., Ill, 115. 

Meagher, Capt. John F., Ill, 378; 
sketch, IV, 47. 

Mealy, T. G., IV, 86. 

Medary, Samuel, biography, II, 503, 
505, 507; III, 35, 57, 63, 66, 73, 252. 

Medicine Bottle III, 369, 422, 423. 

Meeker, Bradley B., II, 426; biography, 
428, 474; III, 503, 525. 

Meeker County, organized, II, 489. 

Meighen, Thomas, IV, 195, 275. 

Meighen, William, III, 452; sketch, IV, 
52, 65, 85, 91, 95. 

Melrose, incorporated as a village, IV, 

Members of First Territorial Legisla- 
ture, II, 437-438. 

Membre, Father Zenobe, I, 213, 238. 

Mendota, named for Territorial cap- 
ital, II, 415, 420; incorporated, 468; 
IV, 310, 317. 

Mendota, Treaty of, II, 252, 305-326; 
Indian signers, 316-318; contents, 

Menk (whisky-seller), II, 83, 84. 

Menominees, I, 96, 169, 347; II, 199, 

Merchant Milling Co., IV, 420. 

Merger case, IV, 274, 284. 

Meridith, William M. (Sec. of Treas.), 
Ill, 464. 

Merriam, John L., sketch, IV, 36, 44, 

Merriam, William R., Ill, 329; IV, 135, 
152, 157, biography, 165-173, 180, 
190, 192. 

Merriman, Capt. O. C., Ill, 350, 373, 
526; IV, 140. 

Merrill, Rev. E. W., Ill, 525. 

Merrill, Galen A., Ill, 494. 

Merritt, Leonidas, IV, 379. 

Mesabi Iron Company, IV, 381. 

Messlck, Capt. N. S., in, 135. 

Miamis (Indian tribe), I, 215, 244. 

Millard, Dr. Perry H., Ill, 528. 

Mille Lacs County, organized, II, 506. 

Miller, H. C., IV, 192. 

Miller, Hubert, IH, 313, 317. 

"Miller, Capt. Louis, III, 135. 

Miller. Dr. Luke, sketch, III, 99, 436, 

Miller, Lieut. S. B., HI, 247. 

Miller, Stephen, III, 111, biography, 
112-113, 117, 118, 122, 129, 179, 180, 
432, 434; IV, 53. 

Miller, William McClelland, IV, 117- 

Millett, F. D., Ill, 473. 

Milling centers in America, IV, 429. 

Mills, Frederick D., II, 338. 

Mills, W. H., IV, 91. 

Millson, John S. (Va.), Ill, 73. 

Millspaugh, Jesse F., Ill, 522. 

Miner, N. H., Ill, 439, 443. 

Minneapolis, II, 49, 52, 89; organization 
of Oak Grove Church, 253; estab- 
lished as a town, 489; headquar- 
ters for uncurrent money, 511; in- 
corporated as a city, III, 440; lum- 
ber mills, IV, 28, 29; St. Anthony 
annexed, 89; center of lumber dis- 
trict, 414; flouring mills, 420-429. 

Minneapolis and Cedar Valley Rail- 
road Co., chartered, IV, 345; State 
bonds received, IV, 343. 

Minneapolis and St. Cloud Railroad 
Co. incorporated, IV, 343. 

Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway 
Co., IV, 359. 

Minneapolis Bridge Company, IV, 310. 

Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. 
Marie Railway Co., IV, 370. 

Minneopa State Park, III, 500, 501; 
established, IV, 293. 

Minnesota (steamboat), IV, 315, 316. 

Minnesota and Northwestern Railway 
Co., incorporated, II, 477; act 
amended, 480; attempt to secure 
land grants, IV, 341; U. S. Su- 
preme Court decision, 342. 

Minnesota and Pacific Railroad Co., 
charter, IV, 345; mandamus Su- 
preme Court, 346; amount of State 
bonds received, 347, 349. 

Minnesota and Western Railroad Co., 
incorporated, IV, 339. 

Minnesota Belle (steamboat), IV, 327. 

Minnesota Democrat (newspaper), II, 

Minnesota Geological Survey, Reports, 
I, 36, 50. 

Minnesota Historical Society, I, 92, 
216, 273, 286, 312, 399; II, 56, 122, 
332, 358, 362, 367-369; III, 498. 

Minnesota Iron Company, IV, 378, 379, 

Minnesota Pioneer (newspaper), II, 
431, 432, 447, 449, 456, 463, 478. 

Minnesota Register (newspaper), II, 

Minnesota Reports, III, 539, 540. 

Minnesota Salt Company, II, 490. 

Minnesota Stage Company, IV, 314. 

Minnesota State Railroad bonds, III, 
91, 92, 435, 439, 443, 444, 449, 450; 
IV, 38-40, 44, 45, 79, 82, 83, 90, 98- 

Minnesota Transfer Company, IV, 373. 

Minnesota Valley Railroad Co., first 
board of directors, IV, 353. 

Minnetonka Mills Co., IV, 422, 430. 

Misner, Maj. David, HI, 206. 

Mission of St. Michael the Archangel, 
I, 276. 

Mississippi and Lake Superior Rail- 
road Co., IV, 338. 

Missouri Compromise, II, 482. 

Missouri Fur Company, II, 144. 

Missouris (Indian tribe), II, 276. 

Mitchell, Col. Alexander M., II, 426, 
sketch, 427, 428, 429, 447-449; III, 

Mitchell, Rev. Edward C., I, 92; III, 

Mitchell, J. B. H., sketch, III, 105. 

Mitchell, Peter, IV, 381. 

Mitchell, William, sketch, III, 85. 

Mix, Charles E., II, 329; III, 266. 

Mix, Lieut. Charles H., Ill, 423. 

Moen, Nels T., IV, 276. 

Mohr, Jonas, in, 381. 

Monroe, James (Va.), II, 271. 

Monroe, Capt. James, II, 328, 332. 

Mons-o-bo-douk (Chippewa chief), II, 

Mooers, Hazen P., II, 54, 55, 65, 133. 

Mooers, John, III, 263. 



Montevideo Roller Mill Co., IV, 431. 
Montgomery, incorporated as a vil- 
lage, IV, 411. 

Montgomery, Col. M., Ill, 411. 
Montreville, Monsieur (trader), II, 53. 
Moonan, John, IV, 195, 296. 
Moore, Emery, III, 77. 
Moore, Ira, III, 523. ^ r 

Moore, William S., Ill, 103, sketch, IV, 

Moorhead, incorporated as a city, IV, 


Morgan, David, IV, 186. 
Morgan, Col. George N., Ill, 133. 
Morgan, Henry A., IV, 279. 
Morgan, James, III, 380. 
Morgan, James M., II, 212, 215. 
Morgan, Gen. John H., Ill, 140. 
Morgan, Col. Willoughby, II, 192, 193, 


Mork, R. L., IV, 298. 
Morley, John R., IV, 291. 
Morrill, Ashley C., II, 235. 
Morris, Page, IV, 208, biography, 209. 
Morrtson, Allan, biography, I, 316; II, 

55, 438, sketch, 446. 

Morrison County, named, I, 316; or- 
ganized, III, 64. 
Morrison, D. A., IV, 152. 
Morrison, D. F., IV, 167. 
Morrison, Dorilus, sketch, III, 114. 
Morrison, H. G. O., sketch, III, 85, 94. 
Morrison, Robert, IV, 246, 253. 
Morrison, William, I, 315, biography, 

Morristown, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 82; new act granted, 94. 
Morse, Allen B., IV, 152, 215, 218. 
Morse, Solon O., IV, 299. 
Morton, C. A., IV, 90. 
Moss, Henry L., II, 133, 357, 362, 366, 

426, sketch, 427. 428, 429, 474. 
Moulton, Maj. John, III, 144. 
Mounds Park (St. Paul), I, 86-90. 
Mower County organized, II, 480. 
Mower, Gen. J. A., Ill, 167, 172. 
Mower, John E., II, 475; IV, 65, sketch, 


Mower, jr., Martin, II, 133; III, 481. 
Much Hail, or (Plenty of Hail), III, 

Mullen, Joseph (N. Y.), II, 381, 383, 


Muller,' Dr. Alfred, III, 283. 
Munch, Emil, sketch, III, 95, 207-209; 

IV, 34. 450. 
Murdock, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 100. 

Murdock or (Moredock), John, II, 146. 
Murphy, Dr. John, II, 460; sketch, III, 

Murphy, Richard G., Ill, 60. 
Murphy, Capt. W. W., IV, 126. 
Murray County, established, II, 506; 

organized, IV, 50. 
Murray, William P., biography, II, 

459, 466, 475, 481, 492, 495, 499; III 

431, 436, 438, 443, 445, 452, 485; IV 

65, 69. 
Murry, Lieut. Alexander, in, 237, 238- 

242, 255. 

Myrick, Andrew J., Ill, 286, 396. 
Nachbar, Mathias, IV. 150. 
Naeseth, Ole K., IV, 279, 296, 297 

Na-pay-shenee-dota, Joseph (Red Man 
who fears Nothing), II, 250, 251. 

Napoleon I, I, 213; II, 81, 419. 

Narvaez, Pamfllo de, I, 212. 

Nash, Charles W., Ill, 428. 

Nash, Jay E., IV, 275, 286. 

Nason, Francis, II, 141. 

Navigation on Lake Superior, IV, 334- 

Navigation on the Minnesota River 
since 1860, IV, 333, 334. 

Neill, Rev. Edward Duffleld, I, 88, 105, 
118, 135, 238, 252, 268, 269, 276, 277, 
347, 384; II, 164, 230, 232, 420, 490; 

III, 504, 505, 507, 518, 525, 526, 534, 

Nekay (The Badger), murder of, II, 

Nelson, Capt. A. D., Ill, 392. 

Nelson, Andrew, IV, 65. 

Nelson, John, III, 307. 

Nelson, Knute, IV, 65, 80, 133, 141, 147, 
167, 172, 173, 183-186, 189, 190, 195, 
198 biography, 200, 272, 306. 

Nelson, Rensselaer R., II, 498, 503, bi- 
ography, 505, 507; IV, 272, 349. 

Nelson, S. A., IV, 281, 296. 

Nelson, Socrates, II, 109, 363, 366, 475; 
sketch, III, 81, 525. 

Nelson, William, III, 228. 

Neopope (Soup), Black Hawk's mili- 
tary adviser), H, 199. 

Ne-she-ke-o-ge-ma (or Sliding Pike), 
II, 131, 132. 

Nessel, Andrew, m, 95, 105. 

Nettleton, William, IV, 312. 

Neville, or Neiville (steamboat), IV, 

New Prague, incorporated as a city, 

IV, 182. 

New Prague Flouring Mill Co., IV, 430. 
New Ulm, incorporated as a town, II, 

493; borough charter granted, IV, 

44; cyclone, 213. 
Newson, T. M., Ill, 635. 
Nichols, Capt. J. H., IV, 383. 
Nichols, Julius H., IV, 278. 
Nicolet, Jean, I, 101, 104, 119, 173, 180, 


Nicollet County, organized, II, 468. 
Nicollet County Bank, II, 512. 
Nicollet, Joseph Nicolas, I, 93, 119, 282, 

biography, 383, 384, 385; H, 161, 

162, 422; IV, 320. 

Nicols, John, sketch, III, 114, 439, 526. 
No Man's Land, II, 56, 361. 
Noah, Jacob J., HI, 47. 
Noble, Mrs. Lydia, HI, 218, 236, 235. 
Noble, Morgan L., n, 505. 
Noble, Thomas E., IV, 299. 
Nobles County established, II, 506. 
Nobles, William H., II, 476-477, 487. 
Nodin (or Wind), II, 131, 132. 
Nolan, W. I., W, 299. 
Nominee (steamboat), IV, 322-324. 
Noot, William, sketch, II, 467, 476. 
Norman County organized, IV, 93, 104. 
Norris, James S., II, 141, 420, 441, 478, 

487; sketch, IV, 37, 39, 43, 389. 
Norris, Mack, III, 181. 
Ndrth, John W., sketch, II, 452, 456, 

482; m, 39; IV, 421. 
Northern Belle (steamboat), IV, 327. 
Northern Line Packet Co., IV, 323, 



Northfield, incorporated as a village, 
IV, 44; as a city, 68; bank robbery, 

Northrop, Cyrus, III, 528. 

Northup, Anson, II, 109, 111; sketch, 

III, 61, 330. 

Northwest Company, I, 325, 326; II, 31, 

35, 69-71, 75. 
Northwestern Fur Company, II, 371, 

Northwestern Union Packet Company, 

IV 332-333 
Norton, Daniel S., Ill, 60, 94, 111, 114, 

125, biography, 126, 444-446; IV, 

40, 45. 
Norwood, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 100. 

Norwood, Joseph G., I, 386. 
Nourse, George A., II, 484. 
Noyes, J. L., Ill, 489. 
Noyon, Jacques de, I, 275. 
Nub-o-bience (Little Broth), II, 149, 


Nutting, Levi, III, 120. 
Nutting, Porter, II, 482. 
Nye, Frank M., IV, 204, biography, 


Nyquist, Nels, IV, 280. 
O'Brien, J. S., IV, 178. 
O'Connor, Capt. M. J., Ill, 373. 
O'Connor, R. T., IV, 246, 250, 253. 
O'Conor, Charles, IV, 51. 
O'Neill, D. P., IV, 259. 
O'Shea, Dennis, III, 334-337. 
Obequette (mixed blood), II, 159. 
Ochagach (Indian geographer), I, 269- 

271, 277. 

Odell, Thomas S., II, 123, 176. 
Ofsthum, T. T., IV, 291. 
Ogden, Lieut. E. A., Ill, 203, 243. 
Ogden. John, III, 522. 
Ohio Life and Trust Company, II, 509. 
OJibways, see Chippewas. 
Olin, Lieut. R. C., Ill, 404. 
Oliver, Louis H., sketch, II, 467. 
Olmstead, S. Baldwin, sketch, II, 452, 

475-478, 481. 

Olmsted County, named, I, 320; or- 
ganized, II, 408. 
Olmsted, David, biography, I, 320; II, 

305, 332, 438, 441, 442, 447, 484; III, 

503, 504. 

Olson, Aslog, III, 366. 
Olson, John W., Ill, 519. 
Olson, Nels, III, 307. 
Omahas (Indian tribe), II, 216, 276. 
Om-ne-sha (Red Trail), III, 368. 
One-Eyed Dekora (or Decorah), Win- 

nebago chief, II, 217. 
Oonk-tay-he (Indian God of Waters), 

II, 247. 
Ordinancec of 1787, I, 330, 332; II, 366, 

405; III, 515, 516. 
Ortonville, incorporated as a city, IV, 


Osakis Milling Co., IV, 430. 
O-te-ah-Manne (Appears Walking), 

H, 163, 166. 
Otis, George L., Ill, 62, 431, 485; 

sketch, IV, 33. 
Otoes (Indian tribe), IV, 33; II, 211, 

216, 217, 276. 
Ottawas, I, 93-102, 142, 153, 161, 164, 

165, 170; n, 273. 

Otter (steamboat), IV, 321. 

Otter Tail County organized, III, 64. 

Ottman, R., Ill, 105. 

Owatonna, incorporated as a city, III, 


Owen, David Dale, I, 386. 
Owen, Sidney M., IV, 172, 173, 191, 

195, 208. 

Owens, John P., HI, 535. 
Ozawindtb (Yellow Head), I, 354. 
Ozmun, Edward H., IV, 197. 
Pachet, French officer), I, 276. 
Page, Henry G., IV, 81, sketch, 86. 
Page, Joseph, III, 357. 
Page, Sherman, IV, 48; impeachment 

trial, 88-89. 

Paine, Parker, III, 432. 
Palfrey, John G. (historian), II, 407. 
Palmer, Jareb, HI, 227, 229, 232, 235. 
Palmyra (steamboat), II, 138, 162; IV, 

320, 321. 

Paltsits, Victor Hugo, I, 240. 
Pamburn, Pierre, II, 72. 
Pan-American Exhibition, Board of 

Managers, IV, 273. 
Parker, Asa S., II, 140. 
Parker, Capt. John, II, 212, 214. 
Parker, Maj. John H., Ill, 421. 
Parkman, Francis A., I, 100; extracts 

from works, 206, 213, 238, 273. 
Parnell, Charles Stewart, IV, 166. 
Parrant, Pierre (Old Pig's Eye), II, 

84 85 119 

Parsley, Thomas, III, 319. 
Parsons, A. C., IV, 187. 
Parvin, Theodore S., Ill, 338, 339. 
Patch, Edward, II, 452, 456. 
Pattee, W. S., HI, 528. 
Patten, Capt. George W., Ill, 256, 258. 
Patten, W. H., Ill, 121. 
Paul, J. H., IV, 156. 
Pauly, John W., IV, 297. 
Pavillion (steamboat), II, 281. 
Pawnees, II, 216. 
Paxton, J. W., IV, 393. 
Peachy, George W., IV, 279. 
Peck, H. J., IV, 208. 
Peckham, John H., Ill, 121. 
Peckham, Joseph, III, 62. 
Peebles, Lieut. F. E., Ill, 207. 
Pellamourgues, Rev. Joseph, II, 112, 

113, 169. 

Pembina, II, 421, 439, 456, 466; IV, 310. 
Pembina, Treaty of, II, 325-326. 
Pendergast, W. W., Ill, 368, 369, 519, 


Pendleton, John S. (Va.), II, 377. 
Penicaut (explorer with Le Sueur), I, 

105, 252-256; narrative, 260-263, 265. 
People's Bank of St. Peter, II, 511, 512. 
Pepin, Antoine, II, 80, 121. 
Pepys, Samuel, I, 127. 
Pereau, Peter, III, 345. 
Perham, Incorporated as a village, IV, 


Periam, Capt. Joseph, III, 135. 
Perkins, Alfred D., sketch, IV, 92. 
Perkins, Harden, II, 135, 136. 
Perkins, O. P.. HI, 437. 
Perret, Abraham, II, 80, 81. 
Perrot, Nicolas, I, 93, 96, 99, 105, 111- 

113, 120, 181, 210, biography, 243- 

245; writings of, 246-247; procla- 
mation, 247-248, 249, 252, 274. 



Perry, Abraham, II, 76, 77, 84 88, 122. 
Peteler, Capt. Francis, III, 201. 
Peters, Rev. Samuel, II, 2<2. 
Peterson, Frank H., IV, 280, 296. 
Peterson, J. W.. IV, 178. 
Peterson. James H., IV, 285. 
Peterson, Samuel D., IV, 134, 178, 281, 

sketch, 298. 
Pettljohn, Eli, II, 482. 
Pettijohn, Dr. G. D., Ill, 452. 
Pettijohn, Jonas, II, 205, 240, 249. 
Pettljohn, Miss Ruth, II, 255. 
Petitt, Curtis H., Ill, 431, 451, 485; IV, 

35, 61, 152. 

Petitt, Capt. George P., Ill, 373. 
Pfaender, Col. William, sketch, III, 85, 

207, 421; IV, 35, 47, 73. 
Phelps, Boyd, III, 60. 
Phelps, John S. (Mo.), II, 380; III, 30. 
Phelps, William F., Ill, 522. 
Phelps, William W., sketch, III, 59, 73, 


Phillips, Edwin, IV, 133. 
Phillips, Henry M. (Pa.), Ill, 73. 
Phillips, J. B., IV, 114. 
Phillips, William D., II, 438; III, 503. 
Phoenix Mill Co., IV, 429. 
Pierce County, organized, II, 468. 
Pierce, Franklin, II, 331, 471, 485. 
Pierce, Lieut. Oliver, III, 368, 372. 
Pig's Eye, II, 85, 87, 176. 
Pike (steamboat), IV, 320. 
Pike, Gen. Zebulon M., I, 65, 91, 93, 
108, 121, 293; biography, 334-337; 
notes from journal, 337-546, 350, 
352, 357, 367; II, 31, 32, 37; III, 217. 
Pillagers, II, 224, 225, 325; trouble with, 

IV, 245-254. 
Pillsbury, Charles A., sketch, IV, 86, 

134, 426. 

Pillsbury, John S., Ill, 114, 437, 466, 
526, 527; IV, 42, 52, 65, 70, biog- 
raphy, 74-75, 77-78, 82, 85, 87-88, 
93, 95, 98-103, 115, 138. 
Pinchon, II, 42, 44, 274; IV, 318. 
Pine City, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 100. 

Pine Coulie, the Fight of, II, 175-179. 
Pine County, established, II, 489; or- 
ganized, 493. 

Pineda (explorer), I, 212, 350. 
Pinkham, J. P., IV, 158, 169, 173. 
Pinzon (explorer), I, 350. 
Pipestone County, established, II, 42, 

44; organized, 274. 
Pitcher, O. O., Ill, 452. 
Pitts, Charles, IV, 117-121, 125, 126. 
Platt, Henry, IV, 48. 
Pleasant Voice, III, 236. 
Plowman, Henry, IV, 172, 259, sketch, 


Plummer, Henry S., sketch, II, 476. 
Plympton, Maj. Joseph, II, 81-88, 113, 

159-161, 265-266. 
Poage, Miss Margaret (nee Mrs. 

Thomas S. Wilkinson), II, 238. 
Poage, Miss Sarah, II, 238, 243. 
Poe-go-ne-gi-shig (Hole-in-the-Day), 
first chief of that name, II, 63, 
157-159, 163-166, 228, 264, 267, 274, 
280; (second chief), II, 158, 161, 
162, 455; III, 288, 379; IV, 411. 
Poehler, A. A., IV, 297. 
Poehler, Henry W., IV, 48, 75, sketch, 
91, 97, 144. 

Poh-gon-ne-gi-shik (Old Bug), IV, 

Poinsett, Joel R. (Secy of War), II, 82, 

83, 86. 281, 282. 
Point Douglas, II, 420. 
Pokegama, attack on, II, 169-175. 
Polk County, established, III, 76. 
Polk, James K., II, 365, 407, 408, 411, 


Pomeroy, C. A., IV, 126. 
Pond, Rev. Gideon H., I, 109, 118; II, 

84, 156, 158, 168, 225, 238-243, 248, 
251, 253, 255, 264, 305, 441; III, 409. 

Pond, Rev. Samuel, I, 109; II, 159, 201, 
225, 228, 238-245, 248, 253, 255-264; 
III, 409. 

Pope County, established, III, 103. 
Pope, Gen. E. M., IV, 124. 
Pope, J. C., sketch, IV, 259. 
Pope, Gen. John, III, 163, 392, 411, 412. 
Pope, Rev. T. W., II, 263, 266, 267. 
Porter, David D., IV, 182. 
Porter, J. J., Ill, 115. 
Porter, Lewis, III, 437. 
Post, Capt. C. L., Ill, 378. 
Post, G. D., IV, 198. 
Post, Col. H. A. V., Ill, 201. 
Potter, Capt. C. S., Ill, 349, 350. 
Potter, Edwin G., IV, 256. 
Potter, George 'F., Ill, 451; IV, 256. 
Potter, Rev. Joshua, II, 251. 
Potts, T. R., m, 503. 
Poupon, Isadore, II, 144-146. 
Powers, C. S., IV, 97. 
Powers, Simon, IV, 311, 312. 
Pratt, Frank H., sketch, IV, 62. 
Pratt, H. P., II, 482. 
Prentiss, Gen. B. M., Ill, 208. 
Prentiss, N. C., IH, 464. 
Presbyterian Church, first at St. Paul, 
II, 232. 

Prescott, George W., II, 475. 

Prescott, Philander, II, 47, 54, 55, 141, 
142, 305; III, 238. 

Preston, incorporated, IV, 44. 

Price, E. E., II, 232. 

Price, Richard, IV, 208. 

Price, Gen. Sterling, III, 150, 153, 163, 
164, 172, 183, 199. 

Priest, Lieut. Daniel H., Ill, 202. 

Prince, Col. John S., Ill, 78. 

Prindle, W. W., Ill, 459. 

Pritchette, Maj. Kentzing, III, 252, 
258, 262, 266. 

Proctor, John S., Ill, 482. 

Prohibition laws passed in different 
States, IV, 145. 

Proper, E. K., HI, 459. 

Provoncalle, Louis (Le Blanc), I, 348; 
II, 54, 55, 247. 

Public Examiner created, IV, 89. 

Pugh, George E. (Ohio), III, 68, 69, 72. 

Pugh, Thomas M., sketch, 259, 279, 296. 

Purcell, Dr. Edward, II, 42, 43, 46. 

Putnam, Frank E., IV, 279, 296. 

Putnam, W. H., sketch, IV, 298. 

Pyle, Howard, III, 473. 

Queen Victoria, resolutions of condol- 
ence, IV, 273. 

Quinn, Peter, II, 80, 113, 158, 264, 265, 
280; III, 283, 285, 290, 296, 297, SIS- 
SIS, 321. 

Quinn, William L., II, 127, 169; III, 
345, 346, 350. 



Radisson, Pierre Esprit, I, 92, 94, 96, 
99-107, 110-112, 115, 127, 128, biog- 
raphy, 129-131, 132-133, 145-150, 
152, 153, 155, 203, 211, 232, 236, 239, 
254, 270, 274, 315, 360. 

Rahilly, P. H., IV, 91, 135. 

Railroad Commissioners, Board of, 
created, IV, 63. 

Railroad companies operating in 
Northern Minnesota, IV, 371-372. 

Railroad legislation, IV, 302-303. 

Ramsey, Alexander, I, 103, 203, 380; 
II, 203, 208, 291-2a9, 301, 302, 305, 
306, 308-315, 325, 330, 333, 425, 
sketch, 426, 428, 429, 447, 453, 461, 
467, 468, 478, 482, 484; III, 79, 88, 
96-98, 101-103, 106-109, 329, 332, 
339, 340, 356, 376, 391, 396-399, 411, 
455, 456, 471, 475, 504, 508, 516, 525; 
IV, 56, 68, 69, 70, 73, 239, 287, 309, 

Ramsay County, boundaries, II, 439, 
461, 464. 

Ramsay, Justus C., sketch, II, 451, 
492; III? 284, 503. 

Randall, Benjamin H., II, 450; sketch, 
453, 460, 466; III, 283, 316, 331, 333, 

Randall, Frank L., Ill, 487. 

Randall, J. J., Ill, 483. 

Randall, William H., II, 122, 305. 

Randolph, Witt, II, 265, 266. 

Rantoul, Robert, IV, 409. 

Rattling Moccasin, II, 182. 

Rattling Runner, III, 402. 

Ravoux, Rev. Augustin, II, 116, 117, 
122, 420. 

Rawilson, Richard, I, 127. 

Raymbault, Father, I, 104. 

Read, Maj. Charles R., Ill, 381. 

Reaney, J. H., IV, 91. 

Red Bird (Zitkah-dan-Doota), Sioux 
medicine-man, II, 165-167. 

Red Bird (Winnebago chief), II, 185, 
186, 189. 

Red Bird War, II, 185-189, 208. 

Red Chief Soldier, II, 61. 

Red Chief Warrior, II, 145, 146. 

Red Eagle, II, 42. 

Red Iron, II, 296, 331, 332; III, 243, 262, 
287, 325, 389, 399. 

Red Lake Falls, incorporated as a vil- 
lage, IV, 100. 

Red Lake Milling Co., IV, 430. 

Red Legs, III, 347, 348. 

Red Plume, III, 412. 

Red River (steamboat), IV, 320. 

Red River Transportation Co.,~IV, 315. 

Red Rock, starting point of Minnesota 
Methodism, II, 268-270, 420. 

Red Wing (Hoopah-Dootah), Sioux 
chief, testimony in relation to 
Carver's deed, I, 293, 353, 363, 366; 
II, 37-39, 149, 274, 419. 

Red Wing, organization of First Pres- 
byterian Church, II, 253; incorpo- 
ration as a city, 493. 

Redwood County, established, III, 103. 

Redwood Falls, incorporated as a city, 
IV, 182. 

Redwood Ferry, ambuscade, III, 161. 

Reed, John A., Ill, 482. 

Reed, William B., IV, 186. 

Reeve, Gen. C. Me., Ill, 483. 

Reeves, Charles A., IV, 258, 285. 

Register, Samuel M., sketch, II, 478. 
Reid, Whitelaw, IV, 183. 
Reiner, Joel K., sketch, III, 94, 99. 
Remore, J. F., IV, 90. 
Renville County, named, I, 321; organ- 
ized, II, 480; cyclone, IV, 212. 
Renville, Gabriel, III, 400, 402. 
Renville, Joseph, biography, I, 321, 

348; II, 55, 203-206, 242-243, 248. 
Renville Rangers, III, 299, 323, 332, 333, 

398, 404, 406. 
Renzi, F. A., Ill, 121. 
Rheneld, Frederic, III, 82. 
Rhodes, Henry C., II, 123. 
Rhodes, W. C., Ill, 459. 
Rice, A. E., IV, 37, 61, 134, 145. 
Rice, B. M., IV, 126. 
Rice, Collins, IV, 61. 
Rice County, named, I, 321; organized, 

II, 468. 
Rice Creek Indians, III, 302, 303, 311, 


Rice, Maj. E. H., Ill, 421. 
Rice, Edmund, II, 452, 456; III, 114, 439; 

IV, 48, 52, 82, 95, biography, 147, 

148 158, 349, 350, 443. 
Rice, Henry Mower, biography, I, 321; 

II, 91, biography, 97-100, 209-218, 
294, 331, 371-376, 412-414, 420, 422, 
442, 447, 448, 456, 475, 478, 485, 486, 
493, 494; III, 29, 64, 65, 71, 72, 107, 
125, 428, 498, 503, 525; IV, 116, 309, 

Richards, F. S., II, 419. 

Richardson, Nathan, III, 438; sketch, 
IV, 49, 86. 

Richardson, R. M., II, 476; III, 61, biog- 
raphy, 100, 105, 431. 

Rieke, A. V., IV, 279. 

Rigby, W. T., Ill, 121. 

Riggs. Rev. Stephen Return, I, 109; II, 
161, 204, 205, 225, 238, 243-249, 253- 
255, 260, 261, 269, 295-297, 301, 310, 
315, 332; III, 276, 297, 301, 504. 

Ringdal, Peter M., IV, 198. 

Roaring Cloud, III, 236, 253-256. 

Robbers, Ludwig, III, 460. 

Robert, Louis, II, 121-124, 353, 362, 372; 

III, 464; IV, 324, 328, 329. 
Roberts, C. H., IV, 133. 
Roberts, D. H., IV, 147. 
Robertson, Andrew, II, 329. 
Robertson, Colin, II, 72. 
Robertson, Col. Daniel A., II, 331-333, 

478; sketch, III, 84, 505, 506. 

Robertson, Thomas A., II, 329; III, 396, 
397, 400. 

Robbins, Andrew B., sketch, IV, 198. 

Robbins, George L., IV, 383. 

Robinson, Doane, I, 109. 

Robinson, John E. C., IV, 298. 

Robinson, Thomas, I, 109. 

Roche, James R., II, 329. 

Rochester, tornado at, IV, 214. 

Rock County, established, II, 506; or- 
ganized, IV, 40. 

Rockne, A. J., IV, 298, sketcch, 299. 

Rocque, Alex., II, 281. 

Rocque, Augustine, I, 365, 368. 

Rogers, Dr. A. C., Ill, 490. 

Rogers, Col. Henry C., Ill, 81, 183, 402, 

Rogers, L. Z., Ill, 121. 

Rogers, Richard, IV. 420. 

Rohner, David, II, 483. 



Rolette, Joseph, I, 347, 348; II, 53, 135, 


Rolette, Joseph (the younger), II, 460, 
466, 477, 479, 486, 495-4ii8, sketch, 
499; III, 58, 61. 
Rolla (steamboat), IV, 320. 
Rollins, John, sketch, II, 443, 486, 491. 
Rollins, Capt. John, IV, 322. 
Rondo, Joseph, II, 88. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, I, 331; IV, 283. 
Root, Joseph M. (Ohio), II, 384, 390. 
Root River and Southern Minnesota 
Railroad Company, charter, IV, 
344; State bonds received, 347. 
Rose, Charles A., Ill, 335. 
Rose, Ezekiel, III, 320. 
Rose, Maj. Robert H., Ill, 421. 
Rosecrans, Gen. W. S., Ill, 140-142, 153, 

156, 164, 165, 205, 211. 
Rosenk, Lieut. Gustav, III, 210. 
Rosing, Leonard A., IV, 275. 
Ross, Jere, II, 133. 
Ross, Lieut. John D., Ill, 209. 
Rosser, J. Travis, II, 472, 485, 503. 
Round Wing, II, 157, 158. 
Roverud, E. K., IV, 256. 
Roy, Peter, II, 476; sketch, III, 85. 
Royal Arch (steamboat), IV, 324. 
Rudolph, John, III, 452. 
Ruffle. C. A., Ill, 115. 
Rufus Putnam (steamboat), IV, 319. 
Ruliffson, H. W., IV, 281. 
Rush City, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 53; charter amended, 89. 
Rushford, incorporated as a city, III, 

Russell, Jeremiah, II, 137-140, 169, 172, 

173, sketch, 446. 
Russell, Roswell P., sketch, II, 467, 


Russell, William, IV, 251. 
Russell, Capt. William P., Ill, 202. 
Rust, Henry, II, 131, 132. 
Rutledge, Thomas, IV, 127. 
St. Anthony, II, 124, 340, 362, 421; 
saw-mills, 422; description of, 461; 
incorporated as . a city, 480; de- 
tached from Ramsey County, 489, 
511; iV, 311, 313. 
St. Charles, incorporated as a city, 

IV, 39. 
St. Cloud, incorporated as a town, III, 

103; IV, 28; cyclone, 217. 
St. Croix Bridge Co., IV, 310. 
St. Croix County, organized, II, 106, 

107, 342. 
St. Croix Falls Lumbering Co., II, 108, 

St. Croix Lake and River Trade, IV, 


St. John, John P., IV, 140. 
St. John's College, III, 535. 
St. Louis County, II, 480; organized, 


St. Louis Exposition, IV, 282. 
St. Lusson, Sieur de, I, 111, 112, 244, 


St. Olaf College, III, 536. 
St. Paul, II, 40, 52, 63, 85, 87, 88, 110, 
115, 118, 119-124, 184, 249, 340, 357, 
362, 414, 420-423; description of, 461, 
463; incorporated as a city, 477, 
510-512; IV, land office, 28, 143; 
cyclone, 221, 309, 310. 

St. Paul (steamboat), IV, 323. 

St Paul and Chicago Railroad Com- 
pany, IV, 351. 

St. Paul and Duluth Railroad Com- 
pany, IV, 355-357. 

St Paul and Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, IV, 311, 316, 349, 351. 

St. Paul and Sioux City Railroad Com- 
pany, IV, 354, 355. 

St. Paul Circle of Industry, III, 515. 

St. Paul Dispatch (newspaper), IV, 56. 

St. Paul Outfit, IV, 311. 

St. Peter, II, 253; removal of capital, 
494; incorporated as a borough, 

III, 123; incorporated as a city, 

IV, 53. 

St. Peter Company, incorporators, II, 

490; efforts to obtain capital, 494- 

St. Vincent, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 100. 
Sabin, Dwight M., IV, 41, 46, 86, 97, 

biography, 138-139, 167, 168. 
Sackett and Fay, IV, 430. 
Sacs and Foxes, I, 244, 245; II, 192, 

193, 197-199, 238, 273-276. 
Sagean, Matthew, I, 253. 
Sageng, Ole O., IV, 297. 
Sampson, B., IV, 150. 
Sanborn, John Benjamin, biography, 

III, 82, 93, 152-157, 467, 508; IV, 
48. 97, 178. 

Sanders, Capt. E. C., Ill, 193. 

Satterlee, W. W., IV, 95. 

Sauk Centre, incorporated as a city, 

IV, 166. 

Sauk Rapids, II, 421; cyclone, IV, 217. 

Saunders, Capt. E. C., Ill, 378. 

Saunders, James, II, 133. 

Sawyer, Capt. Rudolph, III, 350. 

Say, Thomas, I, 364 S 366, 368, 371. 

Scanlon, Charles, IV, 275. 

Schain, J. T., IV, 280. 

Schaffer, Philip, III, 243, 244. 

Schaller, Albert, IV, 256, 278, 296. 

Scheffer, Albert, IV, 151, 157, 191. 

Scheffer, Charles, III, 79, 111, 427, 450. 

Schenck, Robert C. (Ohio), II, 382, 385, 

Schoenemann, Capt. Rudolph, III, 350. 

Schofield, Gen. J. M., Ill, 186, l&O. 

School laws amended, III, 102. 

Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, I, 93, 113, 
119, 121, 126, biography, 349-350- 
355, 367, 375, 377; II, 156, 221. 

Schutz, John G., IV, 279. 

Schwager, John, IV, 280. 

Schweintz, Lewis D. de, I, 371. 

Scioto (steamboat), IV, 320. 

Scofield, Miss Mary A., Ill, 515. 

Scott, Dred, case, II, 66, 67. 

Scott, Capt. Martin, II, 83, 280. 

Scott, Gen. Winfleld, II, 50, 51, 62, 327. 

Scott, Z. D., IV, 158. 

Scull, Gideon D., I, 127, 128, 135, 136. 

Seabury, Channing, III, 469. 

Seabury, Bishop Samuel, III, 536. 

Searing, Edward N., Ill, 523. 

Searle, Dolson B., IV, 187. 

Searles, Frank E., sketch, IV, 163. 

Searles, Jasper N., IV, 178. 

Sears, Miss J. A., Ill, 523. 

Secombe, D. A., II, 497. 

See, Charles H., HI, 99. 



Seeger, William, IV, 46; impeachment, 

Selby, Jeremiah W., II, 459; IV, 337, 


Selkirk (steamboat), IV, 315, 316. 
Sellers, B. L., II, 438. 
Sellwood, Joseph, IV, 379. 
Semple, Gov. Robert, II, 72. 
Senate (steamboat), IV, 322. 
Sencerbox, J. W., IV, 65. 
Setzer, Henry N., II, 486, 493, 495, 438; 

sketch, III, 41, 47, 482. 
Severance, E. C., IV, 141. 
Severance, Martin J., sketch, III, 101. 
Severson, S. J., IV, 126. 
Sewall, Ferris & Co., II, 512. 
Seward, Virgil B., IV, 297. 
Seward, William H. (N. Y.), II, 400, 

457; III, 32, 67, 68, 72, 123, 124. 
Seymour, Horatio, III, 455. 
Seymour, John, II, 225, sketch, 235. 
Seymour, Samuel L., 1, 364, 366, 368. 
Seymour, W. H., IV, 389. 
Sha-go-ba, II, 507. 
Shakopay, or (Shakopee, or Six), II, 

42, 163, 181, 274, 2i;8, 311, 332. 
Shakopee, II, 253, organized as a city, 

506; incorporated as a village, III, 

435; as a city, IV, 39. 
Shakopee, or (Little Six), III, 302, 311- 

313, 323, 363, 390, 422, 423. 
Shaleen, John, IV, 134. 
Shandrew, F. E., Ill, 121. 
Shantz, Dr. Samuel E., Ill, 491. 
Shaw, Henry A., Ill, 410. 
Shaw, Col. S. D., Ill, 245. 
Shea, John Gilmary, I, 216, 229, 230, 

238, 252, 256; translation of Le 

Sueur's Voyage, 257-259, 267. 
Sheardown, S. B., Ill, 458. 
Sheehan, Lieut. T. J., Ill, 289-298, 315, 

316, 332, 333, 338-341, 350; III, 162, 

272, 267; IV, 248, 256. 
Sheffield-King Milling Co., IV, 430. 
Sheigley, Adam P., Ill, 234, 242. 
Shell, Daniel, III, 469; IV, 233, 287, 278. 
Shepard, Irwin, III, 522. 
Sherburn, struck by tornado, IV, 219. 
Sherburne County, organized, II, 489. 
Sherburne, Moses G., biography, II, 

474, 503. 

Sheridan, James, IV, 379. 
Sherman, Maj., Ill, 257, 258, 262, 263. 
Sherman, John (Ohio), III, 71, 73. 
Sherman, Gen. William T., Ill, 143, 

144, 156-158, 165, 168, 209, 212; IV, 

Sherwood, Charles D., Ill, 85, 94, 

sketch, 105, 111. 
Shields, Gen. James, III, 64, biography, 

65, 67, 72, 85. 
Shillock, David G., sketch, III, 105, 


Shingauba Wassa, II, 274. 
Shoemaker, W. A., Ill, 524. 
Shonka-ska (White Dog), III, 317, 318. 
Shoshone or (Snake) Indians, I, 273. 
Shumand, Benjamin F., I, 386. 
Sibley County, named, I, 322; organ- 
ized, U, 468; cyclone, IV, 213. 
Sibley, Fred C., II, 305. 

Sibley, Henry Hastings, I, 118, 119, 
biography, 322, 383, 384; II, 46, 55, 
56, 80, 88, 91, biography, 93-95, 110, 
123, 124, 127, 130, 203, 221-226, 242, 
260, 280, 281, 294, 297, 301, 327, 331- 
335, 353-357, 362, 363, 366, 371-386, 
388, 391-393, 400, 403, 404, 407, 409- 

415, 420, 422, 423, 429, 432, 435, 442, 
447, 448, 456, 478, 479, 485, 500; III, 
40, 57, 58, 66, 75, 77, 78, 88, 149, 175, 
180, 183, 184, 193, 327-341, 343, 345, 
346, 349-351, 358, 372, 373, 376, 380, 
392, 394-398, 401-404, 407, 409, 411- 

416, 423, 474, 475, 477, 503, 508, 509, 
525; IV, 42, 97, 182. 289. 346-348. 

Simmons, Edward E., Ill, 473. 

Simmons, J., IV, 92. 

Simmons, James F. (R I.), Ill, 68. 

Simons Milling Co., IV, 430. 

Simpson, Lieut. J. H., Ill, 505. 

Simpson, J. W., II, 121, 123, 133. 

Simpson, James, II, 268. 

Simpson, Robert, III, 62. 

Simpson, Thomas, I, 389; III, 111, 

sketch, 431. 
Sinclair, D., IV, 280. 
Sinclair, Henry, II, 176. 
Sintomminee Doota (All-over Red), 

III, 221, 223. 
Sioux, I, 86, 91. 93, 96-99, 102, 104-116, 

152, 153, 165, 166, 170-174, 180-183, 

198 206, 215, 230, 232-236, 272, 347; 

II, 32, 37, 39, 55, 138, 153-178, 185- 

187, 191, 210-213, 216, 219, 228, 237- 
257, 265, 271-276; signers of second 
Prairie du Chien treaty, 279; sign- 
ers of the Treaty of 1837, 283, 422; 

III, 217-226, 252, 270, 274-279, 287, 
291, 376, 379, 406, 408. 

Sioux Dictionary, II, 202. 

Sire, Joseph A., II, 332. 

Sivright, William A., sketch, IV, 257, 


Skaro, Capt. A. K., Ill, 281-283. 
Skinner, George E., Ill, 490. 
Skinner, J. B., IH, 234. 
Skinner, James D., U, 500. 
Slade, William (governor of Vt.), Ill, 

513, 515. 

Slavery, II, 66-67. 
Sleepy Eye (Sioux chief), II, 247, 248, 

274, 299-303. 

Sleepy Eye Milling Co., IV, 430. 
Sloan, David T., II, 453, 456. 
Sloan, Levi, II, 476. 
Smith, Judge, A. C., Ill, 309, 354, 356, 

366, 367. 
Smith, Gen. A. J., Ill, 169, 170, 173, 

188, 195. 

Smith, Ansel, sketch, III, 105, 121. 
Smith, Lieut. Col. Benjamin F., Ill, 

Smith, Caleb B. (Ind.), II, 380, 403, 

406, 411. 
Smith, Lieut. Col. Charles F., Ill, 245, 

sketch, 246. 
Smith, Charles Kilgore, II, 425-429, 

456; III, 503-505. 

Smith, Christopher, sketch, IV, 85, 90. 
Smith, Delano T., II, 499. 
Smith, Lieut. E. Kirby Smith, II, 81. 
Smith, E. R., Ill, 459. 
Smith, Edward E., sketch, IV, 257, 

278, 296. 



Smith, Francis A. J., Ill, 482. 
Smith, Gerritt, IT, 400. 
Smith, H. L., Ill, 366. 

is jr^jJLSr m, 93, 99, 107; 

sketch, IV, 75, 93. 

Smith, John Day, IV, 178, sketch, 179. 
Smith. John H., IV, 256. 
Smith, L,., Ill, 460. 
Smith, Lyndon A., IV, 236. 
Smith, Melville C., sketch, III, 120. 
Smith, Robert, II, 50. 
Smith, Robert, III, 225, 233-235, 241. 
Smith, Robert A., II, 475; IV, 293. 
Smith, Seagrave, sketch, III, 451. 
Smith, Maj. Simeon, III, 137. 
Smith, Capt. T. D., Ill, 386. 
Smith, W. A., IV, 279. 
Smith, William (Va.), Ill, 71. 
Smoky Moccasin (Hamp-pah-Shota), 

III, 226-228. 
Snake End, III, 236. 

Snelling, Joseph, I, 368; II, 61, 188, 189. 

Snelling, Col. Josiah, I, 357, 368; 
sketch, II, 47, 48-51, 62, 66, 76, 79, 
135, 136, 143-145, 148, 149, 153-155, 
187 189 

Snelling, Mrs. (wife of Col. Snelling), 
II, 62; IV, 318. 

Snider, Samuel P., IV, 152, 158; biog- 
raphy, 159, 174. 

Snyder, Frederick B., IV, 257. 

Soldiers' lodges, III, 281. 

Soils (explorer), I, 350. 

Somerville, George W., IV, 278. 

Soule, Jesse H., Ill, 116. 

Soule, O. B., IV, 281. 

South St. Paul incorporated as a city, 

IV, 154. 

Spalding, W. W., IV, 381. 

Spanish-American War, IV, 239-243. 

Sparks, Jared, I, 213, 238. 

Spates, Rev. Samuel, II, 267. 

Sperry, Albert, III, 360, 362. 

Sperry, W. A., IV, 197. 

Spirit Lake Massacre. Ill, 218-219. 

Spooner, Miss Lucy, II, 253. 

Spooner, Miss Mary, II. 253. 

Sprague, D. B., Ill, 115; IV, 36. 

Spring Valley, incorporated as a vil- 
lage, IV, 50. 

Springfield Massacre, III, 225-234. 

Springfield Milling Co., IV, 430. 

Sproat, Grenville T., II, 226, 228, 232, 
sketch, 235. 

Stacy, B. C., IV, 80. 

Stacy, Elias, IV, 121. 

Stambaugh, Col. Samuel C., II, 80, 82, 

Stanchfleld, Daniel, II, 49, sketch, 479; 
IV, 409, 410. 

Standing Buffalo, II, 274; III, 297, 298, 
399, 400, 408, 412. 

Stands Outside, II, 312. 

Stannard, Lucas K., II, 492; sketch, 
IV, 42. 

Stanton, Edwin M., Ill, 129, 194. 

Staples, C. F., IV, 233, 258. 

Star Face (The Orphan), II, 298, 302, 


Stark, Lars, III, 121; IV, 65, sketch, 66. 
Starkey, Capt. James, II, 507; sketch, 

III, 62. 
Start, Charles M., IV, 168, 191. 

State Agricultural College established, 

III, 64. 

State Capitol fire, III, 466. 

State Dairy Commissioner appointed, 

IV, 143. 

Stateler, Sylvester, II, 108. 

Stearns, Charles T., sketch, II, 475. 

Stearns County, organized, II, 480. 

Stearns, I. C., IV, 140. 

Stearns, Ozra Pierson, biography, IV, 


Stebbins, A. T., IV, 197. 
Stebbins, Mrs. A. T., Ill, 478. 
Steele County, organized, II, 480. 
Steele, Franklin, II, 83, 91, biography, 

95-97, 105, 132, 137, 138, 297, 331, 

332, 347, 353, 354, 362, 366, 420, 421, 

442; III, 503, 525; IV, 409, 410, 420. 
Steele, Gen. Frederick, III, 150. 
Steenerson, Halvor W., IV, 134, 276, 

biography, 277, 295. 
Stephens, A. D., IV, 280, 296. 
Stephens, Alexander H. (Ga.), II', 380, 

406, 408, 411; III, 70, 71. 
Stephenson, Oscar, sketch, III, 84. 
Sterrett, Capt. J. R., Ill, 349, 395, 398, 


Stevens County, established, III, 90. 
Stevens, F. J., Ill, 115. 
Stevens, Frederick C., IV, 162, 208, 

sketch, 209, 295. 

Stevens, Lieut. Hamlet, III, 356. 
Stevens, Hiram F., Ill, 467; IV, 178, 

sketch, 179, 197. 
Stevens or Stephens, Rev. Jedediah, 

II, 203, 219, 220, 237, 243. 
Stevens, Col. John H., II, 81; III, 80, 

biography, 100-101, 359. 
Stevens, Miss Lucy Co., II, 243. 
Stevens, Miss Sabrina, II, 222, 223, 228. 
Stewart, Dr. Jacob H., Ill, 81; IV, 73, 

sketch, 80. 

Stewart, Johnnie, III, 231, 232. 
Stewart, Josiah, III, 230, 231. 
Stiles, William, IV, 117, 122. 
Stillwater, II, 105, 107-110, 124, 131, 

340, 350, 354, 362, 420, 422, 461, 464; 

incorporated as a city, 477; lumber 

mills, IV, 29, 309, 312, 321. 
Stillwater Lumber Co., II, 108. 
Stimson, Albert, II, 466, 475. 
Stitt, William, II, 55. 
Stivers, H. C., IV, 259. 
Stockton, Albert W., IV, 197, 256. 
Stockwell, S. A., IV, 257. 
Stone, Gen. Charles P., Ill, 131. 
Stone, Edwin, III, 362. 
Stone, George C., IV, 378, 379, 381. 
Stone, H. W., IV, 280. 
Stone, H. Ward, IV, 281. 
Stordock, H. H., Ill, 482. 
Stowe, Dr. C. E., Ill, 514. 
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, III, 514. 
Stowell, F. M., Ill, 121. 
Strait, Horace B., IV, 51, sketch, 52, 

64, 91, 97. 133, 140. 
Stratton, Levi, II, 138-139. 
Streeker, A., Ill, 95. 
Street, Gen. Joseph M., II, 191-194, 


Strong, Dr. E. B. N., Ill, 225, 232. 
Strong Earth, II, 157, 161, 162. 
Strong, Rev. James W., Ill, 536. 



Strout, Capt. Richard, III, 359-362, 


Stuart, Charles E. (Mich.), Ill, 68. 
Stuntz, George R., IV, 376, 377. 
Sturges, William R., II, 438, 487. 
Sturgls, Gen. S. G., Ill, 187, 195. 
Sturgis, William J., Ill, 332. 
Suborn, Oscar Oleson, IV, 126. 
Suffrage amendment to Constitution 

adopted, III, 454. 
Sullivan, George H., IV, 297. 
Sully, Gen. Alfred, III, 131, 133, 184, 

205, 258, 259, 415-421, 424. 
Sumner, Capt. E. V., II, 212. 
Sundberg, Begent E., IV, 280, 296, 297, 
Sunrise Expedition, II, 507. 
Supreme and District Courts, terms 

established, II, 462. 
Sutherland, William A., Ill, 319. 
Svendson, Ole., Ill, 320. 
Swain, Joseph, IV, 162, sketch, 163. 
Swanger, Miss Drusilla, III, 229, 233- 


Swanson, Charles J., IV, 298. 
Swanson, Swan, III, 355. 
Swanstrom, E. G., IV, 61, 81, 91. 
Swedbach, E. J., IV, 280. 
Sweetzer, Madison, II, 331-333. 
Sweningson, Sam, IV, 256. 
Swift County, organized, IV, 40. 
Swift, Henry A., Ill, 59, 108, biography, 

109, 116, 460. 

Synod of Minnesota organized, II, 256. 
Tah-me-ha (Pike Fish), II, 38. 
Tak-o-yak-te-doota (His Red Nation, 

Little Crow V.), II, 180-184, 249, 

250, 263, 266, 307-315, 332; III, 162, 

261-266, 278, 288, 302, 311, 312, 323, 

326, 332-339, 344-347, 357-363, 366- 

372, 379, 395-400, 402, 404, 406-411, 

Tah-sah-ghee (His Cane), II, 274; III, 

219, 220. 
Tah-tay-me-mah (Round Wind), III, 


Tailhan, J. (Jesuit), I, 96. 
Talbott, Freeman, III, 328, 329. 
Taliaferro, Maj. Lawrence, II, 45, 

sketch, 51, 53-55, 63, 64, 83, 85, 135, 

136, 144-146, 148, 153, 159, 160, 163, 

164, 193, 219, 220, 240-242, 260, 261, 

271, 278-281; IV, 317, 320. 
Taopee, III, 397. 
Ta-o-pi (Wounded), III, 317. 
Tate, J. N., Ill, 489. 
Tattersall, W. K., Ill, 93. 
Tawney, James A., IV, 178, 185, 186, 

sketch, 187, 195, 200, 208, 272, 276, 


Tax Commission created, name of 
Taxation amendment to Constitution, 

IV, 294. 

Taylor, Charles, III, 120. 
Taylor, Jesse, sketch, II, 450, 458; III, 


Taylor, Jesse B., II, 138. 
Taylor, John, IV, 281. 
Taylor, Joshua L., II, 133, 366; III, 482. 
Taylor, Nathan, C. D., I, 386; sketch, 

II, 476, 487; III, 525. 
Taylor, Oscar, III, 121. 
Taylor, Gen. Richard, III, 169-171. 
Taylor, Robert, IV, 158, 172. 

Taylor, Gen. Zachary, II, 32, 199, 277, 
357, 407, 408, 410, 425, 428, 449, 450; 
IV, 308. 
Taylor's Falls, II, 137; land office, IV, 

28 321 

Teachout, 'William, III, 121. 
Teft, Nathaniel S., Ill, 62; sketch, IV, 

Temple, D. T., Ill, 437. 

Tennant and Hoyt, IV, 430. 

Terminal Railroads, IV, 369. 

Territorial Emigration Society incor- 
porated, II, 489. 

Terry, Elijah S., Ill, 217. 

Tew, Henry S., Ill, 121. 

Thacher, George W., IV, 150. 

Thatcher, Mrs. Elizabeth, III, 218, 235. 

Thatcher, J. A., sketch, III, 100, 103, 
105, 115. 

Thatcher, J. M., Ill, 234. 

Thayer, Burdett, IV, 291. 

The Bow, II, 196, 198. 

The Swan (half breed), III, 357. 

The Theif, III, 336. 

The Transit Company charter, IV, 344; 
State bonds received, 347. 

Thirteenth Regiment of Infantry, or- 
ganization, officers, arrival at San 
Francisco, IV, 240; battle of Ma- 
nilla, other engagements, mustered 
out, losses, 242. 

Thomas, Gen. George H., Ill, 138, 142, 
173, 181, 184, 189, 190, 196, 197. 

Thomas, Col. Minor T., Ill, 152, 183- 
185, 416, 419, 420. 

Thomas, O. S., II, 494. 

Thomas, Willie, III, 229. 

Thompson, Clark W., sketch, II, 479, 
486; III, 276, 284, 290, 331; IV, 101, 
102, 393. 

Thompson, David, I, 295, biography, 
296, 297. 

Thompson, Isaac, III, 459. 

Thompson, J. E., IV, 349. 

Thompson, Maj. J. M., Ill, 421. 

Thompson, Jacob (Miss.), II, 351, 352, 
380, 411. 

Thompson, James (negro), II, 67, 84, 
85, 262, 263. 

Thompson, James E., II, 456. 

Thompson, John B. (Ky.), Ill, 33, 34. 

Thompson, M. G., II, 492. 

Thompson, Richard E., IV, 197, 256, 

Thompson, Richard W. (Ind.), II, 379. 

Thompson, Thomas A., Ill, 76. 

Thomson, John R. (N. J.), Ill, 33. 

Thornton, J. J., IV, 141. 

Thorpe, L. O., IV, 280, 296. 

Thorson, Berger, III, 354. 

Throckmorton, Capt. Joseph, II, 195, 
199; IV, 320. 

Thwaites, Reuben G., I, 135, 240. 

Tietz, Henry, III, 226, 229, 237. 

Tiger (steamboat), IV, 326. 

Tilden, Henry L., sketch, II, 452, 473. 

Tilden, Samuel J., IV, 80. 

Tillotson, Benjamin F., II, 486, 495. 

Time and Tide (steamboat), IV, 328. 

Todd County, III, 64, 103. 

Toka-ta (One Ahead), II, 159, 160. 

Tolman, Dr. Moody C., Ill, 85. 

Tomlinson, Dr. Harry A., Ill, 491. 

Tonty, Henry, I, 213, 245. 



Too-Kahn-na?na-Manee (The Walk- 
ing Sacred Stone), afterwards 
William Columbus, II, 182. 

Toombs, Robert (Ga.), II, 380, 407, 408, 
411; 111, 33, 68-71, 72. 

Topographic features, 1, 35. 

Torrey, John W.. IV, 274. 

Torson, Thomas, IV, 270, 278. 

Toucey, Isaac fConn.), HI, 32. 

Tourtelotte, Col. John E., Ill, 156, Io7, 

Tower, incorporated as a city, IV, 166. 

Tower, Charlemagne, IV, 378. 

Town, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph, II, 226. 

Towne, Charles A., IV, 196, sketch, 
197, 204, 208, 260, 272. 

Tracy, Capt. Albert, III, 246. 

Trask, John W., Ill, 381. 

Trask, Sylvanus, sketch, II, 44o, 4al. 

Traveling Hail, III, 285. 

Traverse County, established, III, 103. 

Traverse des Sioux, II, 253; Doty's 
treaty, 285-289; treaty of, 293-305; 
Indian signers, 303-304. 

Treaties, Indian, II, 271-326. 

Treaty of Ghent, I, 348; II, 33. 

Treaty of London, II, 32. 

Treaty of 1858, II, 328-330; Indian 
signers, 329. 

Treaty of Utrecht, I, 312. 

Trescott, Solon A., Ill, 295. 

Trott, Herman, HI, 432. 

Truax, A. H., IV, 150. 

Truax, Caleb, II, 467. 

Trowbrldge, Charles C., I, 351. 

Trumbull, Lyman, III, 36, 70; IV, 51. 

Truwe, Jacob, IV, 233. 

Tu, Panka Zee (Yellow Black Bass), 
II, 153, 155, 158. 

Turner, Prof. Frederick J., I, 327. 

Turner, George P., II, 180, 250. 

Tuthill, C. O., Ill, 121. 

Tuttle, Calvin A., II, 50, 133, 138, 139; 
sketch, III, 42; IV, 320. 

Tweedy, delegate to Congress, II, 359, 
364, 371, 379. 

Twelfth Regiment of Infantry, organ- 
ized, officers, camped in Georgia 
and Kentucky, mustered out, 
losses, IV, 240. 

Twlford, W. H., Ill, 443. 

Twining, E. H., Ill, 532. 

Two cent passenger railroad rate, IV, 

Two Faces, II, 274. 

Tyler, Hugh, II, 279. 

Tyler, John, II, 287, 288. 

Tyrell, J. B., I, 49, 302. 

Uline, Lieut. Col. Calvin S., III. 144. 

Uncle Toby (steamboat), IV, 326. 

Underleak, Joseph, sketch, IV, 256. 

Underwood, John M., IV, 198. 

Union City incorporated, II, 493. 

Universal Construction Co., Ill, 470. 

University of Minnesota incorporated, 
II, 454. 

Upham, Henry P., Ill, 507. 

Upham, Warren, III, 510. 

Upper Sioux Agency established. II, 

Upton, R. P., II, 482. 

Vail, J. Q. A., Ill, 459; IV, 43. 

Vail, Patrick R., IV, 298. 

Van Buren, Martin, II, 80. 

Van Cleve, Gen. H. P., Ill, 137, 139. 

Van der Horck, Capt. John, III, 283, 


Van Dorn, Gen. Earl, III, 153-155, 163. 
Van Dyke, John (N. Y.), II, 384, 385. 
Van Etten, Isaac, sketch, II, 475, 485; 

III, 60. 

Van Lear. Thomas, IV, 275. 
Van Sant, Samuel R., IV, 89, 1S8, 205, 

236, 265, biography, 269, 271, 275, 

282, 284, 291. 
Van Voorhees, Abraham, II, 47o, 

sketch, 487; III, 525. 
Van Vorhees, Andrew Jackson, sketch, 

III, 82, 284. 

Vandreuil (governor of New France), 

I, 210. 

Varennes, Pierre Gautier, see Veren- 


Verendrye, Chevalier de, I, 271. 
Verendrye, Sieur de la, I, 269-278, 287, 

oyg 323 

Vermily, James I., IV, 186. 
Verplanck, Isaac A., II, 209. 
Vespucci, I, 350, 375. 
Verwyst, Father Chrysostom, I, 164- 

Vicksburg Commission, members of, 

IV, 282. 

Villeburn, Michel, IV, 107. 

Vineyard, Miles M., II, 158, 264, 265, 

Vinton, Samuel F. (Ohio), II, 385, 387, 

390, 407. 

Virginia (steamboat), IV, 317-319. 
Volant (steamboat), IV, 320. 
Volk, Douglas, III, 473. 
Volstead, Andrew J., sketch, IV, 276, 


Von Baumbach, Fred, IV, 95. 
Von Minden, Capt. Henning, III, 203. 
Voright, Col. T. L., IV, 126. 
Vose, Maj. Josiah H., II, 42, 43. 
Vote for Delegate to Congress In 1850, 

II, 448. 

Vote for First Territorial Legislature, 
II, 436. 

Vote in U. S. Senate on admission of 
Minnesota Territory, II, 410. 

Wabasha (The Leaf), I, 347, 353; de- 
scription of, 365; II, 38, 42, 149, 192, 
194, 199, 211, 212, 215, 216, 218, 271- 
278, 281, 283, 305, 309, 310, 313-315, 
332; III, 326, 346, 347, 397, 407. 

Wabasha, incorporated as a city, III, 

Wabasha County, boundaries of, II, 

Wabasha Roller Mill Co., IV, 430. 

Wabasha' s Prairie (site of Winona), 
II, 38, 187, 193, 213. 

Wacouta (The Shooter), II, 281, 283, 
307, 309, 313, 332; III, 326, 346. 

Wade, Benjamin F. (Ohio), III, 68. 

Wadena County, IV, 53. 

Wahnahta County, boundaries of, II, 

Wahnata (The Charger), II, 143, 144, 
271, 274; III, 298, 408. 

Wait, L. B., II, 438. 

Waite, F. H., IV, 64. 

Walte, Henry C., sketch, IV, 134. 

Wakefleld, James B., Ill, 62, 105, 377, 
431, 438, 459; IV, 73, sketch, 133, 

Wales, William W., sketch, II, 491. 



Walker Among Sacred Stones, III, 357- 


Walker, H. O., Ill, 473. 
Walker, Hiram, sketch, III, 106, 452. 
Walker, L. C., Ill, 62. 
Walker, M. O., & Co., IV, 312. 
Walker, Orange, II, 140, 141, 366, 372; 

sketch, III, 82; IV, 401. 
Walker, Richard, III, 505. 
Wallace, H. A., Ill, 77. 
Wan-e-hi-ya (Arrow Shooter), III, 351. 
Wangen (Sacred Rattle), III, 370. 
War of 1812, II, 32, 33, 39, 53, 62, 188, 

208, 272. 

Ward, G. B., IV, 279. 
Ward, William G., IV, 65, 96. 
Warner, Charles A., Ill, 104. 
Warner, Eli S., IV, 198. 
Warner, Nathan, IV, 86. 
Warren, incorporated as a city, IV, 


Warren, Gen. G. K., I, 49, 388. 
Warren, John E., sketch, 474, 491, 503. 
Warren, Lyman M., II, 55, 151, 220, 

279, 280. 

Warren, Truman A., II, 151. 
Warren, William W., II, 149, sketch, 

453, 456. 
Warrior (steamboat), II, 195, 1S6, 199, 

239; IV, 320. 
Waseca, incorporated as a village, III, 

454; as a city, IV, 100. 
Waseca County, organized, II, 493. 
Washburn mill explosion, IV, 427. 
Washburn, Cadwallader C., Ill, 455. 
Washburn, jr., Israel (Me.), Ill, 74. 
Washburn, William D., Ill, 455, 457; 

IV, 43, 56, 57, 68, 91, 97, 133, 167, 

biography, 168, 199, 200. 
Washburn, jr., William D., sketch, IV, 

Washburne, Elihu B. (111.), Ill, 455, 

458; IV, 340. 
Washington County, boundaries of, II, 


Washington, George, III, 440, 511. 
Waterville, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 89. 

Waterways Convention, IV, 335, 336. 
Watonwan County, established, III, 90. 
Watrous, John S., Ill, 62. 
Watson, David, II, 165. 
Watson, George, III, 60, 80, 93. 
Watson, Robert, sketch, II, 476. 
Watterson, Henry (Ky.), IV, 203. 
Weakley, Josiah, III, 294. 
Weaver, Edgar, III, 469. 
Weaver, James B., IV, 96, 185. 
Webber, A. C., Ill, 482. 
Webster, C. C., Ill, 459. 
Webster, Daniel, II, 288, 457, 471. 
Webster, Viranus, III, 305-309. 
Webster, Mrs. Viranus, III, 305-307. 
Wedge, A. C., IV, 91, 97. 
Weinman, Lieut. Joseph, III, 370-373. 
Weis, Henry F., IV, 287. 
Weiser, Dr. Josiah S., Ill, 413. 
Weiss, William, III, 345. 
We-Kau (alias Waniga), II, 186, 189. 
Welch, Maj. A. E., in, 149, 152, 373, 

398, 404, 4U6. 

Welch, Dr. George O., Ill, 493. 
Welch, Thomas, IV, 150. 
Weld, Frank A.. Ill, 524. 
Welles, Henry T., sketch, III, 111. 

Wellman, Maj. L. R., Ill, 157. 

Wells, incorporated, IV, 44. 

Wells Flour Milling Co., IV, 430. 

Wells, H. H., IV, 141. 

Wells, Henry R., IV, 96. 

Wells, James (Bully Wells), II, 55, 

419, 438, 441, 442, 451, 466. 
Wells, Robert J., sketch, IV, 298. 
Wentworth, John (111.), II, 377, 380, 407. 
West, Capt. D. M., Ill, 203. 
West, E. F., Ill, 121. 
West Newton (steamboat), II, 328; IV, 


Westcott, James D. (Fla.), II, 396, 397. 
Western, Capt. Horace H., Ill, 281, 282, 

423, 424. 

Westman, Ole, III, 307. 
Weston, incorporated, II, 493. 
Wheat, J. M., sketch, IV, 67, 82, 85, 


Wheeler, Henry M., IV, 119-122. 
Wheeler, Rev. Leonard H., II, 232. 
Wheeler, Olin D., I, 273. 
Wheelock, Joseph A., II, 305; III, 91; 

IV, 391, 422. 

Whipple, Bishop H. B., I, 109. 
Whipple, Lieut. John C., Ill, 334, 337, 

371, 413, 414, 423, 424. 
Whitcomb, O. P., IV, 60, 73, 95, 133. 
White, Milo, IV, 47, 52, 65, 97, 133, 
White, Mrs. A. A., Ill, 478. 
White, A. S. H., II, 297, 305. 
White, Andrew D., IV, 235. 
White Bear, incorporated as a village, 

IV, 100. 

White, Daniel E., IV, 298. 
White, Capt. George T., Ill, 197. 
White, Harley D., II, 438. 
White Lodge, III, 325, 349, 376, 382, 399. 

sketch, 134, 140. 
White Spider, III, 357, 361, 408. 
White Turkey, II, 42, 44. 
White, Wallace B., II, 279. 
Whitford, Rev. James G., II, 263-268. 
Whiting, Dr. Erastus L., Ill, 95, 100, 

303, 356-359, 362-365. 
Whitman, Alonzo J., IV, 150, sketch, 


Whitney, Andrew J., II, 475. 
Whitney, Col. C. S., II, 124. 
Whitney, Charles T., IV, 313. 
Whitney, George A., IV, 232. 
Whitney, Capt. Joseph C., Ill, 350, 373, 

sketch, 437. 

Whittemore, Reuben, III, 121. 
Whittier, F. A., Ill, 527. 
Whittlesey, Charles, I, 386. 
Wicklunder, Peter, III, 310, 311. 
Wieland, H. P., IV, 381. 
Wilcox, Frank J., IV, 119, 120. 
Wilcox, N. Green, II, 466, 467. 
Wild Cat Currency, II, 511. 
Wilder, E. T., IV, 80. 
Wilkin, Col. Alexander, sketch, II, 456, 

472, 475; III, 137, 139, 186, 188. 
Wilkin County established, III, 454; or- 
ganized, IV, 50. 
Wilkin, W. T., IV, 141. 
Wilkin, W. W., IV, 91. 
Wilkinson, Capt. Melville C., IV, 248- 

250, 251, 253. 
Wilkinson, Morton S., II, 132, 133. 357, 

362, 366, 372, 418, 441, 484; III, 59, 

85, biography, 86, 124-126, 455, 503, 

535; IV, 51, 60, 70, 75, 82, 158. 



Wilkinson, Ross, II, 488. 
Willey, Rev. A., IV, 85. 
Williams, Elizabeth (half breed), II, 


Williams, H., IV, 61. 
Williams, J. Fletcher, I, 191, 216; II, 

86, 88, 112, 124. 
Williams, S. B., IV, 92. 
Williams, Maj. William, III, 222, 223, 

231, 234. 

Williamson, Dr. A. P., Ill, 493. 
Williamson, Prof. A. W., I, 118. 
Williamson, Miss Jane S., II, 245, 253. 
Williamson, Smith B., II, 256. 
Williamson, Dr. Thomas Smith, I, 118; 

II, 67, 122, 203-206, sketch, 237-238, 

242, 244-245, 248, 249, 251-255, 260, 

297, 315, 332, 419; III, 301, 368, 513, 


Willlm, William, sketch, II, 478. 
Willoughby, Amherst, IV, 311, 312. 
Willson, Beckles, I, 326. 
Willus Bros., II, 510. 
Wilmot, David P. (Pa.), II, 380. 
Wilson, Clara D., Ill, 304, 305, 308-310. 
Wilson, Eugene M., biography, III. 

458; IV, 304, 305, 308-310. 
Wilson, George P., IV, 60, 73, sketch, 

256, 278, 296. 

Wilson, George W., IV, 281. 
Wilson, Harvey, II, 133. 
Wilson, Henry (Mass.), Ill, 32, 67, 69. 
Wilson, Horace B., Ill, 406, 438, 518; 

sketch, IV, 92. 

Wilson, Hudson, sketch, IV, 163. 
Wilson, J. P., Ill, 115. 
Wilson, Thomas, III, 47, 56; IV, 61, 

sketch, 97, 134, 137, 138, 147, 158, 


Willston, William C., sketch, IV, 53, 75. 
Wiltsie, Henry A., I, 389. 
Winchell, Prof. Aleander N., I, 52, 312, 


Winchell, Horace V., I, 44, 384. 
Winchell, Prof. N. H., I, 33, 41, 42, 44, 

49, 53, 69, 82, 83, 86, 91, 92, 105, 230, 

235, 267-269, 272, 277, 384, 386, 387; 

II, 269; IV, 382. 
Windom, William, III, 79, 93, 104, 111, 

120, 125, 126, 436, 536; biography, 

IV, 40, 45, 73, 82, 96, 101, 137, 138. 


Wing, Marcus, IV, 162. 
Winnebago City incorporated, II, 493. 
Wlnnebago Flour Mills, IV, 430. 
Winnebagoes, I, 93, 101, 102, 104, 106, 

174, 180, 347; II, 185, 187, 189, 207, 

218, 238, 273, 286, 375, 377. 
Winneshiek, II, 193, 215, 217. 
Winona, Incorporated, II, 493. 

Winona County, organized, II, 477. 
Winsor, Justin, I, 252. 
Winston, Philip B., sketch, IV, 258. 
Winters, Valentine, IV, 349. 
Winthrop, Robert C. (Mass.), II, 351, 

352, 379, 403, 405, 408, 411. 
Wis Coup (Sugar), II, 274. 
Wisconsin Central Railway Company, 

IV, 370. 

Wiskob (Sweet), II, 175. 
Witherstine, H. H., IV, 279, 296. 
Wolcott, Dr. Alexander, I, 351. 
Wolfer, Henry, III, 483. 
Women vote on school affairs, IV, 71. 
Wood, A. J., IV, 281, 299. 
Wood, E. B., IV, 280. 
Wood, George, III, 225-228, 230-233, 

Wood Lake, Battle of, III, 149, 175, 

Wood, William, III, 225-230, 232, 233, 


Woodbrldge, William (Mich.), II, 353. 
Woodbury, Lieut. Albert, III, 210, 212. 
Woods, James W., II, 339. 
Woods, Maj. Samuel, II, 328. 
Wool, Gen. John E., II, 83. 
Works, Samuel D., IV, 296. 
World's Fair appropriation, board of 

managers, IV, 182, 194. 
Worthington, incorporated as a vil- 
lage, IV, 53. 
Wo-wi-nah-pa (Appearing One), III, 


Wright County organized, II, 480. 
Wright County War, HI, 77, 78. 
Wright, Prof. G. Frederick, I, 53, 83. 
Wright, J. W., IV, 297. 
Wykoff, C. G., Ill, 331. 
Wykoff, C. W., Ill, 284. 
Yale, William H., in, 437, 444; sketch, 

IV, 34, 57, 75, 197, 258. 
Yankee (steamboat), IV, 322, 323. 
Yanktons, II, 216; III, 291, 381. 
Yanz, William J., Ill, 494. 
Ybright, Jim, III, 294. 
Yellow Medicine County, established, 

IV, 44. 

Youmans, Earl S., sketch, III, 106. 
Young, Edward T., IV, 163, 256, 

sketch, 257, 286. 
Young, H. H., I, 33. 
Young, Richard M., II, 332. 
Young Sleepy Eye, III, 376, 399. 
Young, W. C., IV, 42. 
Young, Winthrop, IV, 46. 
Younger, James, IV, 117, 125-129. 
Younger, Robert, IV, 117, 118, 120- 

Younger, Thomas C., IV, 117-129.